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Marketing Promotion Live Performance by ufz68049

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									Upstream Social Marketing
Policies and Laws     Social Gradients                        Income
         Living Conditions Transportation                    Culture
Discrimination     Social Capital                          Education
 Social Networks
                          Social Support
     Violence




  Individual and Community Health
     ASU Wellness and Health Promotion
                            May 13, 2008
    Karen Moses, MS, RD, CHES and Jim Grizzell, MBA, MA, CHES, HFI
            Learning Objectives
• Explain importance of moving upstream
  – Social determinants of health
     – Policy makers, decision makers, implementers,
       regulators, funders, police, other influencers

• Describe upstream social marketing
  approaches
• Apply upstream social marketing to ASU
  health problems
          Why Move Upstream
• It is unfair to expect individuals to use healthy
  behaviors
  – Even if motivated because barriers make it difficult
• Social environment in which we live has a
  marked impact on our choices
• Our behavior is only partially under our own
  control
 Why Use Upstream Social Marketing
• A social determinant may seem
  – Too big to tackle
  – Out of bounds because it is not specifically health-
    related
• Can’t understand many health problems
  without acknowledging predisposing causal
  factors
 Why Use Upstream Social Marketing

• Social marketing is appropriate
  – whenever you have a behavior to influence
  – for motivating a bureaucrat to implement
    new or existing laws or regulations that
    would contribute to increase social welfare
                                   Benchmarks
• Customer                   • Audience
  orientation                  segmentation and
• Behavior                     targeting
• Theory                     • Marketing mix
• Insight
• Exchanges
• Competition                  – Continuous and strategic
                                 formative & process
  Green text are common
  tasks left out of social       research, monitoring
  marketing programs.            and evaluating
              Alan Andreasen’s Approach
• Process            • Concepts and tools
  – Listening          – Stages of change
  – Planning           – BCOS
  – Pretesting            • Benefits, Costs,
                            Others, Self-
  – Implementing            assurance
  – Monitoring         – Competition
  – Revising
                     • Others concepts
                       – Segmentation, 4Ps,
                         Branding
     CDCynergy Social Marketing Edition
• CDCynergy's Competitive             • Phases
  Advantage                             1.   Problem description
   – Extremely pre/post tested
   – Distills comprehensive best
                                        2.   Market research
     practices                          3.   Market strategy
   – Vetted by major players in         4.   Interventions
     social marketing
                                        5.   Evaluation
   – Over 700 resources
   – CDC originated                     6.   Implementation
   – Use CDCynergy for funding
     requests
       • Looked on very favorably!!
   – Recognized nationally and                  Green text are common
     internationally                            tasks left out of social
                                                marketing programs.
Logic Model
   Phase 1: Problem Description
1. Write a problem statement
2. List and map the causes of the health
   problem
3. Identify potential audiences*
4. Identify the models of behavior change and
   best practices*
5. Form your strategy team
6. Conduct a SWOT analysis
    * These are Logic Model items
        Phase 2: Market Research
1.   Define your research questions
2.   Develop a market research plan
3.   Conduct and analyze market research
4.   Summarize research results
       Phase 3: Market Strategy
1. Select your target audience segments*
2. Define current and desired behaviors for
   each audience segment*
3. Describe the benefits you will offer*
4. Write your behavior change goal(s)*
5. Select the intervention(s) you will develop for
   your program
6. Write the goal for each intervention
          Phase 4: Interventions
1. Select members and assign roles for your planning team
2. Write specific, measurable objectives for each
   intervention activity*
3. Write a program plan, including timeline and budget,
   for each intervention
4. Pretest, pilot test, and revise as needed
5. Summarize your program plan and review the factors
   that can affect it
6. Confirm plans with stakeholders
          Phase 5: Evaluation
1. Identify program elements to monitor
2. Select the key evaluation questions
3. Determine how the information will be
   gathered
4. Develop a data analysis and reporting plan
       Phase 6: Implementation
1. Prepare for launch
2. Execute and manage intervention
   components
3. Execute and manage the monitoring and
   evaluation plans
4. Modify intervention activities, as feedback
   indicates
           Learning Objectives
• Explain importance of moving upstream
  – Social determinants of health
     – Policy makers, decision makers, implementers,
       regulators, funders, other influencers

• Describe upstream social marketing
  approaches
• Apply upstream social marketing to ASU
  health problems
Extra Slides
Resources
Resources
                                   Processes of Change
                                                 Positive outcomes and ROI
                                            Reduced utilization
                                      Reinforcement Management: Finding
                                      intrinsic and extrinsic rewards for new ways
                                      of working;
                            Environmental Reevaluation:
                            Appreciating that the change will have a
                            positive impact on the social and work environment;
                  Self-Liberation: Believing that a change can succeed
                  and making a firm commitment to the change
           Self-Reevaluation: Appreciating that the change is important to
           one’s identity, happiness, and success
     Dramatic Relief: Emotional arousal, such as fear about failures to
     change and inspiration for successful change
Consciousness Raising: Becoming more aware of a problem and potential
solutions
                                Moving to a Health Agenda                       20
            Customer Orientation
• Customer in the round’ Develops a robust understanding of
  the audience, based on good market and consumer research,
  combining data from different sources
   – A broad and robust understanding of the customer is
     developed, which focuses on understanding their lives in the
     round, avoiding potential to only focus on a single aspect or
     features
   – Formative consumer / market research used to identify
     audience characteristics and needs, incorporating key
     stakeholder understanding
   – Range of different research analysis, combining data (using
     synthesis and fusion approaches) and where possible drawing
     from public and commercial sector sources, to inform
     understanding of people’s everyday lives
                        Insight
• Based on developing a deeper ‘insight’ approach –
  focusing on what ‘moves and motivates’
   – Focus is clearly on gaining a deep understanding and
     insight into what moves and motivates the customer
   – Drills down from a wider understanding of the customer to
     focus on identifying key factors and issues relevant to
     positively influencing particular behaviour
   – Approach based on identifying and developing ‘actionable
     insights’ using considered judgement, rather than just
     generating data and intelligence
          Health in Higher Education
• Health in higher education supports 18 million
  students in 4,200 IHEs
• Many college and university professionals work in
  higher education to promote health
   – 250 professionally prepared ACHA HEs - 1:72,000*
   – 19,000 faculty and staff – 1:947
• Health problems
   – Campus wide
   – Specific to college or major
• Influences quality and productivity

    * See notes section
                                                        23
        Traditional Health Programs
• Use the Medical Model
   – Health services has primary responsibility
   – Staff trained in clinical practice
• Health care agenda focus is on the physical
   – Healing sickness/injury
   – Wellness for physical health
• Methods focus on the individual
   – Awareness activities, written information, didactic
     presentations


                                                           24
         The Traditional Approach
• Limits our understanding of health
  – Physical health is what counts most
  – Ignores role of environment/community on health
  – Lacks prevention focus
• Financially costly and ineffective
  – Lacks cost-effectiveness, positive ROI, reach, impact
• Removes responsibility for health outcomes
  by non-health entities
  – Gives medical systems a lot of power
                                                            25
       Traditional Health Programs
• Based on tradition, convention, belief,
  anecdotal evidence
• Pressure to be seen as acting
• Desire to help
• Poorly developed skills and understanding of
  population behaviour change
• Short term policy planning, budgeting and
  review
                                                 26
     Evolution of College Wellness & Health

 1850s                      1970s                1980s                 ~1995         2010


1st Generation                                              2nd Generation     3rd Generation



                                                                                        Healthy
                                                                                        Campus
                                                                                       Objectives




Instruction, Treatment, Exercise                Health Education/Promotion       EB/CE-HP*


       * Evidence-based / Cost Effective Health Promotion

                                                                                            27
Evolution of College Wellness & Health
                  Traditional                     Traditional               Evidence-
Name of          Medical Model                    Medical and             Based & Cost-
                  and Health                        Health               Effective Health
 Model            Education                       Promotion                 Promotion



             Fun activity focus              Mostly health focus      Focus on student
             No risk reduction               Some risk reduction      learning
             No high risk focus              Little risk reduction    Strong risk reduction
             Not HCM* oriented               Limited HCM oriented     Strong high risk focus
                                                                      Some required activity
 Main        All voluntary                   All voluntary
                                                                      Site and virtual
             Site-based only                 Site-based only
Features     No personalization              Weak personalization
                                                                      Environmental changes
                                                                      Strongly personal
             Minimal incentives              Modest incentives
                                                                      Major incentives
             No sig. others served           Few sig. others served   Sig. others served
             No assessment/eval              Weak assess/eval         Rigorous assess/eval




 Primary        Morale Oriented                 Activity Oriented       Results / Outcome
 Focus                                                                      Oriented


                               Moving to a Health Agenda                                       28
   * Health Cost Management
              Social Marketing
            Commercial vs. Social
• Marketing is about behavior change
  – The bottom line
  – ROI and CEA
• If your intervention won’t change behavior
  – Don’t do it!!!!
• Theory
  – Distillation of previous work
  – Simplify complex phenomena
Some Questions to Guide Theory Selection

• Where are people in relation to a particular
  behavior?
• What factors cause this position?
• How can they be moved in the desired
  direction?
    Keys to Effective Use of the Ecological
                  Perspective
• Expand the focus beyond
  health information and
  programming
• Integrate responsibility for
  health across student affairs
  and academic units
• Provide supportive
  environments and reduce
  barriers to optimal outcomes
• Promote leadership and
  involvement by multiple
  partners                                    32
         Intervention Pyramid
Low                                                     High


                        Specialty
       Reach              Care                   Cost
                     Primary Care
                   Activities no feedback
                     Health Systems
               Activities w/ Health Education
                     Community &
               Neighborhood Collaboration
              Health Communication, Social
           Ecological Model & Social Marketing
                        Policies
High                                                    Low
                                                               33
                                                                             Business Case
                 Levels of Interventions & Wellness Program ROIs
         Program Levels              Quality of                              Health &
                                                             Traditional
Intervention Levels                    Life                                Productivity

I. Awareness
 Information, no feedback
                                       <1:1
IIa. Behavior Change
 Health education w follow-up
                                                                3:1
IIb. Behavior Change
                                                                            6:1 to
  Targeted priority health
 issues with Social Marketing
                                                                            >15:1
III. Supportive
    Environment                                               >15:1
 Ecological Approach, Policies
                                 Moving to a Health Agenda                              34
                   Continuum of Services
For students at highest risk
    of engaging in high                                     For students at risk of
behaviors or already having                                   engaging in high
     a health problem                                       behaviors or already
                                    Intensive                 having the health
                                                                   problem
     For all
   students,
 regardless of
risk to delay or               Early Intervention
prevent health
   problems



                           Universal Prevention


From Dept of Education Safe Schools / Healthy Students Grant Guidelines               35
     Health in Higher Education
Karen S. Moses, MS, RD, CHES*
Director, Wellness and Health Promotion
Arizona State University

Chair, NASPA Health in Higher Education Knowledge Community
Member at Large, ACHA Board of Directors
Deputy Coordinator, Coalition of National Health Education Organizations




* Certified Health Education Specialist




                                                                           36
        The Ecological Perspective
The science and art of helping people change their
lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal
health….Lifestyle change can be facilitated through
a combination of efforts to enhance awareness,
change behavior, and create environments that
support good health practices. Of the three,
supportive environments will probably have the
greatest impact in producing lasting changes.
         •   M. P. O’Donnell, American Journal of Health Promotion (1986)


                                                                       37
   A New Paradigm: The Ecological Approach to
                Campus Health
• Views the connections
  among health, learning,
  and the campus
  structure

• Explores relationships
  between and among
  individuals and the
  learning communities
  that comprise the
  campus environment
                                            38
    Using the Ecological Perspective on Campus

•   Establish a Working Group
•   Identify Campus Values
•   Assess Student Health Data
•   Analyze Campus Health Concerns Through
    an Ecological Lens
       • Environmental influences
       • Individual influences
• Develop a Plan

                                                 39
               Influencing Factors
Characteristics of the:
                          Individual


    Community
                                          Place




          Organization
                                 People

                                              40
       Environmental Influences
            Place                        People
                             Behavior settings: Rituals,
The location of the campus   student organizations
                             Cultural Influences: Customs,
The weather
                             traditions, values
The constructed designs      Economic Forces: Student
Landscapes                   financial stability, budget
                             Inhabitants: Diversity, Athletics,
                             Greek, campus communities, etc.
        Organization                  Community
                             Political Climate
Organizational Structure     Conservative/liberal
Policies                     Pro education?
Organizational Climate       Reinforcement and Rewards
                             For healthy org & indiv behaviors

                                                                  41
              Stress:
      Environmental Influences
         Place                       People
    Warm climate                Financial concerns
   Lack of parking            ISO – global troubles
     High traffic            Relationships w/friends
Campus size—distances      Lack of friends/commuters
 Crowding—long lines          Irresponsible drinkers
                               Uninvolved students
      Institution                  Community
  Services--lack of info      State budget crisis
   Depts disconnected       Increase in tuition/fees
    Too many steps             Rewards for over
Weak policy enforcement          commitment
 Inconsistent messages         Culture of stress

                                                       42
Social Marketing’s Fit
   Intervention Pyramid



                   Specialty
                     Care
                Primary Care
              Activities no f eedback
               Health Systems
          Activities w/ Health Education
              Community &
        Neighborhood Collaboration

          Health Communication,
    Ecological / Environmental Approach
                    Policies




      Social Marketing in Health Promotion   43
              Historical Snapshot: Think Health Agenda & Business Case
            Corporate & College Health & Wellness
1st Generation       2nd Generation       3rd Generation       4th Generation




  Recreation            Fitness      Health Education > Promotion HPM*

 1850s                  1970s               1980s                ~1995                2010
1st Generation                                         2nd Generation           3rd Generation




Instruction, Treatment, Exercise            Health Education > Promotion              HAPM*

       * Health & Productivity Management, Health & Academic Performance Management

                                   Moving to a Health Agenda                              44

								
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