Implementing ICT in Higher Education

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					Implementing ICT in
Higher Education
From pilot to implementation, who are involved?

                                         dr. P.H.G Fisser
                                     University of Twente
               Curriculum Design & Educational Innovation

                                   Presentation at ALT-C
                                      6 September 2006
Implementing ICT in HE
 Implementation is a change process
 Change processes are dynamic
 Change processes are complex
 Change processes take several years
 Change processes cause concerns
 But someone‟s got to do it!
An audience-check..
   Who is or has been involved in the
    implementation of an innovation (with ICT) in
    education?
   What role(s) do/did you have?
     Initiator
     Decision  maker
     Involved in a pilot
     Presenting results
     Advising management
     Supporting instructors
     ……
In this presentation
 The process of implementation
 The actors involved
 The role of the academic middle
  management
 Combining implementation, actors and
  roles
Yesterday‟s presentation
by John Traxler
   theoretical perspectives in relation to the
    implementation of innovations              Will it
                                              happen?


     Rogers‟   „diffusion of innovations‟                          How will
                                                                       it
                                                                    happen?

     Trowler‟s „academics responding to change‟
     Hall‟s „concerns-based adoption model‟                How will
                                                               it

     Bacsish‟s „cost of networked learning‟                happen?



     Trigwell‟s „conceptions of teaching‟               How will
                                                            it
                                                         happen?


                                    Will it
                                   happen?
The implementation process
                           Environment



                                  Decision maker

                  Result                           Project leader



             Result
     Pilot                                                    Implementation
                      Result



             Result



                                  End
The implementation process
   Pre-initiation and initiation
       identify experiences with ICT
       goal: implementation of experiences on a broader level
       Action: producing a strategic plan
   Implementation
       the decisions made in the strategic plan are carried out
       formative evaluation results in fine-tuning implementation plan
   Institutionalisation
       the change becomes an integral part of the ordinary operating
        procedures of the department, faculty or university
(Collis & Moonen 2001)
But what really happens?
   Stage of Concern     Expression of Concern
   Awareness            What is it? or.. I am not concerned about it.
   Informational        I would like to know more about it.
   Personal             How will using it affect me?
   Management           I seem to be spending all my time
                            getting materials ready.
   Consequence          How is my use affecting learners?
                         How can I refine it to have more impact?
   Collaboration        How can I relate what I am doing to what
                           others are doing?
   Refocusing           I have some ideas about something that
                            would work even better.
   Stages of concern and typical expressions of concern about an
    innovation (CBAM)
    (Hord, Rutherford, Huling-Austin, & Hall, 1987)
Concerns are “real”
   Identify where people are and answer the
    questions they are asking when they are asking
    them
   It will take at least three years for early concerns
    to be resolved and later ones to emerge...
   Everyone has concerns and acknowledging
    these concerns and addressing them is critical to
    progress in a change process
   But who is everyone?
 Who is involved?
Category     Actors within the category                Role and activity of the
                                                       actor-category
Board        College board members                     Leadership, vision, strategy
             President/rector/ principal
Higher       Vice president/vice                       Leadership, policy-making,
management   chancellor/provost/policy advisor         strategy, budget/ and
             Deans                                     resource-allocation
             ICT steering group
Middle       Middle managers/educational managers      Leadership, policy-making,
management   Chair/head of department                  stimulating faculty
Faculty      Faculty, instructors, teachers            Education and research
Students     Students                                  Education
Support      Members of staff development unit         Supporting the
             Members of pedagogical support unit       implementation process
             Members of infrastructure and computing
             unit
             Staff members of the library
External     External institutions                     External stimulus to change
             Ministry of education
Who is involved?
 The list gives an indication about which
  actors could or should be considered
  during the implementation process
 This does not mean that all actors are
  always and all the time involved in the
  whole process
Combining the findings
   A combination of
     the  steps in the implementation process:
      initiation, piloting, advising, decision-making,
      implementing, and integrating
       (based on Fullan (1998), Collis and Moonen (2001) and the figure with
      the simplified overview of the implementation process)
     the categories of actors
     the roles and activities of the actors
   Leads to a descriptive model
     Descriptive model
Stage in the   Initiation     Piloting      Advising         Decision-       Implementing     Integrating
implementation                                              making
process

                Board         Middle        Middle           Board           Middle           Middle
                Higher         management    management      Higher           management       management
                 management   Faculty                         management     Faculty          Faculty
Actors involved Middle        Students                       Middle          Students         Students
                 management   Support                         management     Support          Support
                Faculty
                Students
                Support
                External

                Leadership    Leadership     Leadership      Leadership      Leadership       Leadership
                Vision        Education and Policy-making    Policy-making   Stimulating      Stimulating
                Stimulus to    research                      Strategy         faculty          faculty
Roles and        change       Supporting the                 Budget/ and     Education and    Education and
activities                     implementati                   resource-       research         research
                               on process                     allocation     Supporting the   Supporting the
                                                                              implementati     implementati
                                                                              on process       on process
     Descriptive model
Stage in the   Initiation     Piloting      Advising         Decision-      Implementing     Integrating
implementation                                              making
process

                Board         Middle      Middle     Board                  Middle           Middle
                Higher         management management Higher                  management       management
                 management   Faculty                 management            Faculty          Faculty
Actors involved Middle        Students               Middle                 Students         Students
                 management   Support                 management            Support          Support
                Faculty
                Students
                Support
                External

                Leadership    Leadership     Leadership     Leadership      Leadership       Leadership
                Vision        Education and Policy-making   Policy-making   Stimulating      Stimulating
                Stimulus to    research                     Strategy         faculty          faculty
Roles and        change       Supporting the                Budget/ and     Education and    Education and
activities                     implementati                  resource-       research         research
                               on process                    allocation     Supporting the   Supporting the
                                                                             implementati     implementati
                                                                             on process       on process
The academic middle manager
 The academic middle management is
  involved in all the stages of the
  implementation process
 Leadership is an important role and
  activity in the implementation process
 It is assumed that these two are
  connected to each other
The academic middle manager
 The middle manager plays a key role in
  the implementation process, this should be
  accounted for in the whole implementation
  process
 This can be done by not only assuming
  that the middle manager plays a crucial
  role, but by involving him or her in all steps
  of the process
The academic middle manager
   So, now we know who is responsible!
   How many of you are academic middle
    managers??? 
   The middle manager is the key factor
   This puts a great burden on this person
   He/she will be held responsible for all stages in
    the implementation process
   He/she may not be aware of this role...
The academic middle manager
   He/she influences the innovation process in the
    organisation both up and down
   He/she has several strategic roles
     understanding    the need for change (synthesizing)
     preparing for it (facilitating)
     stimulating it (championing)
     and ultimately, managing the process (implementing)
      (Kallenberg, 2004)
The academic middle manager
   The middle manager does not have to do it on
    his own:
   Use the descriptive model as
    a  checklist to see if all actors involved are really
      involved in a specific sage of the implementation
      process
     a way to point out to the middle manager that he or
      she plays a crucial role
     a start to develop support tools for the middle
      manager to fulfil his or her role
Support for the academic manager

    Projects in the Netherlands:
1.   Train the manager 
2.   Do projects with the manager  -> 
3.   Support the manager ???
Support the manager
 Find the learning technologist /
  educational support person
 Support him or her to support the
  academic manager
Supporting the manager
                Briefcase with instruments,
                 or actually….
Supporting the manager
                A DVD with instruments,
                 such as:
                  How   to develop a vision on
                   learning with technology
                  Workshop to involve others
                  List of stakeholders
                  Strategies (Trojan horse &
                   Temptation)
                  Case studies on video with
                   comments from people
                   involved
The result?
 The dvd is still under development
 First reactions are positive
 Will it work in practice?
 We think so..


   New report at ALT-C 2007!
Questions or comments?




 Petra Fisser
 p.h.g.fisser@utwente.nl
 http://users.gw.utwente.nl/fisser

				
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