Marketing Proposal for Coconut in the Philippines by rgv11917

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									                                                                                         V. National Study: Philippines


A. The role of agriculture and rural                         (a) National agricultural policy

   development in the Philippines                                    On account of the country's rural economy, the
                                                             development of agriculture (including fisheries) holds
1. Contribution of agriculture                  to    the    the key to progress, poverty alleviation, equitable
   national economy                                          access to opportunities, and food security. To attain
                                                             these goals , among others, the Philippine Senate and
        The Philippine economy is highly dependent on        House of Representatives passed Republic Act No.
agriculture. Two thirds of its current population of         8435 known as the "Agriculture and Fisheries
75.3 million and three fourths of the poor depend on         Modernization Act of 1997". Among its 10 objectives,
agriculture for their livelihood. While only a fifth of      the first two are: (a) to modernize the agriculture and
all the goods and services the country produces and a        fisheries sectors by transforming these sectors from a
third of its exports come from the sector, it employs        resource-based to a technology-based industry; and (b)
about half of the total workforce. Agriculture and           to enhance profits and incomes in the agriculture and
fisheries regis tered an overall growth rate of 4.01 per     fisheries sectors, particularly the small farmers and
cent in 2001, which was mainly contributed by: crops         fisherfolk, by ensuring equitable access to assets,
(2.58 per cent), livestock (2.87 per cent), poultry (7.80    resources and services, and to promote higher-value
per cent), and fisheries (6.05 per cent). Of the crops,      crops, value-added processing, agribusiness activities,
the major contributors were rice (4.56 per cent),            and agro-industrialization.
coconut (1.69 per cent), and banana (2.66 per cent).
                                                                     The Medium-term Philippine Development
       In terms of area, about a third of country's 30       Plan 1999-2004 defines the government vision as
million hectares is agricultural. Traditional and current    "Sustainable Development and Growth with Social
uses of the agricultural land consist of:                    Equity" (National Economic Development Authority
                                                             2001). The parameters chosen to be the basis of
n   Food crops - 52 per cent (coconut, sugar cane,           measurement for achieving this vision are: (a)
    industrial crops, fruits, vegetables, root crops)        reduction in poverty especially in the rural areas and
                                                             (b) improvement in the distribution of income. The
n   Food grains - 31 per cent (rice and other grain          Development Plan identified its number one mission
    crops)                                                   as "Acceleration of Rural Development". The mission
                                                             certainly strengthens the implementation of the 1997
n   Non-food       - 17 per cent (pasture and cut flowers)   Act.

       Low productivity and low incomes from                 (b) Priority goals and programmes
agriculture and fisheries are consistent with the
prevalence of rural poverty. The situation is further               In April 2001, the new Secretary of the
aggravated by low farm gate prices of produce and            Department of Agriculture, Leonardo Q. Montemayor,
high retail prices of food, which are among the              declared that the Department's first priority goal was to
highest in the region.                                       attain a stable and sustainable level of productivity
                                                             growth at 3 to 4 per cent annually (as compared to an
                                                             average of 1.7 per cent in recent years). The
                                                             Department must pursue programmes to increase
                                                             productivity at lower production costs per unit and to
                                                             raise off-farm and non-farm employment for the
                                                             absorption of surplus farm labour. "This expansion of
                                                             the productive and resource base of the sector shall
_____________________                                        encourage and benefit the current mass of small
*   Prepared by Dr Angelina Briones, Professor of Soil       farmers, fishers, and landless workers more than the
    Science, University of the Philippines at Los Banos,     already well-endowed traditional captains of the
    Laguna, Philippines.

industry. Economic and social justice calls for those       five stakeholder groupings, the people's organizations
who toil and invest in the generation of economic           (POs), largely made up of small farmers'
value to capture their due share… Thus, organizing          organizations, non-governmental organizations
and capability building for the small and the poor is       (NGOs), agribusiness, government, and academia and
essential in empowering them to seize their just            research institutions, came together to (a) identify the
opportunity for prosperity" (Montemayor 2001). The          problems, issues and concerns limiting national food
Secretary's expressed goals for the Department of           security, global competitiveness and people's
Agriculture indicates his desire for the economic           participation; (b) formulate an action agenda to
upliftment of the rural poor.                               address the problems, issues and concerns; and (c)
                                                            identify mechanisms for strengthening the institutional
        The priority programmes of the Department are       linkages between and among stakeholders in
as follows:                                                 agriculture and fisheries.

n     Irrigation and water management - provide                     Among the five strategies, it is interesting to
      irrigation services to an additional 994,988          note that only the POs and NGOs identified organic
      hectares                                              farming (OA) as a priority programme to address the
                                                            issue of sustainability of agriculture. In contrast, the
n     Research and development (R and D)- consolidate       three other sectors did not mention OA in any of their
      and integrate R and D to be more responsive to the    recommendations. This observation reflects the lack of
      needs of the sector and towards modernization         interest among other sectors in OA.

n     Seed systems - provide an adequate supply of                 However, in 2001, the Secretary of Agriculture
      quality seeds of high-yielding varieties              announced the issuance of a special order to create a
                                                            task force on organic agriculture in order to "aid in the
n     Information, communication, extension,                growth, promotion and progress of the local Organic
      advocacy - transform the character of public          Industry by unifying the local organic producers and
      policy which has been biased historically against     eventually gaining recognition and credibility towards
      agriculture                                           the local and international markets. It shall assist in
                                                            the development of a Philippine Organic Certifying
n     Rural finance - ensure that credit is available and   Programme, as well as establish a relevant national
      accessible; develop innovative credit schemes for     database on organic agriculture production". (DA
      small farmers and fishers                             2001). This action of the Secretary implies that he
                                                            recognizes the need to develop the organic industry.
n     Marketing assistance - implement five
      programmes: market promotion, institutional           (d) Infrastructure
      strengthening, competitive enhancement, market
      information dissemination, investment and                     Included in the priority programmes of the
      enterprise development                                Department of Agriculture is the expansion of rural
                                                            infrastructure to unserved or underserved areas in
n     Food safety - ensure consumer protection through      order to stimulate production, facilitate the exchange
      quality assurance systems that facilitate trade       of products between the farm and the market, and
                                                            reduce post-harvest losses. Excluding irrigation
n     Rural infrastructure, post-harvest facilities, and    facilities which have a separate budget allocation, rural
      others                                                infrastructure consists of farm-to-market roads, post-
                                                            harvest facilities and farm machines. The Department
(c) Strategies for action                                   noted that the magnitude of post-harvest losses in rice
                                                            production alone is already equivalent to the country's
       Five major strategies for action identified by       annual rice importation. Post-harvest facilities for
the Department of Agriculture are: (a) create               perishable commodities will bring in even larger
appropriate policy environment; (b) continue                savings. On mechanization, the Department will
reorienting the Department organization along               promote appropriate mechanization and encourage the
functional lines; (c) develop the Department's human        private sector and farmer organizations to provide
resource pool; (d) help build up the capabilities of        farm mechanization services and equipment. Post-
partner institutions; and (e) ensure the continued full     harvest facilities and farm machines are mostly
participation of stakeholders in the formulation and        private-sector investments; hence, infrastructure
implementation of the Agriculture and Fisheries             usually refers to farm-to-market roads. Instead of
Modernization Act of 1997.                                  estimates on unserved and underserved areas (which
                                                            are not easy to generate), the large number of rural
       Initial moves to chart the course of each            people with poor access to transport facilities is
strategy have been started. At a Agriculture and            already reflected in the small share in budgetary
Fisheries Stakeholder Summit in the spring of 2001,         appropriations given to rural infrastructure. From 1989

                                                                                         V. National Study: Philippines

to 1999, the average share of infrastructure was only        (f) Women in agriculture and rural areas
4.63 per cent of total appropriations for the agriculture,
fisheries, agrarian reform and natural resources sector.            Agriculture employs 50 per cent of the
                                                             country's workforce; about 26 per cent of the
(e) Rural employment and labour situation                    agricultural work force are women involved in cash
                                                             crops and subsistence production, small livestock
       Agriculture employs about 50 per cent of the          raising, and various forms of light work in the fisheries
country's workforce. Farm work has been traditionally        and forestry sector. However, 52 per cent of the
considered as self-employment. But as farms became           women in agriculture work as unpaid family workers,
smaller and population growth rate remained high, the        31 per cent are own account workers, and 17 per cent
landless and near-landless villagers now constitute the      earn wages and salaries.
millions of rural workers who are only seasonally
hired by farmers and landowners. In the 1960s, the                   General observations show certain trends in the
landless rural workers started to encroach into the          kind of work women do, depending on the tenurial
uplands and hilly lands to cultivate public arable lands.    system of the land they cultivate. In subsistence farms,
The magnitude of migration gained momentum; by               most of the work is done by women; the men work as
1987, they already comprised one third of the total          contractual labourers in bigger farms and take odd jobs
population.                                                  (on-farm or off-farm) to supplement farm income. In
                                                             family-sized farms, the women and men work hand-in-
       Limited access to resources, lack of productive       hand, except for land preparation which is
employment opportunities and rapid growth of the             traditionally done by men. The same trend holds for
labour force altogether intensified poverty. Overall,        the small owner-cultivators; i.e., the men do the
the unemployment rate continued to increase from 4.6         physically strenuous farm work while the women
per cent in the 1970s and 6.6 per cent in the early          participate in the pulling of seedlings, transplanting,
1980s to 8.6 per cent in late 1980s. The unemployed          purchase of inputs, and the growing and selling of
reached 2 million in 1989, of which more than half of        vegetables.
them were in the rural areas. While agriculture
accounted for nearly one half of the total                          In feudal type large farms, the working
unemployment in the late 1980s, it contributed only          members of the family are hired for piecework
one fourth of the total national output (Balisacan           depending on their capability. In capital-intensive
1990). Underemployment (working less than 65 days            plantations, the men operate farm machinery and
in a quarter) was also as high as 16.7 per cent of the       perform the heavy tasks while the women do the low-
total number of employed workers in the early 1980s.         paying, light work.

       The situation pointed to intensifying poverty.                From the perspective of women's role in
However, poverty incidence showed a declining trend          society, rural poverty puts a heavier burden upon
between 1961 and 1988. It was attributed partly to a         women. Looking at women among the poorest of the
substantial increase in non-wage, non-entrepreneurial        poor, women will work to ensure the survival of their
incomes by the household. The share of rent,                 family, either by generating or substituting income.
remittances, gifts, support assistance, and relief rose      They will do this on top of their daily household
from 17 per cent in 1961 to 27 per cent in 1988. The         chores (cooking, laundering, cleaning etc.) and the
proportion of households mainly dependent on these           vital role of nurturing children and, in many situations,
incomes rose from only 5 per cent in 1961 to 16 per          other relatives as well.
cent in 1988 (Balisacan 1990). These trends primarily
reflect the situation in the rural areas where poverty is           Poverty has also forced women to accept
most widespread.                                             employment even in vulnerable, unprotected and
                                                             unregulated occupations abroad. In 1998, 61 per cent
        Agriculture has long been characterized by           worked as domestic helpers, entertainers and other
poverty. In 1985 agriculture accounted for 75 per cent       caregivers. Considering that poverty is largely a rural
of national poverty; in 1994, it accounted for 77 per        phenomenon, the majority of these women originally
cent. On a closer look, rural income distribution shows      came from rural areas. Tragic stories about these
that it continues to be highly skewed as rural incomes       women have become commonplace in the lives of
tend to concentrate in the hands of a few upper-income       rural people.
households. About 50 per cent of rural income was
accounted for by the upper one fifth of rural                       The Philippine Development Plan for Women
households in 1997. These are the rural households           in 1990 had a list of objectives that should improve
engaged in construction, transport, trading and finance.     women's access to various forms of development tools/
                                                             processes and employment opportunities. Under the
                                                             "Gender and Equity" approach, NGOs advocate
                                                             affirmative action for farming women. Under the
                                                             Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Programme, data for

1992 showed that only 5,145 women received                    population pressure, urbanization and over-
Certificates of Land Ownership Agreements as against          exploitation of agricultural lands are environmental
23,310 men recipients. This inequity arises from the          imbalance and resource degradation. This section deals
fact that women are only considered as household              with ecological conditions, although at broad levels.
members of the men.
                                                                     The assessment of ecological conditions on a
2. Agro-ecological              and       biophysical         regional basis is based on an analysis of environmental
   characteristics                                            conditions in relation to the way in which physical
                                                              resources are exploited. An initial approach to such
        The Philippine archipelago consists of more           assessment is the grouping of lands according to land
than 7,000 islands, which are grouped into three main         use.
geographic regions: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Of
the country's total area of 30 million hectares, Luzon                Land degradation results from increased human
covers 14.14 million hectares or 47.13 per cent of the        activities and improper utilization of land, for
total land area, Visayas has 5.67 million hectares or         example, excessive logging, mining, quarrying,
18.90 per cent, and Mindanao has 10.19 million                overgrazing and other similar activities causing the
hectares or 33.97 per cent. The following sections            loss of top soil and vegetative cover, thus contributing
describe the agro-cimatic zones and soils in the three        to widespread soil erosion and sedimentation. In
regions.                                                      Luzon, these forms of land degradation have already
                                                              caused the extensive deterioration of currently
(a) Climate and agro-climatic zones                           cultivated lands.

        Four climatic types and agro-climatic zones                    Loss of the fertile topsoil because of soil
prevail in various parts of the Philippine archipelago.       erosion causes a decline in the productivity of
The agro-climatic zones are broad areas with                  agricultural lands. Eroded soils have relatively low
sufficiently similar major climatic and land                  fertility, low organic matter content and poor physical
characteristics that are the basis for the ecological         properties. An overview of the state and extent of soil
determination of suitable crops.                              erosion in Luzon shows that moderate erosion is a
                                                              problem on 29 per cent of the total land area of Luzon
        The country has a potential irrigable area of         while severe erosion affects 12 per cent of the land.
3.12 million hectares. At present the irrigated area is       Average soil loss on moderately eroded soil is 27
48.2 per cent while 51.8 per cent has underdeveloped          million tons per hectare while that on severely eroded
irrigation. Chiefly, the irrigated fields are used for rice   soils is 55 million tons per hectare.
                                                                    Land degradation is also a widespread
(b) Predominant farming and production systems                phenomenon in the Visayas. The farme rs have focused
                                                              on policy advocacy for the rehabilitation of
        Agricultural areas are the lands actively utilized    watersheds, but recently this has been overshadowed
for various agricultural activities and served by             by protests against mine tailings that have rendered a
development infrastructure such as roads, bridges and         growing area of agricultural land infertile.
irrigation systems. Major production systems, as
manifested by area ranking of the agricultural land                  On the extent of erosion, 45 per cent of the total
uses, are presented briefly in the sections that follow.      land area of Visayas is suffering from moderate to
It should be mentioned beforehand that except for             severe erosion (25 per cent moderately eroded and 20
remote areas, Philippine agriculture has become               per cent severely eroded). The problem is most serious
predominantly conventional since the 1980s, i.e.,             in one region (the islands of Bohol, Cebu, Siquijor and
characterized by extensive use of high-yielding               half of Negros) which has 59 per cent of its land area
varieties, high yielding livestock and synthetic              moderately or severely eroded.
chemical inputs (synthetic fertilizers, pesticides,
herbicides, antibiotics, growth hormones etc.).                       The government has been encouraging
Common place among smallholders engaged in rice               migration to Mindanao, the second largest island in the
and corn production is seasonal indebtedness owing to         country. Because of its fertile soil and mild climate
dependence on synthetic chemicals.                            (out of the typhoon path) and investment incentives by
                                                              the government, Mindanao hosts a number of
(c) Ecological conditions                                     multinational corporations in agribusiness, such as Del
                                                              Monte, Dole, United Fruit, Marsman and Twin River.
       The best agricultural lands in the country are         Unfortunately, Mindanao has also been a land of
now under intensive use for food production,                  conflict. Currently, political conflict is greatly
subjecting the soils to erosion. Population pressure and      overshadowed by local terrorists who are well known
urbanization have been taking away productive lands           internationally.
from agricultural uses. The consequences of

                                                                                         V. National Study: Philippines

       In one region, there is an alarmingly high           and further down to 44.4 per cent in 1997. Such
proportion of eroded land. Fifty per cent of the total      reductions, however, do not necessarily mean a
land area is moderately to severely eroded.                 reduced number of the rural poor. The number of poor
                                                            rural households actually increased from 3 million in
       Other forms of land degradation in Mindanao          1994 to 3.3 million in 1997. Across the country, table
are related to mine tailings and mercury pollution of       1 shows that the incidence of rural poverty has gone
certain rivers draining from gold mining sites. There       down to about 39 per cent in Luzon, but remained at
have been sporadic reports of plantation workers who        more than 50 per cent in Mindanao.
have been poisoned by specific pesticides.
                                                            (b) Inequitable access to resources
3. Socio-economic background
                                                                   Inequitable distribution of income is a
        Philippine agriculture performed strongly in the    manifestation of inequitable access to the means of
1960s to the 1970s when its growth rate (in terms of        generating wealth and a livelihood. Historically in the
gross value added) attained 5 per cent. At this level, it   Philippines, land redistribution and agrarian reform
outperformed most other developing countries in Asia.       have continued to be the most highly political and
However, its annual growth took a sharp downturn to         emotional issues in the countryside. The clamour of
just 2 per cent by the 1990s. In 1995-1999, the sector      the millions of poverty-stricken, landless tillers to till
grew by an average of only 1.8 per cent. Over the past      their own piece of land has already cost many lives in
two decades, the agriculture sector hardly kept pace        the last 50 years. It has contributed g   reatly to the
with population growth which has averaged 2.02 per          persistence of communist insurgency in the last 40
cent a year. With low agricultural productivity and         years. The government has responded with the
high population growth, the country had to import           enactment of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
more agricultural products. While imports increased,        Law and the implementation of the Comprehensive
agriculture's share in total exports decreased.             Agrarian Reform Programme in the late 1980s.
Agricultural imports relative to agricultural exports
rose sharply from 46 per cent in 1985 to 151 per cent              After 13 years of the Comprehensive Agrarian
in 1998.                                                    Reform Programme, the government has distributed
                                                            5.3 million hectares of public and private agricultural
       Poor agricultural performance actually hurts         lands to farmer beneficiaries, with 2.5 million hectares
most of the poorest of the poor. The poorest decile of      still undistributed. Meanwhile, the rate of population
Filipino families use at least two thirds of their total    growth remained high; consequently, farm sizes have
expenditures for food. A large portion of these are         declined (table 2). Overall, the Gini coefficient
farm families who are net consumers, for example, the       (indicating inequality) hardly changed from 1960 to
landless rural workers, the near landless, and the          1991, which indicates that there was a proportionate
smallholders in marginal areas.                             reduction in farm sizes over the entire range of
                                                            landholding distribution.
(a) Rural poverty
                                                                   Historically, too, support services have
       Poverty in the Philippines continues to be a         benefited big farmers much more than smallholders.
rural phenomenon. The incidence of poverty among            The adoption of modern technologies in the 1960s and
rural households was as high as 71 per cent in 1965.        early 1970s initially took place among large farmers,
Slowly, it decreased to about 66 per cent in 1971 and       with small farmers trailing m   any years behind. The
even more slowly to about 60 per cent in 1985. By           small farmers who were early adoptors were close to
1994, rural poverty incidence was down to 47 per cent       rural infrastructure (irrigation, roads and transport).

                            Table 1. Poverty incidence in 1994 and 1997 (percentage)

           Region                         Total                        Urban                         Rural
                                   1994           1997          1994           1997           1994           1997
Philippines                        35.5            31.8         24.0           17.9           47.0            44.4
National Capital Region             8.0            6.4           8.0            6.4             -               -
(Metro Manila)
Luzon                              36.7            29.8         27.1           18.3           44.5            38.9
Visayas                            38.2            38.3         28.5           23.6           44.2            46.7
Mindanao                           47.6            44.6         38.1           32.0           54.0            51.3

Overall, farmers are constrained from availing                      In a national rural survey on agrarian reform
themselves of credit services from the government.          conducted by MODE (1997), it is significant that
This is clearly demonstrated by the fact that the loans     female household members were observed to have
granted for agricultural production were merely 0.78        better sources than the male members for data and
per cent of the total loans granted by government           information about various aspects of farming life in
funding institutions in 1998. In spite of available         their localities. This implies that the female members
credit, barely schooled farmers are already alienated       have taken hold of the knowledge base of Philippine
by the formal require ments of financial institutions.      rural life. In terms of decision-making, the male
Some NGOs have offered alternative credit services,         spouse dominates on important matters, such as what
but on a very limited scope. This means that                to plant, what inputs to buy, how much to apply, and
smallholders continue to depend on the informal             whom to hire. But there is a trend towards shared
system dominated by usurers.                                decision-making. Among localities, one fourth to one
                                                            third of respondents practise shared decision-making
(c) Characteristics of the rural poor                       by the husband and wife. The wife definitely rules
        The majority of the rural poor are engaged in
farming; the sector constitutes about 62 per cent of the    (d) Policy bias against agriculture
total rural poverty. The incidence of poverty is also
high in the fishing industry, but it is only 11 per cent           It is widely assumed that an increase in
of the total. A large block of the rural poor ( per
                                                 37         agricultural growth translates into rural poverty
cent), considered as less poor, are those engaged in        reduction. This relationship was defied by actual
other occupations (Balisacan 1990). The poor self-          economic trends in the Philippines. Rapid growth in
employed household heads in farming include                 the agriculture sector (crops, livestock, poultry,
primarily leasees, tenants and small owner-cultivators.     fishery, forestry) in 1960-1980, sustained at 4.6 per
Among the poorest in the agriculture sector are: (a)        cent a year, did not bring about a substantial reduction
farm workers (landless) in sugar cane, rice, corn,          in rural poverty. Unemployment and
coconut and forestry, (b) corn and coconut farmers,         underemployment swelled. In the 1970s to early
and (c) fishermen. Rice farmers are less poor, but they     1980s, the rice sector posted rapid yield growth
constitute almost one fourth of the overall poverty in      because of irrigation, high-yie lding varieties and
agriculture because of their large numbers.                 modern production inputs. At the same period, real
                                                            wages in rural areas declined.
       Intense poverty among smallholders and farm
workers in remote and marginal areas is severely                   The analysis by Balisacan (1994) pointed at
aggravated by their limited access to social services       both supply and demand sides that constrained
(for example, education, health care, credit,               linkages of agricultural growth. On the demand side,
technology, training and family management                  the stimulus provided by agricultural income growth
counselling). Among certain socio-economic factors,         on domestic non-farm activities was weak because
Balisacan showed in a regression analysis that              growth was not broadly based. This trend was
household income increases with: (a) a rise in the          attributed to: (a) skewed distribution of landholding
educational attainment of the household head; (b) a         and highly-capital intensive plantation farming and
decrease in family size; and (c) a rise in the age of the   large-scale processing in the export crop sector; (b)
household head. Male-headed households were also            greater availability of subsidies on credit and
observed to have lower income than female-headed            production inputs for the affluent farme rs; and (c) the
households.                                                 consumption of large farmers favoured goods and
                                                            services with high-import content.

                            Table 2. Average farm size and landholding distribution

                                  Average farm size (hectares)                          Gini coefficient
                          1960                1980               1991               1960                1991
Philippines                3.6                 2.8               2.2                0.53                0.57
Rice                       3.0                 2.3               1.8                0.45                0.36
Corn                       2.5                 2.6               2.0                0.50                0.34
Sugar cane                 14.0                8.9               7.2                0.83                0.81
Coconut                    4.4                 4.0               3.6                0.52                0.51
Coffee                     4.2                 3.4               2.9                0.54                0.50
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board.

                                                                                          V. National Study: Philippines

         On the supply side, the fiscal and                 B. Organic farming in the national
macroeconomic environment prevented the rural non-
farm sector from responding to agricultural income             context
growth. Very effective protection in the import-
substituting sector induced a strong policy bias against           In the Philippines, organic farming is
agriculture and the rural sector. Trade restrictions and    understood by people to range from a simple
the overvalued peso promoted capital-intensive              connotation of a field practice up to a comprehensive
industries in the export-processing zones and               concept that embraces sustainability. This means that
penalized labour-intensive, farming or non-farming          the evolution of its meaning is at the core of its
rural industries.                                           historical development. Before going through a
                                                            historical account, however, it is important to have a
          Physical infrastructure development was           common understanding of the essence of OA.
concentrated in urban areas. Poor roads, transport,
electrification and communication facilities in rural       (a) Essence of organic agriculture
areas discouraged investments on agriculture or non-
farm projects by the private sector. Moreover, public              When asked what OA is all about, people
investments for irrigation greatly slowed in the last       generally say that it is producing crops with the use of
decade.                                                     composts and animal manures as organic fertilizer.
                                                            Some people offer an expanded notion that it is crop/
(e) Recent performance of the agriculture sector            livestock production which does not use synthetic
                                                            agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides,
       Low agricultural growth at 1.8 per cent average      antibiotics, growth hormones) as production inputs.
for 1990-1997 and high population growth was                Such a layman’s description, often expressed also by
accompanied by an actual increase in the number of          professional agriculturists, has already created a myth
rural households below the poverty line by 300,000          that OA perpetuates subsistence farming in the Third
from 1994 to 1997. This bleak scenario was followed         World.
by an exhilarating recovery to moderate growth of
3.46 per cent in 2000. The share of the traditional crop           The essence of OA is best described by a
commodities remained practically the same (for              farmer who has already established a real organic
example, rice, corn, coconut, sugar cane, banana)           farm. Organic farming focuses on process rather than
while the share of poultry and livestock increased          product. Hence, an organic farm is an outcome of
slightly.                                                   several years of operating a farm plan designed to
                                                            pursue economic benefits while nurturing the farm’s
       After historically low growth in the years 1990      natural resources (soil, water, plants, animals, micro-
to 1997, the new S    ecretary of Agriculture in 2001       organisms). The major objectives of OA include:
modestly said that he would be satisfied to sustain a       building up soil fertility, improving soil quality,
growth rate at 3.5 per cent annually in the next few        conserving soil and water, and enhancing biodiversity
years. He is keen at relating agricultural growth with      on the farm in both time and space. These
rural well-being, considering the fact that food            environmental objectives are integrated with the
expenditures account for at least two thirds of the total   farmer’s primary purpose of operating an
expenditures by the poorest of the poor. These people       economically viable farm without being dependent on
largely depend on agriculture for their meager              synthetic agrochemicals. Emphasis on the soil is a
incomes.                                                    manifestation of the organic producers’ credo that
                                                            sustainability of agriculture lies in soil fertility and soil
       The complexity of interlocking problems in the       health. The organic farmer selectively uses high-
agriculture sector is indeed overwhelming.                  yielding cultivars and improved animal breeds that
Productivity is simultaneously subject to local control     perform well under the local agro-environment,
and processes of a biophysical, social, economic and        particularly the soil and climatic conditions.
political nature. In addition, Philippine agriculture has   Worldwide organic farmers uphold a standard that
become increasingly vulnerable to current trends in the     excludes the use of genetically modified organisms in
global market. The issues of food, agriculture and          the organic production system.
environment for people’s welfare are domestic
concerns and yet they are easily affected by global                Those objectives of OA are practically
trends. Put in simple terms, the small rice farmer in       attainable in diversified and integrated organic farm
Nueva Ecija today is not only threatened by the whims       systems. Management of crops, cropping systems, and
of the rice cartel but also the inflow of cheap rice        livestock are designed to integrate natural processes
from Thailand and Viet Nam.                                 such as nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, soil
                                                            regeneration and regaining pest predators into food
                                                            production processes. The science of organic farming
                                                            also makes use of the diversity of plant species and
                                                            crop varieties in time and space as a means of

alternative pest management. OA is process-oriented         The migration of the landless and near-landless into
and holistic; it makes use of processes that not only       the uplands, hilly lands and highlands became a
increase production but also sustain environmental          widespread and continuing vent to ease rural poverty.
quality and produce quality food. In the context of
synthetic-chemical-dependent agriculture, the social                 Altogether, the confluence of those wide-
objectives of OA become more evident in its                 ranging events have taken a heavy toll on land, water
avoidance of health hazards (pesticide residues,            and forest resources and on biodiversity. On the socio-
nitrates, antibiotics, steroids, heavy metals) which        economic aspect, people see, on one hand, financial
enter the food chain and pollute the land.                  gains of the agribusiness and rich farmers and, on the
                                                            other hand, chronic indebtedness of poor farmers
       It is also clear at this point that OA is            whose farm outputs are simply insufficient to provide
knowledge-intensive and much of this knowledge is           their food and basic needs until the next harvest is due.
with the farmer. In the Asian context, a barely             They are food producers who are food-insecure.
schooled farmer who has developed a diversified and
integrated organic farm deserves recognition for            (i) Organic farming in the 1980s
achieving a milestone. This farmer learned how to
organize the whole production system such that there               Because the Green Revolution was a national
is a systematic coherence between activities. This          agriculture programme of the government, it is not
farmer would also say that love of organic farming is       surprising that the initial analysis on the impacts of the
an essence of OA; it is a lifestyle. In recent years, the   programme came from NGOs. In 1980, a rural
International Federation of Organic Agriculture             development NGO called Farmers Assistance Board
Movement (IFOAM) added another social objective to          led by Noel Mondejar, published “Profits from
its basic standards, i.e., social justice for organic       Poison”. The study bared the negative impacts of
producers and workers and their families, particularly      chemical-based agriculture on rice farmers while
the women and children. The essence of OA reveals           multinational agribusiness raked in huge profits. The
that OA is creating a breed of farmers, processors,         study was followed by one by the Agency for
traders, consumers, and support-service sector with a       Community Education and Services, which also
distinctive culture shaped by the objectives, principles,   focused on rice farmers. Results were published in the
and practice of OA. Overall, the impact of OA can           mid-1980 as a small book entitled, “The Miracle That
only be duly assessed under a development paradigm          Never Was”. The study showed that the rice farmers
that embodies both economic and environmental               were economically better off before they shifted to the
accounting. Unfortunately, the universal system of          intensive-monoculture of high-yielding varities.
accounts remains at the level of economic accounting.       Farmers used to have diverse farming activities and
                                                            diverse sources of food and income which made them
1. Institutional framework                                  less vulnerable to price manipulations and crop loss
                                                            owing to natural calamities. Ironically, the study arose
(a) Historical development of organic farming               from an initial one in which the International Rice
                                                            Research Institute contracted the Agency for
       If organic farming is simply described as            Community Education and Services to undertake a
farming without the use of synthetic chemical inputs        study. It was called the “Small Farmers Organization
and non-renewable energy sources, then organic              Project”, a community-based organizing pilot project
farming can be traced back to Philippine agriculture        using participatory strategies which was intended as a
(indigenous and traditional) before the onset of the        model on how productivity could be enhanced through
Green Revolution in the 1960s. At the time, diversified     high-yielding varieties.
farm systems were common and ecological balance
prevailed over the landscape. The immediate concerns               The study was presented in a National
of farming families were household food security and        Convention of Rice Farmers held at the University of
proper nutrition; cash income came from surplus             the Philippines Los Baños in July 1985. It was soon
production.                                                 followed by the very first protest rally of rice farmers
                                                            against the International Rice Research Institute,
        Such diversified farms on valleys and plains        which was established in 1960, at its headquarters in
were gradually transformed into irrigated farms with        Los Baños. The Farmers Convention also gave rise to
rice-rice cropping system (monoculture) using high-         an NGO called Farmer-Scientist Partnership for
yielding varieties which required the application of        Development, Inc whose major project dubbed
synthetic chemical inputs. The diverse uplands were         MASIPAG (Magsasaka at Siyentipiko para sa
also converted into the monoculture of commercial           Ikauunlad ng Agham Pang-Agrikultura), started in
crops while the hills and highlands suffered the            May 1986. The MASIPAG project focused on rice
onslaught of deforestation. Ecological farming in the       breeding, allowing farmers to select the parent
ancestral domains of indigenous peoples was                 materials, based on desired plant characters, and to
adversely disrupted; communities were displaced.            perform rice breeding (after intensive training). In the
Meanwhile, population growth remained at a high rate.       process of selecting progenies from varietal crosses,

                                                                                       V. National Study: Philippines

the farmers made a policy that it should be done under
conditions of zero synthetic fertilizers and zero            Mamerto Fantilanan of Capiz (Panay island in
pesticides in the PO trial farms. From one trial farm in     the Visayas) was also a rice farmer whose farm
Nueva Ecija in 1986, MASIPAG currently has 219               was only 0.5 hectares large. While farming
trial farms (maintained by local POs) in Luzon,              under the conventional system, he searched for
Visayas, Mindanao. For the rest of the 1980s, a              information about OA, mostly from foreign
number of other projects emerged such as biodynamic          literature. Because he had only a small farm, he
farming by the Centre for Alternative Development            carefully devised a plan for a diversified organic
Initiatives, biointensive gardening by the International     farm that would give him quality food and higher
Institute for Rural Reconstruction and organic FAITH         income than his rice monoculture. With great
gardens (Food Always in the Home) and organic farms          determination and patience, and through the
by the Organic Farming Field Experimental and                years, Fantilanan developed a farm that produced
Research Station.                                            a net income equivalent to the salary of a college
                                                             professor in 1990 when a case study of his farm
                                                             was conducted by a researcher. Farm inputs
Box 1. Success cases: Two distinguished organic              included: rice, azolla, hogs, hatchery for chick
       farmers                                               production, fish, clams, vegetables, rootcrops,
                                                             and a nursery of tree seedlings.
  From those PO-NGO projects and from
  individual organic farmers, the following trends
  gradually surfaced: (a) interest in OA developed
  among farmers who considered that health and             (ii) Organic agriculture in the early 1990s
  the ecological objectives of OA were as
  important as its economic objectives; (b) that                   OA in the 1990s cannot be treated
  interest most likely tranformed into practice            independently from sustainable agriculture or low-
  among owner-cultivators motivated by ridding             external-input-sustainable agriculture (LEISA).
  the farm of hazardous chemicals and providing            Towards the 1990s, environmentalists worldwide
  quality food for the family; (c) successful              pursued more strongly the concept of sustainability of
  organic farmers were intelligent, analytical,            the natural resources for agriculture and of the
  decisive, innovative, creative, risk-taking,             agricultural production system itself. They found
  zealous, and persevering. These traits have been         common interest in the concept of sustainable
  demonstrated by two farmers who single-                  agriculture which was first defined by Terry Gips in
  handedly developed their organic farms through           1986 to be one that is “ecologically sound,
  the peak years of the Green Revolution.                  economically viable, socially just, humane and
                                                           adaptable”. In the United Nations Conference on
  Lorenzo Jose of Pampanga (Luzon island)                  Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janero
  developed a one-hectare organic farm, which he           in 1992 (the Earth Summit), NGOs from more than 60
  called a rice garden, as he planted and harvested        countries agreed to a related definition of sustainable
  every two weeks year-round. Around his house,            agriculture as a “method, practice or philosophy that is
  he raised vegetables, fish, hogs and chickens for        economically viable, ecologically sound, socially just
  home consumption. Rice was also for the                  and humane, culturally acceptable, and based on
  family’s staple but he had good income from his          holistic and integrative science”.
  seed production plots. His quality seeds gained
  recognition from farmers in the locality; his                   In 1990 the Sustainable Agriculture Coalition
  supply has never been enough to meet the                 was founded by 15 NGOs that agreed to hold
  demand.                                                  sustainable agriculture fairs in different parts of the
                                                           country. Another network of four NGOs organized the
  Beside the rice garden, the farmer had fruit trees       Philippine Forum for sustainable agriculture in 1991
  and pasture for the cattle that he started to raise.     for the exchange of experiences among them and their
  Lorenzo Jose firmly believed that organic                partners. Thus, sustainable agriculture became the
  farming was a lifestyle; it must not be profit-          byword among the NGOs and church-based
  oriented but it could be profitable . Before             organizations in the Philippines, and later on by
  Lorenzo turned to organic farming, he won a              governments, as a consequence of intergovernmental
  national award for producing the highest grain           commitments made at the 1992 Earth Summit. Xavier
  yield per hectare under the intensive rice               University set up its Sustainable Agriculture Centre
  programme of the government, but he had                  (SAC) in 1992 under the leadership of Bishop Antonio
  accumulated annual debts in a local bank. He             Ledesma. At the same time, a national peasant
  used the award money to pay his loan and a               organization, called PAKISAMA, launched its
  study-travel to Japan where he studied organic           sustainable agriculture project in seven provinces.
  farming in the “Fukuoka” farm, a model organic
  farm in Shikoku, southern Japan.

       In 1993 the Department of Agriculture                 worked on the document in a concerted and voluntary
launched an integrated pest management programme             effort. The Organic Producers and Traders Association
for its commitment on Agenda 21. Likewise, the               (OPTA), which was formed in 1995, joined
Philippine Commission for Sustainable Development            FOODWEB in the task of writing the Standards
expressed support for sustainable agriculture                document. After finishing the first draft of the
programmes. The College of Agriculture at the                standards, the FOODWEB group was joined by key
University of the Philippines Los Baños initiated the        staff of the Natural Products Division of the Centre for
inclusion of new courses on farming systems and              International Trade and Exposition Missions (CITEM)
ecological agriculture as part of its move to reorient       and constituted the Organic Industry Technical
the agriculture curriculum towards sustainable               Working Group.
agriculture. The SAC of Xavier University has also
been doing similar curricular revisions. Other colleges             As NGOs and POs expanded their programmes
expressed their intentions to pursue similar mo ves.         on LEISA and OA, the Department of Agriculture
                                                             introduced its “balanced fertilization programme” (a
        At that stage and even up to now, the concept of     combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers) for
sustainable agriculture has remained so broad that its       rice production, which may be considered as the
advocates tend to put all forms of agriculture that are      government’s version of LEISA, if pesticide
considered environment-friendly and not conventional         application shifted from calendar spraying into one
under the umbrella of sustainable agriculture. There         based on a certain threshold of pest damage. These
were national and regional conferences that were             developments made people increasingly aware of the
organized to identify sustainability indicators, but their   benefits of improving soil quality through raising soil
adoption by practitioners remains to be seen.                organic matter content.
Meanwhile, some NGOs made the concept operational
by discussing in specific terms what they meant by                  From the NGO community, there have been
LEISA. For instance, an NGO called AGTALON,                  two main publications in recent years on sustainable
based in Pangasinan (Luzon), defined LEISA for rice          agriculture and ecological agriculture: Routing
production as applying at least 10 bags of organic           Sustainable Agriculture by M. Viado (1997) and
fertilizer plus a maximum of 2 bags of synthetic             Ecological Farming: Principles, Techniques That
fertilizer (instead of 8 -10 bags in the conventional        Work and Farmer Innovators in the Philippines by H.
system) and no pesticides application. Other NGOs            Padilla (1999). The latter book contains descriptions of
and POs described their LEISA as applying synthetic          successful organic farms developed by individual
fertilizers and pesticides which were below the              farmers.
recommendation for conventional agriculture. Because
of continued dependence on agrochemicals by                         A National Organic Congress organized by the
sustainable agriculture practitioners, organic farmers       Organic Industry Technical Working Group held in
have made claims that OA produces a higher product           June 2001 produced three significant outputs: (a)
quality than sustainable agriculture. On the other hand,     sectoral consensus on action plans; (b) the launching
sustainable agriculture advocates claim that                 of the Organic Certification Centre of the Philippines
sustainable agriculture is at a higher plane of              (OCCP) and the holding of its first general assembly;
sustainability than OA because OA deals only with the        (c) an organic pavilion at the exhibit area which gained
organic production system. The latter impression             favourable response from the public and government
indicates that sustainable agriculture advocates are not     officials of the Department of Agriculture and the
aware of the social, economic and ecological                 Department of Trade and Industry.
objectives of OA.
                                                                      Concerted lobbying of various organizations
(iii) Organic agriculture 1995 - 2001                        in the OA movement has already caught the attention
                                                             of the new Secretary of Agriculture, Leonardo
       Developments in China have shown that there           Montemayor. This was further strengthened when PO
need not be a conflict in distinction between OA and         and NGO representatives clamoured for government
LEISA. In China, production processes and farm               support to OA during the Agriculture and Fisheries
systems can be certified to produce organic foods and        Stakeholders Summit in May 2001. Soon after, the
other organic products while products of LEISA farms         Secretary released a Special Order creating a national
or ecological production systems are certified as green      task force for OA. To people in the organic movement,
foods. Recent moves among practitioners and                  those were positive signs for the promotion of OA.
advocates point towards the need for an official basis       However, there is still a lot of work to be done with
for such a distinction. In 1996 members of IFOAM             respect to matching the magnitudes of market demand
from the Philippines who attended the 1995 IFOAM-            by consumers and production or supply by producers.
Asia Conference in Seoul, formed a coalition called
FOODWEB purposely to produce a Philippine
Standards for Organic Production and Processing
based on IFOAM Standards. FOODWEB organizers

                                                                                     V. National Study: Philippines

(b) Regulatory framework                                         An NGO named Alliance of Volunteers for
                                                          Development Foundation (AVDF) has also set up a
       As of August 2001, the Philippine government       certifying body, called “Philippine Organic Guarantee
has not formulated basic standards for organic            Incorporated” (POGI). AVDF claims to have the
production and processing. Likewise, the government       people’s organizations of indigenous peoples as
has neither a currently functioning regulatory body for   members; it is also working with the IFOAM Basic
organic certification nor an agency for the               Standards.
accreditation of organic certifiers. The Department of
Agriculture has mandated the Bureau of Agriculture        (c) Institutional framework/key actors
and Fisheries Product Standards to take on these
functions. It is now in the process of preparing its              The organizations involved in the development
office system and the formulation of national organic     of the Standards and establishment of OCCP, the
standards for the country by the first quarter of 2002.   advocates and supporters of organic agriculture, actual
                                                          producers, processors, handlers, and traders of organic
        Meanwhile, the organic movement (made up of       products, consumers, researchers, educators, trainers
producers, consumers, church-based organizations,         altogether carry on the Philippine OA movement.
NGOs, POs, the private sector, researchers,               There are some units of the Department of Agriculture
environmentalists, advocates and supporters in            that have started to support the movement in the last
government and academe) have been working out             few years. But with the recent creation of the task
certain mechanics by which a multisectoral certifying     force on OA by the Department of Agriculture
body can be set up to serve the organic industry. The     Secretary, the OA movement hopes to get c     ontinuing
first step was to have a set of standards. Fortunately,   institutional support from the government.
organic standards that were adopted from the IFOAM
Basic Standards by members of IFOAM, had already                 As mentioned in previous sections, the major
been prepared by FOODWEB. The document has                players in the movement come from the private sector,
undergone improvement through a series of regional        NGOs and farmers’ organizations. Some of the large
consultation/workshops in Luzon, Visayas and              ones, based on the number of member organizations
Mindanao. Subsequently, it was subjected to a national    and individuals members, are:
workshop in mid-2000 and, by consensus among
participants, adopted as the Standards for the organic    §   MASIPAG (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for
industry.                                                     Development): network of 456 POs, 42 NGOs and
                                                              15 researchers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
       Soon after, the Organic Industry Technical
Working Group, prepared an orientation training on        §   OPTA (Organic Producers and Traders
organic certification and inspection. The training of         Association): association of the private sector
selected members from the organic movement was                (individual/family business), NGOs and farmers’
conducted in December 2000 by consultants from                organizations
Switzerland. With this initial training and reference
materials from different countries, a “Manual of          §   ROAD Network (Regional Organic Agriculture
operation for organic certification” and an “Inspectors       Development): a network of NGOs, farmers’
manual” were prepared.                                        organizations, consumer groups, and local
                                                              government units supported by SAC Xavier
       The Standards document was analysed for                University’s and the provincial agriculturists of
harmonization with international standards by a Swis s        the Department of Agriculture
consultant. Equipped with the Standards, Manual of
Operation and Inspectors Manual, the Organic              §   BUGAN ECO-MOVEMENT: a network of
Certification Centre of the Ph ilippines (OCCP) was           NGOs, church-based organizations, farmers
officially launched on 22 June 2001. The OCCP held            organizations and student groups in Northern
its first General Assembly and representatives of             Luzon; a recently formed network that adds a
member organizations elected the first Board of               spiritual dimension to the ecological and organic
Trustees. Members consist of farmers’ organizations           movement (Food for the Body, Mind and Spirit);
and federations, NGOs, the private sector and                 made up of members which have many years of
individuals from some government agencies (CITEM,             work in the OA mo vement, such as Agro-
Department of Agriculture and Philippine Coconut              Technical Assistance and Livelihood
Authority) and academe. The OCCP will hold an                 Opportunities in the North (AGTALON) and
intensive training course on organic certification and        PLAN-Pangasinan
inspection for selected members of OCCP in the first
quarter of 2002. The training will be given by Swiss      §   PDAP (Philippine Development Assistance
consultants    with the Department of Agriculture             Programme) has national development
providing the m financial support and CITEM                   programmes following the principles of
and NGOs providing a smaller share.                           sustainable development in the Philippine context;

      one of its programmes is providing support           (e) Official research and development, education
      services to farmers who shift into organic farming       and extension

§     SIBAT (Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya) has a                 In the late 1970s, there were short-lived
      network of farmer organizations that are being       attempts by some agencies of government, through
      assisted in the adoption of organic production       conferences and workshops, towards the large-scale
      systems; the farmers maintain their trial farms      composting of biodegradable wastes in urban centres
      which include community seed banking                 particularly Metro Manila. Action plans were drawn
                                                           up, but no concrete projects came about.
§     KALIKASAN-NE (organization of POs engaged
      in organic farming in Nueva Ecija under a national          Historically, government research institutions
      organization called the Philippine Rural             have not given much support for R and D in OA. This
      Reconstruction Movement                              attitude seems to have changed in recent years. Hence,
                                                           the R and D and extension programmes/projects are
§     ALTERTRADE: a private comp any involved in           those related to the use of farm-generated biomass as a
      fair trade; the only company with an international   means of improving soil organic matter and recycling
      organic certification for the export of organic      plant nutrients. They are not directed at OA as such,
      sugar (muscovado) and organic table banana; the      but pave the way towards a more sustainable farming
      company is based in Bacolod City in the Visayas      approach. These are (a) biological nitrogen fixation
                                                           research, (b) composting, (c) integrated pest
§     OCCP (Organic Certification Centre of the            management, and (d) balanced fertilization strategy.
      Philippines): members include Pakisama, Kalikasan,
      Sakahan, Philippines Rural Reconstruction                   The pervasive attitude in the national
      Movement, Ideas, Agrifor, Altertrade                 agricultural research system and in academia is that
                                                           OA will turn back the scientific gains in agriculture
§     AVDF (Alliance of Volunteers for Development         into subsistence farming. This attitude is a natural
      Foundation): an NGO with PO partners including                                  h
                                                           consequence of the fact t at the country’s science
      indigenous peoples; POGI (Philippine Organic         community is a product of the reductionist paradigm
      Guarantee, Inc., a certification agency set up by    that created the so-called “efficient” agriculture and
      AVDF and partners)                                   high productivity of industrial countries. Confined by
                                                           standard research methods, researchers tended to be
       At the level of institutionalization for quality    aloft from farming communities. Significant change
assurance OCCP is cited here. Aside from its broad-        from this attitude may come about gradually as new
based organizational support, it is also being assisted    crops of science students embrace ecological
by various units of the Department of Agriculture and      principles in farm systems and direct their goals
by CITEM.                                                  towards the social and economic benefits for rural
(d) International linkages
                                                                  In the last few years, there were signs of
       There are NGOs and business groups that are         interest in OA by certain units in some government
members of IFOAM. An IFOAM member (Altertrade)             agencies. In 1997, the Philippines Council for
has been accessing certification services from Europe      Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Natural Resources
for the export of its organic sugar to Europe and          Research and Development (PCARRD) sponsored a
organic banana to Japan. Organic banana chips are          national consultation workshop on OA where speakers
being exported to Canada in partnership with the           from organic producers in the private sector and
Organic Verification of North America based in             members of IFOAM were invited to interact with
Winnipeg, Manitoba.                                        government researchers. In 1998, PCARRD provided
                                                           funds for the conduct of two-year (1998-2000) case
       CITEM and some NGOs have been in touch              studies of selected farms (organic, LEISA and
with the organizers of FOODEX in Japan, BIOFACH            conventional) in some villages where the farms
in Germany and the United States Organic Trade             operate in nearby areas. Selected case study sites were
Show for international expositions on organic trade.       located in four provinces: two sites in an irrigated rice
There were instances when some products in their           land agroecosystem, one site in a rainfed upland
booth received the interest of Japanese traders;                                           i
                                                           agroecosystem and one site n a rainfed hilly land
unfortunately, the products were not certified organic.    agro-ecosystem. Results generally showed that the
                                                           organic farms were being developed by farmers
      At the moment, the OCCP has arrangements             motivated by both ecological and economic objectives.
with Swiss consultancies not only for the training of      With these objectives, net income per year cannot be
OCCP members, but also for the certification of            used solely as basis of comparing the farms; however,
organic products that would pass their inspection          the organic farm that utilized on-farm biomass gave
process.                                                   higher return on investment values than the LEISA

                                                                                        V. National Study: Philippines

and conventional farms. The organic farm (in                high-value intercrops. To a much smaller extent than
transition) that depended on purchased organic              coconut, banana and coffee are popular as backyard
fertilizer gave a low return on investment.                 and small-scale crops under traditionally-organic
                                                            production. Significant proportions of the total area,
        In 1999, PCARRD and the Department of               however, are used by multinational corporations under
Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Research, funded        intensively chemical- dependent production for export
a five-year R and D programme, “Organic Vegetable           products. The great variety of fruit trees in local
Production” for implementation by the University of         markets also mo stly come from backyard and small-
the Philippines Los Baños Institute of Plant Breeding.      scale production.
In the first quarter of 2001, PCARRD conducted a
workshop -consultation on organic livestock                         In small-scale livestock raising, the native
production, focusing on organic chicken. The                carabao, cattle, goat, hog, chicken and duck are
workshop paves the way for increased support to             traditionally under organic production. In terms of
organic chicken breeding and production by the              supply, however, the chemical-dependent production
Institute of Animal Science at the University of the        of cattle, hogs and poultry dominate the market. There
Philippines Los Baños. Another initiative is emerging       are initiatives from the private sector for the organic
in Benguet State University where the Vice President        production of chicken, eggs and dairy products, but
has announced that a regional (Northern Luzon)              their major constraint is the local supply of organic
agricultural programme will be organic production.          feeds. Two outstanding organic producers in their field
The Vice President is an individual member of OCCP.         could easily pass organic certification if only they had
                                                            a consistent supply of organic corn and organic
(f) Official support and pricing policies                   soybean or other legume substitutes.

       At this time, there are no pricing policies on       (c) Areas converted into organic production
organic products. In terms of support, there is a
standing offer by the Agricultural Marketing and                   It has been noted earlier that many of the
Support Services of the Department of Agriculture for       farmers who shifted from the conventional system
groups of organic producers to be provided a limited        became LEISA practitioners. Only those who
marketing space for free near the Department. This is a     persevered to make the farm both productive and
minimal form of support in terms of the marketing of        ecological became successful organic farmers. As of
organic products.                                           now, there are organic producers of rice, vegetables,
                                                            muscovado sugar, banana, herbs, hogs, chicken and
2. Organic production                                       dairy products. There are organic farmers who have
                                                            developed diversified farms (fruit trees, field crops,
(a) Predominant cultivation systems under organic           livestock, fish) under different agro-ecosystems

       The indigenous agriculture of the indigenous         Box 2. Success case: Inocencio organic chicken
peoples or tribes of the Philippines is essentially under          farm
organic production. Exceptions are areas where new
seeds and new practices have been introduced by
farmers in nearby communities. This chapter does not          The pioneering spirit of A.P. Inocencio shows
address indigenous agriculture, although organic, on          that organic chicken has great potential for large-
account of the fact that indigenous peoples desire self-      scale production in various parts of the country.
determination in terms of their culture, agriculture,         Inocencio pioneered the introduction and
food systems, local governance, and social norms.             breeding of the Sasso breeds in the Philippines.
Their ecological farming practices and food-gathering         Sasso breeds from F   rance are adaptable to the
are intimately related to their culture of food self-         various agro-climatic conditions across the
sufficiency.                                                  country; they have weathered frequent typhoons
                                                              in the monsoon months as well as hot dry
(b) Predominant areas under traditional organic               summers. With his Teresa Farm as the main
    production                                                centre, Inocencio has already established satellite
                                                              centres in 15 sites across Luzon, Visayas and
       Traditional organic production refers to the           Mindanao. He provides breeder layers in each
production of crops that largely remained free of             centre and promotes the production of organic
synthetic farm chemicals in spite of the Green                chicken. He encourages local people to breed,
Revolution. Based on area, the most extensive is              select and produce the promising ones adapted in
coconut land. Of more than 3 million hectares planted         the area. He observed that the people accepted
to coconut, only about 20 per cent is regularly treated       the Sasso breeds easily because they looked like
with agrochemicals, even that is indirect application         native chickens; the eggs are also brownish like
because the chemicals are generally intended for the          native eggs.

(paddy, lowland, upland, hilly land, highland), but         1989) and using the specified percentages (80 per cent
their number needs to grow in order to affect the local     for coconut and 50 per cent for banana and coffee),
economy and ecology.                                        estimates of traditionally organic crops are: 2.747
                                                            million hectares for coconut, 0.130 million hectares for
(d) Quantitative information on crops and areas             banana, and 0.041 million hectares for coffee. Thus,
    under organic production                                28 per cent of the total agricultural area is organic
                                                            coconut; altogether, organic coconut, banana and
       As of now, there are organic producers               coffee constitute about 30 per cent.
scattered around Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. They
market their own produce with their own labels. In          (f) Areas converted into organic production
vegetable-growing areas in northern Lu zon, there are
some NGOs who purchase organic products from                       At the present time, the few foreign-certified
farmers (with little vegetable plots) and market            organic farms in the country do not even exceed 100
products in urban centres. In localities where there are    hectares. Hence, this section primarily refers to areas
POs of organic rice farmers, they complain of no            that have been converted into organic production, but
market outlets. There are some exceptions where the         not officially certified by a third party. Focus is also
NGO partners provide the desired marketing service,         given to areas tilled by small farmers, but it should be
but those are relatively few.                               noted that there are ambitious projects being initiated
                                                            by local agribusiness companies. For instance,
       These observations altogether point out the          Marsman and Drysdale Agribusiness Group in
need for a reliable database on the supply, distribution    Mindanao initially put over 120 hectares under organic
and demand for the organic industry. This is part of the    banana production, expanding recently with an
mandate of the Department of Agriculture Secretary to       additional 280 hectares. The company has been
the task force on OA. Hence, the quantitative               working to comply with the certification requirements
information provided for this section is based on           of the United States International Certification Service.
information gathered from the continuing interactions
of the author with various sectors of the organic           (i) Rice
                                                                    Being the first to experience the ill effects of
(e) Traditional organic production                          high-external-input agriculture, rice farmers were also
                                                            the first to clamour for alternative production, such as
        Traditional organic crops can apply for             LEISA and OA. Among many PO-NGO partners in
certification as soon as recordkeeping and other            rice production for LEISA and OA, the largest national
requirements are complied with. They are not                network is MASIPAG (456 POs and 42 NGOs) and
classified under traditional crops with a high potential    the largest national PO federation is PAKISAMA (28
for conversion because they do not need to undergo          Pos and NGOs). Another group in a focus area in
conversion.                                                 Sinayawan, Valencia, Bukidnon (Mindanao) is the
                                                            partnership of Xavier University’s SAC, the
       Based on extent in area and market potential,        Sinayawan Catholic parish and a farmers multi-
three kinds of crops are classed as traditionally organic   purpose cooperative.
and deemed ready for certification. These are coconut,
banana and coffee. Coconut in small- or large-scale                                          ,
                                                                    The three groups (MASIPAG PAKISAMA and
farms is predominantly organically produced. Only           SAC of Xavier University) have been implementing
about 20 per cent of coconut lands receive applications     sustainable organic agriculture programmes using
of agrochemicals, which is generally intended for the       organic MASIPAG seeds. Based on their reports from
high-value intercrops. Traditionally organic banana         February 2001, the total number of households and
refers to backyard bananas and those in small-scale         farm areas adopting LEISA and OA are summa rized in
farms which receive no agrochemicals. A limited area        table 3.
has been certified through the mediation of Altertrade
and exported as fresh organic banana to Japan.                     The core programme of MASIPAG since 1986
Similarly, coffee in small-scale farms, mostly in           has been farmer-driven rice breeding research under an
Mindanao, is traditionally organic.                         organic production system.

       For banana and coffee, it is estimated is that 40           The three groups give a total organic rice area
per cent of production goes to export. In terms of area,    of 2,675 hectares among direct members. Assuming
the export volume is obtainable from less than 40 per       that there is at least a 10 per cent simultaneous
cent of the banana area owing to intensive production       infusion to outside members, then the total area could
and high yields. So, an estimate of 50 to 60 per cent of    be about 3,000 hectares. Assuming further that all the
the area for traditional organic is reasonable. Using the   other small groups have a similar coverage of 3,000
data on the area of production by the Agricultural          hectares, then there is an overall total of 6,000 hectares
Land Management and Evaluation Division (ALMED              in organic rice production, a mere 0.2 per cent of the

                                                                                       V. National Study: Philippines

total paddy rice area.                                      (ii) Sugar cane (Muscovado)

       With respect to yield levels, PAKISAMA had                  Muscovado is a non-centrifugal sugar produced
the following average yields from organic rice (1996-       from sugar cane juice evaporated in open pans. Forms
1999):                                                      vary depending on the cooling treatment applied on
          Luzon     3,350 kg/ha                             the concentrated syrup. Muscovado producers are
                                                            concentrated in Western Visayas but small producers
           Visayas       2,974 kg/ha                        are also found in Luzon and Mindanao. Muscovado is
                                                            being exported to Japan and Europe.
           Mindanao 3,250 kg/ha
                                                                   Among local organic producers of muscovado,
           Average 3,191 kg/ha/season                       only Altertrade in Negros Occidental has passed
                                                            international certification. Altertrade is a private
        An overall average of 3,191 kg/ha/season for        corporation whose aspiration to support small and
organic rice from MASIPAG organic farmers in                marginalized farmers is being pursued through fair
Surigao del Sur (Mindamao) is only slightly less than       trade activities. Altertrade manages its own organic
the country’s average of 3,350 kg/ha for irrigated rice     sugar cane plantation such that there is a year-round
under conventional or high-external-input farming.          supply of cane for processing. It operates its own
The average organic rice yield by SAC was 3,440 kg/         small-scale muscovado mill. Altertrade’s organic
ha which is about 1,000 kg/ha less than the average of      muscovado is exported to Europe and Japan. Its small
4,400 kg/ha from conventional farms in the same             market share can grow as it keeps improving product
vicinity; however, return on investment from organic        quality.
rice was 2.37 and from conventional rice, 1.10. In this
instance, return on investment made use of the cash                 The organic sugar cane area, including that
cost of production only; if both cash + non-cash were       being converted by some agrarian reform
used, there would be higher production cost than net        communities, is estimated to be about 0.1 per cent of
profit from the conventional production system. In the      the total sugar cane area.
MASIPAG site in Surigao del Sur, an income analysis
of the 30 organic farms gave an average return on           (iii) Banana
investment of 2.15.
                                                                    Organic banana (bungulan) is also being
        Reports from MASIPAG, PAKISAMA and                  exported by Altertrade to Japan as fresh table banana.
SAC did not mention any serious infestation of pest or      Altertrade gets its supply from small banana growers
disease in their programme sites. Farmer leaders in         in the islands of Negros and Bohol. Another common
MASIPAG who have been with the programme for                backyard banana is saba. In Iloilo organic saba is
about 10 years definitely observed the appearance of        being processed into banana chips and exported to
earthworms, the prevalence of natural predators, and a      Canada in partnership with the Organic Verification of
recurrence of the poor-man’s free protein from the rice     North America from Winnipeg, Manitoba.
field: edible frogs and snails.
                                                                   Because of increasin g demand, some
       The three other crops in this section are the        commercial companies tried to produce organic
organic production of sugar cane, banana and                banana (no synthetic chemical application) but under
vegetables. The organic area for each is estimated as       their usual mo noculture system. Their trials failed
0.1 per cent of the total area.                             because of severe pest and disease problems. Such
                                                            problems have not been observed in diversified farms
                                                            where organic banana grows with other crops. The
                                                            production area for organic banana is also estimated to
                                                            be a 0.1 per cent of the total banana area.

                  Table 3. Extent of OA and LEISA adopters from three related programmes

          Group                    Years            Organic Agriculture                         LEISA
                                              Household (no.)        Area (ha)      Household (no.)      Area (ha)

MASIPAG                        1990-2000            1 897                  1 754        11 052             10 468

PAKISAMA                       1997-2000            1 297                  671

SAC of Xavier University       1997-2000             229                   250            120               153

(iv) Vegetables                                             (i) Competencies available for organic production

       Organic vegetable growers are scattered here                At the production level, there are organic
and there, but their output, although small merits          producers and some agriculturists who are competent
separate handling and transport. It was only the            in the various aspects of crop production, farming
emergence of special outlets in Metro Manila, through       systems and crop-livestock diversification under
the efforts of OPTA, that organic produce, particularly     various ecosystems. Their competencies cover a wide
vegetables, gained distinction from conventional farm       range from barely to highly competent. The highly
produce.                                                    competent ones are actual organic producers who have
                                                            developed their organic farms to a level that should
        For the subtropical vegetables (cabbage, lettuce,   qualify as model farms, which are excellent learning
celery, beans, cucumber, green onions, bell pepper)         centres for farmers on study tour. There are not many
and root crops (carrots and potato), the supply comes       of them yet and they are located far apart, for example,
primarily from the mountain provinces in the                on different islands.
highlands of Northern Luzon. These organic products
constitute a small market share; an overall estimate of             The professional agriculturists have the basic
the area used for production is also 0.1 per cent of the    scientific knowledge to be able to learn more quickly
total vegetable area. In terms of production constraints,   about scientific explanations of processes important to
the major ones are pests, diseases and poor transport       organic production. They should be encouraged and
facilities across mountainous terrain.                      supported to study organic farm systems from a
                                                            holistic perspective. They will constitute a core of
(g) Quantitative information on crops and areas             educators and trainers to strengthen and accelerate the
    under potential organic production                      promotion of OA. Those who have specializations in
                                                            the biological control of pests/diseases should be
       A high potential for conversion towards organic      encouraged similarly to have their specialized
farming are those areas under LEISA. Most of the            knowledge integrated for use in organic farm systems.
LEISA farmers are in rice, corn and vegetable
production. They can easily appreciate the need for                 Well-developed organic farms depend on on-
organic fertilize rs, but their heavy reliance on the use   farm and local biological resources for the internal
of pesticides is more difficult to change. A quantitative   cycling of biomass and plant nutrients. However, to
estimate based on LEISA is not attempted for lack of a      facilitate the conversion of some farms that cannot yet
valid data basis.                                           generate their own resources, there are a number of
                                                            commercial producers of organic fertilizers. There is
       The pool of farmers trained in integrated pest       an association of these organic fertilizer producers
management is another potential source of OA                which can respond to increased supply, if needed.
farmers. Director Binamira of the integrated pest
management programme observed that about 20 per             (j) Conversion issues
cent of the trainees tended to go into organic farming
(personal communication). Therefore, based on               n   Land ownership
200,000 farmers trained, there is a potential pool of
40,000 farmers who are likely to go into the organic               In the Philippines, the greatest constraint
production system. They are also mostly in rice             against conversion to organic production is land
production and some in vegetable farming.                   ownership. The best developed organic farms are
                                                            owned by the farm households; they are owner-
(h) Organizational characteristics of farmers               cultivators. To tenants, leasers and renters, they can
                                                            only convert into organic farming if the landowners
        At this time, most of the farmers engaged in        themselves are determined to have their farms
organic production are members of organizations in          converted and provide financial support for the
PO/NGO or PO/church-based organization partners.            conversion process. As of now, landowners with
Some of the POs have their own cooperatives,                tenants, leasers or renters do not show significant
generally multi-purpose cooperatives and a few are          interest. However, there are wealthy land developers
women’s organizations. A small portion of the organic       who went into the organic production of vegetables
farmers are individuals with no organizational              and herbs of their choice. They employ regular
affiliation. A limited extent of contract farming is        workers and farm managers. Farm produce is for home
practised.                                                  consumption of their association or club members.

                                                                                         V. National Study: Philippines

n   Support services for organic production among          n   Rural infrastructure and farm machinery and post-
    “new landowners”                                           harvest facilities

       Agrarian reform communities are land reform                 Limited or no access to rural infrastructure and
beneficiaries of plantations where the people live         post-harvest facilities is a constraint to agricultural
together in villages. These communities are potential      production as a whole. However, its vital role comes to
and strategic adaptors of organic farming; the volume                                   A
                                                           the fore with respect to O if organic farming is
of their organic produce can create a distinct organic     seriously taken as a scientific and practical way of
market. Two important things needed by these               regenerating marginal lands, such as infertile, eroded,
agrarian reform communities: (a) technical and             acid soils on uplands, hilly lands and highlands,
financial support for organic production, storage and      infertile heavy clay soils, and infertile sandy soils.
processing; and (b) certification and marketing            These are potential and strategic areas for organic
assistance. Recently, the Department of Agrarian           farming, but they are inaccessible and inefficient for
Reform has included organic farming as part of its                                                    nd
                                                           operations owing to the lack of roads a transport,
assistance programme to the agrarian reform                farm machinery and post-harvest facilities.
                                                           n   Issue of organic inputs
n   Accredited certification and a distinct, strong,
    stable organic market                                         Conversion is constrained by lack of organic
                                                           seeds, certified organic fertilizers and for the livestock
        Farmers who are owner-cultivators may be           industry, certified organic feeds.
currently satisfied with their conventional farming and
happy with their income. However, if they see a            n   Pesticide drift and pesticide-affected irrigation
distinct, strong and stable market for organic produce,        water
they could be drawn into organic farming. Even if
their interest is purely economic, the certification              Pesticide drift is a big issue among vegetable
aspect will take care of the ecological objective of       growers because of the small sizes of plots (1,000-
organic farming. If the producers do not follow            5,000 square metres) in contiguous vegetable areas.
ecological principles as embodied in the standards,        Pesticide in irrigation water is an issue to paddy fields
certification guidelines will encourage them to develop    supplied by large-scale irrigation.
ecological farms . As of now, there is no accredited
organic certification and no distinct, strong and stable   (k) Limitations, challenges, recommendations
organic market in the Philippines.
                                                           (i) Limitations
n   Education and training
                                                                  All the conversion issues described in the
        The promise of economic benefits will even         previous section are limitations to organic production.
drive farmers to seek ways and means of obtaining the      These issues and other limitations are listed below:
knowledge and skills to go into organic farming.
However, there is still a great need for proactive         §   Slow pace of land distribution and inadequate
education and training for farmers in marginal areas           agrarian reform services
(infertile, eroded, acidic soils in the uplands, hilly
lands and highlands) to go into organic farming. As of     §   Lack of accredited certification body and a
now, education and training for organic production are         distinct, strong and stable organic market that
only done for PO/NGO and PO/church-based                       should spur production
organization partners with OA and sustainable
agriculture programmes.                                    §   Lack of institutional programmes for support
                                                               services, for example, research, technology
n   Rural financing                                            development, education, training, rural financing,
                                                               mechanization, post-harvest facilities, and rural
       There is no proactive financing programme for           infrastructure
organic farming. Case studies have shown that
successful organic farmers had access to financial         §   Lack of certified organic inputs such as seeds/seed
resources. This issue is still related to the market. If       pieces and stocks, organic fertilizers and livestock
the private finance sector sees a strong and stable            feeds
organic market, it may be encouraged to support
organic farmers.                                           §   Lack of a well-defined government programme to
                                                               support the organic industry

(ii) Challenges                                             (6) Provide basic infrastructure (roads, transport, post-
                                                                harvest facilities) and comprehensive support
§     Revitalization of a globally uncompetitive coconut        services (R and D and ext ension, training,
      industry through the production of non-traditional        financing, marketing).
      organic products from coconut specially processed
      products. Coconut is a traditionally organic crop;    (7) Provide R and D and extension services for
      it constitutes more than one third of the country’s       organic mango production; CITEM has identified
      agricultural area                                         organic mango as an export winner.

§     Regeneration of extensive lands that are infertile,   3. Post-harvest handling and markets
      acidic, eroded, or idle through organic farming.
      The fertility of these soils can be improved in the   (a) Market demand and potential for primary and
      long term by building up soil organic matter,             processed organic products
      enhancing soil quality and conserving soil and
      water                                                        Global sales of organic foods and beverages are
                                                            expected to reach US$20 billion in 2001. This amount
§     The harnessing of the organic regeneration of         is only a small fraction of the total food sales, but
      marginal lands to increase productivity and help      market growth rates are high. Some figures in 1998
      reduce the country’s huge problem of rural            were: 20-30 per cent for the United States of America
      poverty                                               and Switzerland, 30-40 per cent for Denmark and
                                                            Sweden, 25-35 per cent for the United Kingdom of
§     The consolidation of government and industry          Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 20 per cent for
      support for the organic production of selected        France and Italy. Such figures are not available for
      products that can easily exceed domestic              Asia perhaps because of relatively low total sales, with
      requirements and take advantage of the rapid          the exception of Japan. Data in 1998 showed that the
      growth of the global organic market                   US$1 billion sales in Japan was already one fifth that
                                                            of the United States and one sixth that of the whole of
(iii) Recommendations                                       Europe. Definitely, Japan is the largest market for
                                                            organic foods in Asia.
(1) Assist rural communities for the “group
    certification” of traditionally organic farms in: (a)          Figures on domestic market demand for organic
    coconut-producing areas, (b) banana-producing           products are not known. An unpublished study done
    areas, and (c) coffee-producing areas. Assist rural     by Abunyawan in 1997 indicated that there is domestic
    communities in the processing of coconut into           demand (personal communication with Abunyawan,
    high-quality organic coconut products such as           2001). For instance, Abunyawan noted that three
    organic coconut oil, organic desiccated coconut,        NGOs providing marketing assistance to their farmer-
    organic coconut milk, organic coconut wine,             members were able to market a total volume of 70,814
    organic banana catsup, organic banana chips,            cavans of their produce to a local vegetable trading
    organic coffee blends.                                  centre in Benguet province.

(2) Create a programme to provide technical services        (b) Major marketing channels
    to guide small farmers in making their organic
    farms certifiable (third party certification); assist          The small volume of export of certified organic
    POs in technical requirements for group                 sugar and banana has created individual marketing
    certification.                                          channels of each company or business group. For
                                                            instance, Altertrade handles the banana from pick-up
(3) Assist rural communities in developing producer-        points in the villages until the product reaches its
    consumer partnerships as an alternative way of          trading partners in Japan and Europe.
    marketing organic products certified by the
    producers or consumers.                                        In the domestic market, limited amounts of
                                                            organic products are marketed through the assistance
(4) Develop vast areas of idle lands into cooperative       of NGOs or individuals imbued with the desire for
    organic farms (diversified, integrated organic farm     society to have access to quality food. They purchase
    systems). With ecological planning these                the product from the producer and handle the
    communities can look forward to “value-added            distribution and marketing directly to consumers. Each
    potential” in the form of ecotourism.                   one has its own way, but the members of OPTA prefer
                                                            to bring their products to OPTA markets which are
(5) Develop organic fancy rices, organic seeds/stocks,      now in four locations (two within Metro Manila and
    organic feeds, and organic livestock for domestic       two in nearby towns). There are designated market
    and foreign markets.                                    days regularly held every week in each location.

                                                                                          V. National Study: Philippines

       Other small producers may be creative enough           (d) Organization of post-harvest handling
to find their own outlets; most others simply put their
products through conventional channels. Except for                    There is no major post-harvest facility in
those who prefer to establish their own version of the        operation for the distinct handling of organic products.
producer-consumer partnership, many other organic             The volume of products handled by each trading group
producers expressed their desire for certification            is just manageable at its level.
services. They want their product to go through a
distinct channel.                                             (e) Labelling systems

(c) Organization of marketing                                         At this time, each group/individual has their
                                                              own label, but OCCP will set standards for the
        In its infancy stage, the organization of             labelling of products certified by it.
domestic marketing has been limited to each group
that established a visible market outlet. For instance,       (f) Marketing and information services
officers of OPTA negotiate for the use of existing
facilities on designated days every week and then each               The Department of Agriculture has agricultural
member involved in marketing brings in the products           marketing assistance services, but it still has to build
that were, in turn, secured from their own sources.           its database on production and market demand.
                                                              Information services centres should cover aspects of
       The emergence of the newly organized                   organic production (farming and processing) and
BUGAN ECO-MOVEMENT in Northern Luzon adds                     marketing, volumes and trends of supply and demand
educational and spiritual aspects into the marketing of       for each organic product, technologies, research,
organic and natural products for producers within the         development and extension, training services,
region. Other products are art crafts and native              standards, and certification.
handicrafts. Among the core members of BUGAN are
the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sisters, AGTALON,                (g) Guarantee system requirements
Benguet State University. Market day is every Sunday,                OCCP and POGI are still at the capability-
beginning after the morning mass; the market place is         building stage, but OCCP already has its certification
an open space near the church. Organic and natural            standards, manual of operation and inspectors manual
products brought in by groups, NGOs and individual            which are under review for improvement/
producers and/or traders are arranged in the area to          harmonization by Swiss consultants. OCCP used the
merge nicely with group activities covering a variety         IFOAM Basic Standards as a basis for its certification
of educational or spiritual aspects on “Food for the          standards. After establishing a good track record of its
Mind, Body and Spirit.” This is done by students and          services, it will target international accreditation.
artists desiring to express their philosophy of
environmentalism. BUGAN is a noble movement; it               (h) Consumer characteristics and promotion of
needs concerted nurturing for healthy growth.                     organic products

        Aside from its participation in BUGAN, the                    Consumers in organic outlet centres such as
enterprise development programme of AGTALON has               OPTA and little specialized shops are generally
created a marketing component for its farmer-                 households of the high-income class and upper-
members who have constituted the AGTALON                      middle-income class. The lower-middle-income and
BANKOOP Multi-purpose Cooperative. BANKOOP                    low-income class may patronize, following active
coordinates and facilitates the production, processing        promotional campaigns, organic products at the same
and marketing of products by members. It has trained          prices as conventional products. However, in rural
staff for the management of four economic units:              areas with a strong organization of organic farmers,
Savings and Credit, Small Traders Group, Ricemill             there is already a trend for rural households to take
Operation, and Feedmill Operation. BANKOOP is                 pride in consuming organic foods. Long-term organic
growing at a pace dependent on the capability-building        producers offer the same price as conventional
of its staff, but it has the potential of producing a self-   products in order to encourage patronage. They are
reliant rural enterprise owned by small producers in          satisfied with the pricing because they have lower
the locality.                                                 production costs but a similar yield level.

        A movement similar to BUGAN is emerging in                  Promotion of organic products cannot go the
Northern Mindanao through the c     oordination of the        way of commercial advertising owing to added cost. It
ROAD network and with strong support from the local           should pursue alternative promotional ways such as
government units. To encourage the movement, the              educational campaigns in schools, workplaces and
city mayor of Gingoog is providing an organic market          churches on environmental regeneration, ecological
facility (infrastructure) distinct from the existing          balance, organic agriculture, food safety, food quality,
conventional market.                                          human health, and environmental health.

(i) Price structure of organic products                         be a national programme to replace the
                                                                conventional programme, as currently manifested
       As of now, price differences between organic             by the resistance of policy makers to support
and conventional products depend primarily on the               organic agriculture.
target consumers and the quality of the product. For
instance, organic fancy rices (red rice, black rice,        (2) Support of local government units and the national
aromatic rices) for the high-income class go up to 100          government for the establishment of distinct
per cent more than ordinary conventional rice. There            organic markets and marketing channels, market
are no equivalent fancy rices under conventional                assistance centres and information services
production. For the middle -income class, a slightly            centres.
higher price (10-15 per cent) is tolerable.
                                                            (3) Support of government, academe and research
       Certification will surely raise the price of             institutions for distinct programmes on R and D,
organic products. It is necessary to seek ways and              education and training for organic agriculture and
means of keeping the cost of certification services as          marketing.
low as possible for the general public to patronize
organic products.                                           (4) Government support for high-quality certification
                                                                services centres in order to reduce the cost of
(j) Limitations, challenges and recommendations                 organic certification and inspection.

(i) Limitations                                             4. Socio-economic potential of organic
§     No data base on organic production, distribution,
      marketing                                             (a) Review and synthesis of existing studies
§     No marketing and information services centre                 A study on the development of the Philippine
                                                            organic food industry, commissioned by the United
§     No local and operational guarantee system;            Nations Development Programme (UNDP), was done
      foreign certification services are expensive          by Briones, Abunyawan, Yap, Tagupa and Medina in
                                                            1997. A project document was also prepared for a
§     No labelling system                                   national proposal based on the information gathered
                                                            and a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and
§     No distinct markets and market channels for           threats) analysis done for five primary products (rice,
      sizeable volumes of organic products; no post-        vegetables, muscovado sugar, coconut oil and banana).
      harvest facilities                                    The proposal was geared towards developing organic
                                                            production systems of the major crop or crops in five
(ii) Challenges                                             of the country’s poorest regions (Bicol, Western
                                                            Visayas, Southern Tagalog, Northern Mindanao and
§     Entry of low-cost rice from foreign markets may       Southern Mindanao). The overall objectives of
      encourage organic rice produces to go into the        capability-building and poverty alleviation through the
      organic production of exotic, quality rice            development of the organic industry were in line with
                                                            the UNDP development agenda of human
§     Let organic markets draw the thousands of farmers     development, poverty alleviation, gender equity and
      who have undergone training on sustainable            environmental regeneration.
      agriculture and OA to scale up their production of
      organic products                                             The three-year proposal by Briones and others
                                                            specified the following intended outputs:
§     Let the initiatives of OCCP and POGI advance
      towards a level qualified for international           §   Formation of a national coordinating body and
      accreditation                                             information centre for the organic food industry
§     Link up with environmentalist groups locally and      §   Establishment of an independent certifying body
      internationally for the promotion of safe and             and producer-consumer partnership in rural
      quality foods by the organic industry                     communities where the producers’ guarantee is
(iii) Recommendations
                                                            §   Accreditation of a certification programme by
(1) Government assistance in the development of a               foreign authorities where Philippine products are
    distinct, cohesive, stable, comp etitive organic            competitive
    industry as an added option to stimulate growth of
    the agriculture sector. It should not be perceived to

                                                                                       V. National Study: Philippines

§   Diversified farm    systems   in-place   in   rural   organic farm systems. The husband and wife discuss
    communities                                           their plans and family operations with all members of
                                                          the family, even with school-age children. The
§   Organic producers capable of meeting certification    children have to understand why their farm should be
    requirements                                          different (social and ecological reasons) from the
                                                          conventional farms around them otherwise the organic
§   Linkage of organic producers with domestic and        system could create attitudinal tension within the
    foreign markets                                       family.

§   Establishment of ecological villages with various            The social and ecological objectives of organic
    models of integrated, diversified farm systems to     farming, aside from economic benefits, should also be
    serve as study centres for farmers not directly       highlighted in public in order for the diffusion of value
    served by the project                                 systems among producers and consumers. In fact,
                                                          values education and environmental campaigns among
§   Increased number of farmers converting into           consumers can accelerate market growth. In Japan,
    organic farming                                       organized environmentalists among youth
                                                          professionals voluntarily conduct seminars on food
§   Organic industry beginning to generate revenues       safety, human health, environmental health and
    for the government                                    organic production for consumers.

       Based on consultations done with some              (c) Comparative contribution of organic products
communities for the SWOT analysis, it was noted that          to household income
the processing of organic produce into a variety of
jams and jellies generated great interest among                  Aside from the calculations used for return on
enterprising women. The proposal was not funded by        investment values in the case studies, there is no study
UNDP on the ground that at the time the Philippine        specifically designed to provide the comparative
government had no interest in organic agriculture.        contribution of organic products to household income.
                                                          Instead of overall nume rical values per cropping
       A limited case study was done in 1998-2000         season, the case study on a diversified three-hectare
comparing organic, LEISA and conventional farms           rainfed farm showed the availability of surplus (in
that was funded by PCARRD. Other case studies done        excess of household food) products that are marketed
by MASIPAG and SAC among households in their              every week to cover other household needs and yet
project areas showed a higher return on investment        there were major crops to harvest at the end of the
from organic rice production than the conventional        season.
system. Two research projects are currently being
conducted by the University of the Philippines Los        (d) Success stories in income generation and
Baños for organic vegetables and organic poultry.             employment

(b) Linkages to value systems                                    At the household level, a selected success story
                                                          is the one-half hectare irrigated organic rice farm
       There are existing relationships among             within which diversified economic activities gave
producers and consumers in rural areas which manifest     much higher income than the main rice crop. Net
mutual concern about their economic and social            income from its various components within the six-
welfare. Among these groups are organic rice farmers      month period of the case study gave a monthly income
whose product constitutes the bulk of the rice being      of more than 20,000 pesos, which reached the income
traded internally (within their communities). For         level of an assistant professor of a local state college in
instance, a multi-purpose cooperative of a PO             the area. Other success stories, but no income
federation in Negros Occidental purposely keep a          measurements, are given in the book, Ecological
certain stock of rice for sale to members during lean     Farming (Padilla 1999).
months when the market price of rice is high. This
may be considered a little story but it is a                     With respect to organic enterprises beyond
manifestation of social values by the rural community     household employment, a success story is the A.P.
considering that Negros is a sugarcane-growing island     Inocencio Teresa Farms which produces organic
which is traditionally food-deficient. Such values can    chicken. As mentioned previously, the farm meets all
be enhanced and magnified in organic producer-            the requirements of an organic production system
consumer partnerships.                                    except for the corn and legume grain ingredients in the
                                                          feed formulation which do not come from organic
       Separate case studies done by SAC with some        sources. The Inocencio Farm used to be a large-scale
of the Centre’s farmer-cooperators showed the             conventional poultry farm (100,000 heads) which was
evolution of social values among family members in        converted into an initially small-scale organic poultry
households that are in the process of developing their    farm. Since Inocencio is pioneering the organic

system, he was not inclined to go into rapid expansion.          organic farmers who go into product
Instead he is establishing satellite farms in different          diversification and small-scale processing of
parts of the country. This is also part of his                   organic foods.
experimental approach to determine the local
adaptability and meat quality of the Sasso breeds,           (3) The adoption of organic farming should be
some of which have been cross-bred with native                   accelerated within given communities by setting
roosters.                                                        up distinct, viable and stable organic markets.

       The success story of the Inocencio Farm relates       (4) Community support to the ecological farming
to the success of his shift from conventional into               systems of the producers of safe foods should be
organic production in spite of the fact that there has           stimulated.
been no official R and D programme as a source of
local technologies for organic poultry production. In        5. Support services
the process, Inocencio developed an attitude of greater
commitment to social and ecological values rather than       (a) Research, extension and training
purely economic, as was the case of his previous
conventional farm.                                                  Government funds for support services in
                                                             agriculture are normally earmarked for conventional
(e) Limitations, challenges, recommendations                 agriculture. Organic agriculture, which has long been
                                                             considered to be a form of subsistence or antiquated
(i) Limitations                                              agriculture, has been excluded. Meanwhile, the
                                                             organic movement has gained visibility; it received
§     Limited studies on the socio-economic potential of     national projection during the IFOAM-Asia Regional
      organic farms                                          Conference hosted by the Philippines, and held at
                                                             Tagaytay in 1999. Soon after, representatives of
§     Limited sources of experiences with respect to         organizations and associations have been lobbying
      value systems                                          more strongly for support services from the
                                                             government, particularly the Department of
§     Limited case studies on the comparative                Agriculture. There are now two projects officially
      contribution of organic products to household          funded (organic vegetable production and organic
      income                                                 poultry production) which cannot even be considered
                                                             as a “drop in the bucket”. The two projects are being
§     Success stories beyond the individual household        implemented by the University of the Philippines Los
      have been limited to the production practices of       Baños following traditional research by the university.
      members of farmers’ organizations such as
      MASIPAG; their success in operating an organic                As the civil society and private sector continue
      marketing system is still limited                      lobbying, the Department of Agriculture Secretary
                                                             created a national task force on Organic Agriculture in
(ii) Challenges                                              July, 2001. Organic producers consider this as a
                                                             government response to their call for support. Since
§     Economic benefits from different sources of            the 1980s, research and training on organic production
      income in a diversified organic farm, which            have been provided primarily by church-based
      utilizes the farmer’s most available asset (labour),   organizations, NGOs and PO federations.
      must be upscaled within rural communities
                                                             (b) Quality control system
§     The private sector in rural financing should do
      their share in the social and ecological                       As mentioned in previous sections, there are
      enhancement of the communities by pioneering           two emerging certification bodies in the country:
      alternative financial arrangements to meet the         OCCP and POGI. Meanwhile, organic producers
      capital needs of organic farmers who are               involved in export have their product system certified
      diversifying their farms                               by foreign agencies. At the moment, those that seek
                                                             certification for the international market have to
(iii) Recommendations                                        contact foreign certifiers. OCCP will have an intensive
                                                             training for organic inspectors in December 2001; it
(1) Government and rural development workers                 hopes to install its operational systems by early 2002
    should stimulate the upscaling of the practice of        and provide services later in that year. Aside from
    diversifying organic farm systems in rural               government assistance to OCCP, the Bureau of
    communities.                                             Agricultural and Fisheries Standards has constituted a
                                                             multisectoral committee to draft the National Basic
(2) Rural financial institutions should take innovative      Standards for Organic Production and Processing. In
    approaches to assist in the financial needs of           its consultative meeting on 13 September 2001, the

                                                                                        V. National Study: Philippines

committee agreed to use as working materials the           merely idealistic by those who have not been involved
OCCP certification standards and the Codex                 in the bottom-up approach to development projects. In
Alimentarius. With a National Basic Standard, the          this regard, little success stories are not wanting.
Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Standards hopes        Expanding the geographic scope of the model is a
to be able to provide accreditation services to            challenge and the Department of Agriculture has this
certifying bodies in the Philippines.                      advantage. It has regional offices that work closely
                                                           with provincial and municipal agriculturists. There are
(c) Costs of a support system                              also state colleges of agriculture and agricultural
                                                           universities which are widely distributed around the
        Aside from the guarantee system, government        country. These government agencies can take a
support is needed for R and D programmes on                renewed view of their work providing support services
production, processing, marketing, financing and           to the farming sector.
widescale education and training. The private sector
cannot put up significant amounts for these services              Barely schooled farmers have the potential to
because it is engaged in an infant industry that does      be tapped to help in the conduct of scientific
not yield high profit margins yet. Meanwhile, NGO          approaches to farming. They should not be merely
priorities are to service their PO partners. On the        regarded as empty vessels passively waiting to receive
matter of rural financing, the organic sector may look     technologies from researchers. This means that action
into the Agri-Agra and Coco Levy Funds as sources of       research for OA should not follow the conventional
financial capital.                                         model consisting of the following sequential phases:
                                                           research by researchers (2 to 4 years or more),
(d) Contribution and role of government                    followed by verification trials (2 to 3 years),
    organizations, NGOs and the private sector             adaptability trials (2 to 3 years), and transfer of
                                                           technology or extension of the so-called mature
       The government has slowly recognized the            technology to farmers or end-users.
importance of providing support services for OA.
Learning from lessons of the past, OA research should             As mentioned before, OA is holistic and
not duplicate the traditional system of research on one    knowledge-intensive. Thus, one way of preparing
track and extend services on another. Only the             farmers for OA is for them to be involved in action
research output in terms of new or improved                research (research-cum-education/extension/training).
technologies undergo validation and adaptation before      This approach has been pursued successfully by
going to the hands of extension workers who are            MASIPAG through their farmer-driven research in
responsible for the technology transfer process.           rice breeding.     MASIPAG rice breeding research
                                                           started with the selection of preferred parent materials
        Research institutions with well-equipped           by farmers, cross-breeding the materials and
facilities could focus on the basic aspect of research     continuously selecting of desired progenies through
for environmentally sound and biological methods of        successive cropping. After several years, the farmers
developing technologies for OA, for example, pest/         obtained     promising seeds with relatively stable
disease control, soil health, new high-yielding and        genetic characters; those were actually new kinds of
high-quality seeds/stocks of crops and livestock that      rice developed by the farmers.
are resistant to pests/diseases and tolerant to adverse
conditions. All other research for OA should be action            At present, farmers in MASIPAG have a total
research which may broadly be grouped into: (a)            of about 150 new cultivars (new seeds) being planted
experiments designed to respond to field problems          in various parts of the country. Farmers have created
(identified by farmers and development workers)            new cultivars locally adapted to their localities. This is
where results are immediately used by farmers and (b)      the first time in the history of Philippine agriculture
research-cum-extension/training where the field            and world agriculture that POs were able to create new
experiments/res earch studies are done together with       rice cultivars from their own selection of parent
farming communities (participatory and community-          materials. When MASIPAG started, the participatory
based).                                                    nature of rice breeding research was research itself.
                                                           There was no previous model but prudently, it started
       In the first type of action research, farmers are   with intensive training on the principles of rice
consulted in the identification of problems, constraints   breeding.
and needs; they are aware that such a study is being
done and they are eagerly waiting to apply the results/           Government support for the basic aspect of
technology in their farms. In the second type, the         research on OA consists of studies that require
farmers were involved in identifying the problems to       laboratory facilities. For field research/experiments
be researched, they understand how the problems are        however, a partnership approach among government,
worked out, they help in relevant aspects of the work,     NGOs, private sector and farmer leaders would yield
and they help in disseminating the results/technologies    more meaningful research approaches, strategies and
developed. The second type may be regarded as              methodologies than the conventional ways of

government research institutions. Other NGOs, such as              With respect to the availability of land
the Volunteer Service Overseas of the United               resources, the major sources are as follows: (a) about 3
Kingdom, have developed methodologies for                  million hectares of coconut-growing areas; (b) about 4
community-based natural resource management in             million hectares of agricultural expansion areas; and
various parts of the country through partnerships with     (c) about 5 million hectares designated as
local NGOs and POs.                                        rehabilitation areas. Although desirable, it is too
                                                           ambitious to say that all these lands should be put into
       For action research, the experiences of the         organic production.          Equipped with relevant
Department of Agriculture in its integrated pest           programmes and adequate financial investment, it is
management programme regard ing season-long                realistic to assume that at least 4 per cent of the
training in the Farmer Field Schools is something that     coconut area and at least 2 per cent each of the
will be very useful for the improvement of                 expansion and rehabilitation areas could be put under
participatory methodologies for grass -roots               integrated, diversified and productive organic farm
development projects.                                      systems every two years in a long-term programme.

       Action research with respect to rural financing            Potentially productive, diversified farming
and marketing for OA is practically nil at this time.      systems in the traditionally organic coconut areas are
Research on rural financing can provide models/            coconut-livestock and coconut-high value crops. For
mechanics of effective ways of providing this support      the expansion and rehabilitation areas, there should be
service to the organic industry. Likewise, market          a matching of the local agro-environment with the
research would provide guidelines on the kinds of          relevant diversification of organic production systems,
organic production systems that could be developed in      but anchored on crop-livestock diversification.
certain locations.                                         Organic mango production deserves top priority as
                                                           potential export venture.
C. Conclusions and recommendations
                                                                  Additional potential areas for organic
                                                           production are cultivated uplands that have remained
1. Synthesis of potential, limitations and                 unproductive owing to the adverse effects soil erosion
   challenges                                              and the natural acidity of intensely weathered red soils.
                                                           Eroded soils can only be improved on a sustainable
        Being an agricultural country, harnessing the      basis by raising soil organic matter content; the
agriculture sector is still the most practical and         exposed, infertile and compact subsoil is loosened (or
realistic way of confronting the heavy and complex         attained better soil structure) and enriched (or attained
burden of rural poverty in the Philippines. But the        better nutrient status) by increased soil organic matter.
nation needs to learn from the lessons of the past and     Similar benefits are imparted on acid, red soils but
seriously consider the guidelines from policy research     there is an added benefit of organic matter forming
to strengthen and extend currently relevant and            organo-metal-complexes.          Metal refers to the
productive programmes and to formulate new ones            predominant occurrence of iron and aluminum in red
aimed at adequate growth and founded on the equity of      soils and organo-metal complexation refers to
returns and sustainability of resources.                   inactivating the metals from adversely affecting plant
Unconventional and potentially productive systems          roots and plant growth. Diversified organic upland
should be tapped for new programmes, such as organic       areas have the potential to produce various kinds of
production systems and processing of organic               organic fancy rice because many fancy rices are
products.                                                  upland (or dryland) varieties. Those areas can also be
                                                           tapped for the production of organic corn and organic
      This chapter focused on the potential of organic     grain legumes for the formulation of organic livestock
production for rural employment and income                 feeds.
generation in the Philippines. However, it should be
emphasized that substantial gains from such                       With certification and marketing assistance,
programmes could easily be swept away by                   there is a great potential for high-value crops already
unhampered population growth. It would be like             under traditional organic production, i.e., banana and
panting to win a race and yet remaining stationary.        coffee by smallholders. The pioneering business of a
                                                           small private company with respect to the export of
(a) Potential of organic agriculture                       organic banana from smallholders indicates good
        The role of organic production and processing
for rural employment and income generation is
anchored on the availability of natural resources (land,
water, crops, livestock) that can be tapped, but
limitations have to be overcome and challenges faced.

                                                                                       V. National Study: Philippines

(b) Limitations

§   Large portions of the potential areas are not under    §   Designated strategic locations for organic coconut-
    owner-cultivator status                                    livestock and coconut-high value crops diversification
                                                               systems for domestic and foreign markets .
§   The government provides very little support
    service for organic agriculture                        §   Agrarian reform of coconut land should include
                                                               agrarian services and rural investment for the
§   There is no database on organic production and             development of a viable and competitive organic
    market demand                                              coconut industry.

§   There is no dis tinct, stable and sustained market     §   Provision of necessary support services and rural
    for organic products                                       investment.

§   There is no operational certifying body for organic    §   Proper matching of production supply and market
    production and processing; no national basic               demand in domestic and foreign markets.
    standards; no national accreditation service
                                                           §   New linkages with foreign markets.
§   There are no innovative programmes to link
    producers with sustained markets                       §   A significant portion of the coconut levy for the
                                                               development of the organic coconut industry
§   There are no counter moves to correct depressed            should be allocated.
    local prices owing to the influx of cheaper foods
    from foreign markets                                   (b) Agricultural expansion and rehabilitation areas

(c) Challenges                                             §   Allocation in strategic locations of at least 2 per
                                                               cent each of the agricultural exp ansion and
§   The traditional organic production of coconut,             rehabilitation areas for diversified integrated
    banana and coffee predominate, but currently it is         organic farm systems, for example, crop-livestock
    not competitive in the world market                        system, cereal-high value crops system, cereal-
                                                               legume integration for livestock feeds, mango-
§   Vast marginal lands remain idle despite their              livestock system.
    potential for rehabilitation into productive
    systems, such as diversified organic farm systems      §   Provision of necessary support services and rural
§   Certification and marketing initiatives by civil
    society and the private sector await greater support   (c) Support services
    from government
                                                           §   Initial allocation of at least 10 per cent of the
§   R and D, education and training on organic                 annual budget of the Department of Agriculture in
    production by NGOs and POs await support for               R and D and training for the improvement of
    upscaling                                                  organic production and at least 10 per cent of
                                                               PCARRD’s annual budget for the processing of
§   The global market growth rate of the organic               organic products that are competitive in the
    industry is bullish at 20-25 per cent a year and           international market. Subsequent allocations will
    reaching US$ 20 billion by 2001, but the                   depend on the performance of high-quality
    Philippine organic industry is not even prepared           products in the market and on the extent of
    to take a market share of 0.01 per cent.                   adoption of organic production by farmers and
2. Policy recommendations
                                                           §   Allocation of at least 10 per cent of the
(a) Organic coconut industry                                   agricultural fund (Agri-Agra Law) for the
                                                               financial assistance of the organic industry.
§   Designated strategic locations of the traditional
    organic coconut area for the development of a          §   Policy research geared towards industry growth.
    distinct organic coconut industry producing
    diversified products (organic oil and oil-based        §   Organic industry information centre to be set up.
    products, organic wine, organic coconut foods and
    beverages, and utility products from coconut fibre)
    that are competitive in the international market.

(d) Certification and accreditation                          Briones, A.M., J.D., Abunyawan, JA., Yap, V.I.,
                                                                   Tagupa, and C. P., Medina, 1997.
§     Support for the operation of certifying bodies in            “Development of the organic food industry in
      order to implement low-cost certification for small          the Philippines”, research study and project
      farmers.                                                     document commissioned by the United Nations
                                                                   Development Programme in the Philippines.
§     Support for accreditation of local certifying bodies
      by foreign accreditors.                                Department of Agriculture, 2001. SPECIAL ORDER
                                                                   No. 311 “DA Task Force on OA”.
(e) Market linkages
                                                             Gips, T., 1986. “What is sustainable agriculture?” P.,
§     Establish market linkages between the local                  Allen, and D., van Dusen, eds., Proceedings of
      organic industry and domestic or foreign markets.            the Sixth International Scientific Conference of
                                                                   the International Federation of Organic
§     Aggressive and continuous search for a market for            Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Vol. 1, pp.
      Philippine organic products in other countries.              63-74.

(f) Recommendations for regional cooperation                 Management and Organizational Development for
                                                                  Empowerment, Inc. (MODE), 1997. Survey of
(1) Production of teaching/learning modules (printed,             potential 1,500 agrarian reform beneficiary
    illustrated, audio, audio-visual) on organic                  respondents in the Philippines. MODE Inc.,
    production and processing in the major languages              Quezon City.
    of developing Asia.
                                                             Montemayor, L., 2001. “Priorities in agriculture for
(2) Conduct of regional trainers’ training and                    the next 100 days”, report to the President of
    conference/workshops on organic production,                   the Republic of the Philippines and the Cabinet
    processing, certification, inspection, product                by L. Montemayor, new Secretary of the
    development and enterprise development.                       Department of Agriculture, January.

(3) Conduct of regional research on how the organic          National Economic Development Authority, 2001.
    industry can achieve growth with equity.                       Medium-term Philippine Development Plan
(4) Regional networking to enhance synergy for
    industry growth within the region.                       Padilla, H., 1999. Ecological Farming: Principles,
                                                                    Techniques that Work and Farmer Innovators
D. References                                                       in the Philippines. (Urdaneta City, Corpuz
Agricultural Land Management and Evaluation
      Division (ALMED) 1989. “Crop development               Viado, M.F.P., 1997. Routing Sustainable Agriculture,
      and soil conservation framework”, Bureau of                  Volume I, Institute of Philippine Culture,
      Soils and Water Management, Quezon City.                     Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City.

Agricultural Land Management and Evaluation                  E. Abbreviations
      Division (ALMED) 1990. “Crop development
      and soil conservation framework for Luzon              AGTALON Agro-Technical Assistance and
      Island”, Bureau of Soils and Water                             Livelihood Opportunities in the North
      Management, Quezon City.
                                                             AVDF         Alliance of Volunteers in Development
Balisacan, A.M., 1990. “Rural poverty in the                              Foudation
       Philippines: incidence, determinants and
       policies”, Working Paper for the Project on           CITEM        Centre for International Trade
       Poverty Alleviation and Development Policy                         Expositions and Missions
       (Canbera, Australian National University,
       National Studies Centre, March).                      FAITH        Food Always in the House

Balisacan, A.M., 1994. “Economic modernization,              IFOAM        International Federation    of   Organic
       market responses and rural welfare in the                          Agriculture Movements
       Philippines”, paper presented at the Conference
       on Social Science Methods in Agricultural             LEISA        low-external-input-sustainable
       Systems Research held in Chiang Mai, Thailand                      agriculture
       on 2-4 November, 1994.

                                                                       V. National Study: Philippines

MASIPAG   Magsasaka at Siyentipiko para sa      PCARRD    Philippine Council for Agriculture,
          Ikauunlad ng Agham Pang-agrikultura             Fisheries, Forestry and Natural
          (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for               Resources Research and Development
                                                PDAP      Philippine Development         Assistance
NGOs      non-governmental organizations                  Programme

OA        organic agriculture                   POGI      Philippine Organic Guarantee, Inc.

OCCP      Organic Certification Centre of the   Pos       people’s organizations
                                                R and D   research and development
OPTA      Organic Producers and Traders
          Association                           SAC       Sustainable Agriculture Centre of
                                                          Xavier University
PAKISAMA Pambansang Kilusan ng mga Samahang
         Magsasaka (National Movement of        SIBAT     Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya
         Farmers Organizations)
                                                UNDP      United Nations Development

                                                VSO       Volunteer Service Overseas


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