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					Human Trafficking in the
context of the development state
A presentation by Prof K Kondlo
       On Behalf Of
Dr. Olive Shisana, CEO, HSRC
23 March 2010
       THE CONTEXT OF A
     DEVELOPMENTAL STATE
• The HSRC has a two year project which
  looks specifically into the issues of a
  developmental state in SA
• Two issues, related to the context of a
  developmental state that I will touch on and
  link to the theme of this conference
   • The meaning of a developmental state in
     South Africa
   • The two dimensions of it and how they relate
     with the strategies to combat Human
     trafficking in South Africa
Developmental State context

• A penetrative state that works through
  processes of ‘co-operative extraction’ –
  ‘Collaborative Connections’ (Anthony
  Giddens) to deliver the best in society
  and economy – socially embedded
• This is different from a state which sits
  over society – weak enabling powers
  but strong blocking powers
• State institutional capacity – very key
Developmental State Context

• Two dimensions seem very key to
  SA’s developmental state project
• Social and economic dimensions
• Social dimension – enhancing the
  quality of life of the citizenry through
  provision of education, health, rural
  development and other basic services
• Economic dimension – maximizing
  citizen participation in the economy
       Developmental State
• An overarching framework to deal with
   • Crime, unemployment, poverty, rural-urban
     disparities, economic growth, social cohesion,
     a well functioning public service which can
     deliver public goods
   • Some of these problems – sources of human
     trafficking
• But the developmental state cannot be
  everything
• The lacking embeddedness of these ideal in
  the ideas of individuals; transforming the self
  Human Trafficking: a
  challenge to all of us
Human trafficking …
• Preys on the most
  vulnerable of our people
• Exploits the special
  vulnerabilities of women
  and children
• Worsens the impact of
  HIV/AIDS on families
  and society
• Feeds income to criminal
  syndicates and gangs
          The Project:
       Research for the
National Prosecuting Authority’s




 “Programme of Assistance to the South African
 Government to Prevent, React to Human Trafficking;
  Provision of Services for Research on Deepened
 Knowledge and Understanding of Human Trafficking
   and Provide Assistance to Victims of the Crime”
                   (NPA04-08/09)
 Research for this report drew on a
   cluster of HSRC focus areas:
• Poverty and rural development
• Urban change, city strategies and migration
• Equality, equity and governance
• Justice and human rights
• State capacity and development
• Environment and land use
• Infrastructure and service delivery
• Tourism (including sex tourism)
• South Africa in relation to Africa and the world
  Our findings highlight the sobering facts:

    Human trafficking is fed by the most fundamental
      problems now facing society and government:
• Poverty and Inequality
    •   Inadequate job opportunities, combined with poor living conditions, including a lack
        of basic education and health provision;
• Political breakdown and/or economic dislocation
    •   caused by armed conflict, environmental disaster, economic mismanagement, etc.
    •   economic stresses leading to housing and food insecurity, loss of subsistence, and
        fewer public services
• Family breakdown (particularly sickness/death of one or both parents)
    •   HIV/AIDS
    •   often compels remaining family members to send the children away from their homes
        to work and/or have better opportunities;
• ‘Better life’ syndrome – rumours & dreams of a better life elsewhere
         … and special risks confront
             women & children:
• Vulnerability to the sex/prostitution industry
• Gender discrimination in work and social roles
    • excludes women from other employment or professional
      advancement.
• Traditional practices
    • arranged marriages, child labour, constricted roles
• Reduced educational opportunities
    • makes women & children more vulnerable to false
      promises
• Lack of legal and political protections
• Children may work in areas that make them easy
  targets for traffickers:
    • commercial and agricultural work; car guards; taxi related
      work; street entertaining; vending; begging; criminal &
      drug-related activity
       New risks may arise during
        the FIFA 2010 World Cup

• Pull factors for people in poorer communities
   • People perceive new job/income opportunities at the event and are
     more vulnerable to the promises of traffickers
   • Domestic work – higher demand
   • Prostitution and drugs – higher demand
• Parents send their children to the street
   • to beg for money from tourists
   • to sell curios, food and paraphernalia
• School closures
   • will increase in the number of unattended children
• Heightened opportunities for human trafficking may
  aggravate HIV/AIDS transmission
     Findings show that the challenges in
         combatting human trafficking
    are the same monumental tasks facing
           the developmental state:
• Reduce poverty and inequality
• Improve the health and well-being of all citizens
• Improve education - especially for women
• Maintain communication between state & society
• Build a professional civil service that provides effective service
  delivery and minimises vulnerability to corruption or collusion
• Protect civil freedoms that ensure equality and genuine
  democracy in developing public policy
• Ensure domestic, regional and global peace & stability
          Thank you.

    Dr. Olive Shisana, CEO
Human Sciences Research Council
        +27-21-466-7902
     oshisana@hsrc.ac.za

				
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