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Ideologies by nyut545e2

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 43

									      Ideologies
Ideologies are not static or set
  in stone. They respond to
  political events, as much as
  they affect political events.
    History of modern ideologies
   Classical liberalism rose in the
    Enlightenment. Important thinkers:
       John Locke
       Adam Smith
       de Montesquieu
       Rousseau
       The framers of the Declaration of
        Independence
       and, later, John Stuart Mill
   The U.S. is a classical liberal democracy.
         Ideologies, continued
   Conservative thought arose in response to
    the excesses of the French Revolution of
    1789. Important thinker: Edmund Burke.



   In the U.S., conservative thought also
    blended with classical liberalism.
         Ideologies, continued
   In the 19th century, socialism, communism
    and anarchism were responses to the
    economic distresses brought by industrial
    capitalism.
         Ideologies, continued
   Fascism and its most extreme form,
    Nazism, developed in the early 20th
    century as a reaction against the
    perceived failings of liberalism,
    conservatism, socialism and communism.
           Ideologies, continued

   New ideologies emerge in response to
    new needs. Developing out of (and in
    reaction to) liberalism in late 20th century
    were:
       Environmentalism
       Postmodernism
       Feminism
Classical liberalism – key ideas
   Human beings are rational and equal
   Small & limited government is best
   Government rules with the consent of the
    governed
   Individual rights important:
       tolerance of dissent & freedom of conscience
       free marketplace (economic inequality)
       ideal of political equality & democratic process
    Why is the U.S. considered a
    classical liberal government?




Key classical liberal
ideas appear in the
founding documents,
particularly the Declaration of
  Independence.
     Liberalism in the Declaration of
              Independence
   All human beings are created equal. Ideal of political and legal
    equality.

   They are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,
    among them life, liberty & the pursuit of happiness.

   Governments are instituted to protect those rights.

   Government derives its powers from the consent of the governed.
    Political authority is in the people, acting through representatives.

   When a government becomes destructive of those rights the people
    have a right to alter or abolish it. “When a long train of abuses and
    usurpations... evinces a design to reduce them under absolute
    despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
    government, and to provide new guards for their future security.”
           Absolute despotism
         once had to be accepted
   Before classical liberalism, the dominant
    idea was that God created political society,
    not people.
   Monarchs ruled through divine right.
   If people suffered under a bad king, it was
    God’s will. Disobeying a bad king was a
    sin; killing a bad king was regicide.
   Therefore, people had a duty to accept
    and obey (view of Robert Filmer).
                John Locke
     View of the state of nature (pre-civil
     society)
1.   Human beings are rational, free & equal.
     They are capable of running their own
     lives.
2.   They have rights to life, health, liberty
     and possessions that no one should
     harm.
3.   Yet there are no mechanisms (no police,
     no courts, etc.) to ensure that the strong
     do not prey upon the weak.
        John Locke, continued
   To secure their rights, therefore, people
    give up some freedom and form
    government. The government’s purpose
    is to protect rights. It is a type of
    contract.
   The people retain their sovereignty, and
    the government is just a mechanism to
    help them. The individual is superior to
    the government.
        John Locke, continued

   If government fails to protect those rights
    and becomes tyrannical, then the contract
    is null and void. The government loses its
    legitimacy, and people are free to make a
    new government. [The Second Treatise on
    Government]
   Called a “right of revolution.”
           Adam Smith
His famous work, The Wealth of Nations,
provides the theoretical basis for
capitalism. What makes him liberal?
        Adam Smith, continued
   The emphasis on rationality, the ability of
    individuals to make decisions to advance
    their own self-interest. The idea that
    government should leave people alone to
    make their own economic choices.
   In fact, individual selfish choices would
    serve the common good through the
    invisible hand of the market.
      Locke & Smith on Equality
   Their view was that people in the state of
    nature are equal in their rights, but not in
    their talents or their wealth.
   Economic inequality is not necessarily
    unfair, since it is based on people’s free
    choices.
   Freedom to make choices is a higher value
    than equality.
         Evolution of liberalism
   The result was laissez faire capitalism.
    Terrible economic & social conditions for
    workers, including children. Government
    powerless to act.
   Led to rethinking liberalism. A good
    society might need more than right
    procedures. It also needed certain
    outcomes.
          Evolution, continued
   The philosophy of Utilitarianism emerged.
    Governments should pursue policies that
    create the greatest good (or utility) for the
    greatest number of people.
   This utility calculation would provide a
    rational guideline for government policy.
         Further developments
   After utilitarianism liberalism developed
    into Social Justice or Modern Liberalism.
   Modern liberalism is not fearful of
    government power. Instead, government
    power can be a force for good, limiting the
    worst conditions of poverty, illiteracy,
    racism, exploitation, etc. (interventionist)
   The basis of progressive or liberal politics
    in the U.S. (seek expansive liberties)
    A different view of freedom
   Government responsible for creating the
    conditions for freedom.
   This view implies an active and interventionist
    government.
                Comparison
   Modern liberals believe that state
    intervention can promote and enhance
    individual freedom.
   Modern liberals are not as willing to accept
    economic inequality.
   Modern liberals promote the welfare of
    society.
   What is the basic difference between
    classical liberalism and modern
    liberalism?
         Comparison continued…
   What is the basic difference between
    classical liberalism and modern
    liberalism?
       Over the role and size of government.
        Classical liberals favor small and limited
        government.
    Evolution to modern liberalism
 Key thinker:
J.S. Mill
(1806-1873)

He worked also with
his wife &
intellectual partner
Harriet Taylor Mill
(1807-1858)
     John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
   English political theorist
   Wrote this book in 1859
   Also wrote a book in favor of women’s
    rights
   He is considered a bridge between
    classical liberalism and modern liberalism
                 John Stuart Mill
   Why is he considered liberal?
       Humans are rational, and should be free to
        make choices.
          States should stay out of ethical decisions.
          Governments should restrict personal action only
           when it harms, or has the potential to harm
           others.
          Diversity of ideas is encouraged.
                 On Liberty
   Mill argues that diversity in ideas and in
    conduct is a good thing, one that society
    ought to encourage, not discourage.
   He especially defends freedom of thought
    and discussion. "We can never be sure
    that the opinion we are endeavoring to
    stifle is a false opinion, and if we were
    sure, stifling it would be an evil still."
The value of freedom of thought
   The opinion may be true. We are not
    infallible.
   The opinion may be partly true, and the
    truth can only emerge after free and full
    debate.
   The opinion may be false, but debate is
    still valuable because it keeps our views
    from becoming dead dogma or rigid
    biases.
                 On Liberty

   Throughout this book, Mill exhibits a deep
    concern with tyranny, both political and
    social. What is social tyranny?
                 On Liberty
   “The tyranny of the prevailing opinion and
    feeling, ... the tendency of society to
    impose... its own ideas and practices as
    rules of conduct on those who dissent
    from them, ... to prevent the formation of
    any individuality not in harmony with its
    ways.”
     Social tyranny & conformity
   The individual has a sovereign right over
    his or her self, body and mind, a right to
    be free of societal interference in our lives.
   Does that mean that society can NEVER
    interfere in our choices?
   If not, when can it? What is the guiding
    principle?
            From “On Liberty”
   “The sole end for which mankind are
    warranted, individually or collectively... in
    interfering with the liberty of action of any
    of their number, is self-protection."
            From “On Liberty”
   Society can interfere, but for one reason
    only: to stop harm to others. Society may
    protect itself and other individuals.
   But society may NOT interfere in order to
    protect us from our own bad choices.
   So, does a behavior affect others? Or only
    ourselves?
       Can society interfere?
1. A 75-year old man who is slowly and
  painfully dying of cancer decides to end
  his life.
 2. An NMSU student reads Mein Kampf
  and thinks that Adolph Hitler had some
  great ideas.
 3. Two adult gay men decide to set up a
  home together.
         Can society interfere?
   1. A 75-year old man who is slowly and
    painfully dying of cancer decides to end
    his life.     NO
   2. An NMSU student reads Mein Kampf
    and thinks that Adolph Hitler had some
    great ideas. NO
   3. Two adult gay men decide to set up a
    home together.       NO
         Can society interfere?
   4. That NMSU student who likes Hitler’s
    ideas organizes an anti-Semitic rally
    outside the home a local rabbi at 2 a.m.



   Can society interfere, according to Mill?
          Can society interfere?
   YES

 Why?
A. In conduct, the individual “must not make
  himself a nuisance to other people.”
B. This conduct might lead to an act of violence.
  Mill gave the example of publishing the view
  that corn dealers starve the poor, which is a
  protected activity, versus a speech before an
  excited mob outside the home of a corn dealer,
  which is not.
         Can society interfere?
   5. A 14-year-old decides to drop out of
    school in order to get a job.

   Can society interfere? Why or why not?
         Can society interfere?
   5. A 14-year old decides to drop out of
    school in order to get a job. YES

    Why? People who are under the legal age
    of adulthood are excluded; society may
    regulate them for their own good.
         Can society interfere?
   6. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte
    without life jackets.
   7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte
    without life jackets and they are drinking
    heavily.
   8. The two men are now on shore,
    somewhat
    sober. One man, who can’t swim, slips
    into the water and drowns. The other
    man just stands and watches.
         Can society interfere?
   6. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte
    without life jackets. NO
   7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte
    without life jackets and they are drinking
    heavily. YES. WHY?
   8. The two men are now on shore,
    somewhat
    sober. One man, who can’t swim, slips
    into the water and drowns. The other
    man just stands and watches. YES.
    WHY?
         Can society interfere?
7. Two men are boating on Elephant Butte without
  life jackets and they are drinking heavily.
  THEY POSE A RISK TO OTHERS

   8. The two men are now on shore, somewhat
    sober. One man, who can’t swim, slips into the
    water and drowns. The other man just stands
    and watches.
    WE ARE ACCOUNTABLE FOR OUR FAILURE TO
    ACT TO STOP HARM.
        Mill and Foreign Policy
   Would Mill have agreed with U.S. military
    intervention to throw out a dictator and
    help establish a democracy?
      Mill and Foreign Policy
“I am not aware that any community has a
  right to force another to be civilized. So
  long as the sufferers by the bad law do
  not invoke assistance from other
  communities, I cannot
   admit that persons entirely unconnected
  with them ought to step in...”
So probably NO [depends on the meaning
  of “invoke assistance.”]

								
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