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Effect of Mycostop on tomato

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					Helping the plants to overcome
    environmental stresses

 • For production of open field vegetables and fruits
 • Improves the crop performance under conditions
 of heat, cold, salinity and drought
 • Increases the amount of phytomass, seed and
 fruit yield
 • Widely tested on different crops under
 commercial cultivations
 • Natural and environmentally safe product


                                            GREENSTIM
                     Mode of action


• Based on glycinebetaine which occurs naturally in many
  organisms

• Accumulates naturally in certain plants (e.g. sugarbeet,
  spinach) in response to cold, drought and salinity

• Penetrates through the plant surface and translocates
  throughout the plant within 24-hours

• Protects the plant cells against negative effects of
  environmental stresses
                                                   GREENSTIM
            Structure of the betaine molecule

                                           Osmolyte
                               H
                             H C H
                                                          -
                                                      O
3 methyl          H                +   H
groups        H C              N       C       C
                  H                    H
                                                      O
                             H C H
                               H
   Molecular weight 117,15
                                                   GREENSTIM
             Greenstim production
           Sugar beet                    Process steps:
                                         • Water extraction
                                         • Juice purification
           Beet sugar
            factory                      • Concentration
                                         • Crystallization
                           Molasses
 Sugar        Pulp       betaine 3-6 %
                                          Process steps:
                                          • Filtration
                          Separation      • Chromatographic
                                          separation
                                          • Concentration
Sugar    Sep. molasses   Greenstim        • Crystallization
                                                         GREENSTIM
         Greenstim as an osmoprotectant


• Greenstim acts as an osmoprotectant in the plant cell

• Facilitates water uptake and retention

• Stabilizes enzymes and protects membranes

• Enhances photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and
  translocation during environmental stresses


                                                 GREENSTIM
       Effect of Greenstim in the plant cell I

• Less inhibitory to enzyme activity than equivalent
  concentrations of inorganic ions

• Protects root membranes against heat destabilization

• Protects thylakoids against freezing stress

• Protects against NaCl/KCl inhibition and heat
  denaturation of several plant enzymes


                                                  GREENSTIM
      Effect of Greenstim in the plant cell II

• Protects enzymes against inactivation in dilute solution

• Protects proteins against the unfavorable consequences
  of dehydration

• Protects the oxygen-evolving PSII against the inhibitory
  effects of NaCl by preventing salt-induced dissocation of
  proteins

• Increases the threshold temperature for inhibition of
  PSII-mediated electron transport of chloroplasts

                                                  GREENSTIM
                      Hyperosmotic stress and
                   no compensatory mechanisms


                                        Increased
Water                                  electrolyte
flows                                 concentration
out of                                  in the cell
the cell
              Lower
                                      Depressed                   Water no
            electrolyte                                Cell       longer
                                      metabolism
           concentration   Water                      shrinks     flows
                           flows                                  out of
                           out of                                 the cell
                           the cell




     Electrolyte

                                                                GREENSTIM
                Hyperosmotic stress and
              compensation with K+-uptake


                         K+
                                 water
           Water                           Increased
          balance                         electrolyte
         maintained                      concentration
                                           in the cell


   Cell         High                     Depressed
 volume        energy   K+        K+     metabolism
maintained      cost




                                                GREENSTIM
            Hyperosmotic stress and
         compensation with glycinebetaine
                                       H
                                      HCH
                                                   Glycinebetaine
                                                       O
                                  H
                                 HC    N   +
                                               H
                                               C   C
                                                           -
                                  H            H
       Water                          HCH
                                                       O
                                       H
      balance                                              Stable
     maintained                                         electrolyte
                                                       concentration
                      K+                                 in the cell
                            K+
   Cell      Lower
 volume      energy                                          Stable
maintained    cost                                         metabolism




                       Glycinebetaine


                                                                   GREENSTIM
       Greenstim as an osmoprotectant
Osmotic stress
                                   Water
                                             Greenstim
no Greenstim


                    Water

          Increased salt
          levels                        Salts
        Turgor pressure negative   Turgor pressure positive
       Metabolic rate reduced      Metabolic rate normal




                                                      GREENSTIM
                       Betaine - methyl donor

                          Cysteine

Important functions:

• DNA/RNA synthesis
• secondary metabolites
                                                   Betaine
       Me-transferases
                             Homocysteine
                       CH3
      Methyl group

                                *SAM        methionine
                                             ATP    Protein synthesis
*S-adenosyl methionine
                                                           GREENSTIM
          Abiotic environmental stresses

• Abiotic environmental stresses are important factors
  limiting crop productivity

  1. Lack of water and salinity

      • Affect around 40 % of the most productive areas
      • Mediterranean basin, California, Southern Asia, Australia
      • Plants are sensitive to Na, Cl, So2

   2. Low temperatures
   3. High temperatures

                                                               GREENSTIM
                  Water deficit stress

• Water deficit stress disturbs many plant growth
  processes:

  – Cell enlargement and       reduces growth of leaves, stem
    cell wall synthesis        and reproductive structures


  – Protein synthesis          reduces enzyme activity


  – Stomatal opening           reduces photosynthesis


  – Photosynthesis             reduces growth


                                                    GREENSTIM
Relationship between photosynthesis in leaf
        water potential (trendsetting)
                                          70                                                                          35
Photosynthesis rate (mg CO2 fixed dm -2




                                                                                                                           Translocation rate (% C removed from
                                                                                                                      30
                                          60
                                                                                                Translocation




                                                                                                                                      treated area h -1
                                                                                                                      25
                  h-1




                                          50               Photosynthesis
                                                                                                                      20


                                          40
                                                                                                                      15



                                          30                                                                          10
                                               -15   -17         -19          -21         -23          -25      -27
                                                                  Leaf water potential (bars)

                                                                  Photosynthesis      Translocation
                                                                                                                                 GREENSTIM
Greenstim improves the fruit retention under
         environmental stresses

            DROUGHT, SALINITY, HEAT, FROST



   GREENSTIM                       NO GREENSTIM
         STRONG   SUGAR SUPPLY   WEAK




                                             GREENSTIM
             Storage and package size


• Storage in room temperature and protected from
  humidity

• In an unopened package the self life of the product is 2
  years

• Package sizes 2 kg, 25 kg and big bag (600-800 kg)



                                                  GREENSTIM

				
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posted:4/11/2011
language:English
pages:17