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									        Thursday, 20 November 2003, 11h00-13h00

                     Parrallel session

Identifying solutions – Lessons from case studies: Transport
Programme

Introduction: Energy efficiency characteristics of passenger transport modes
Roger Behrens, University of Cape Town

Low cost bicycle supply and promotion strategies in South African cities
Andrew Wheeldon, Bicycle Empowerment Network

Non-motorised transportation network planning and prioritisation initiatives in Cape Town
Kevin Garrod, City of Cape Town

The experience and transferability prospects of Latin American bus rapid transit systems
Maddie Mazaza, City of Cape Town

Alternative transport technologies: Current trends and potential in South Africa
Marianne Vanderschuren, University of Cape Town

Discussion
Resource person: Dioncio Rosas, Mexico City
UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN
Faculty of Engineering & the Built Environment

City Energy Strategies Conference
Parrellel session: Transport




     Introduction: energy efficiency
  characteristics of passenger transport
                  modes


                                   Roger Behrens

                       20th November 2003, Cape Town
                                          Energy consumption by passenger travel mode in
                                          Asian cities
to construct guideways, manufacture vehicles and operate the
kilowatts per hour per seat kilometre (including energy needd




                                                                0.35
                                                                                                                                           0.29
                                                                0.30

                                                                0.25

                                                                0.20
                                                                                                                            0.15
                            system)




                                                                0.15                                         0.12
                                                                                               0.09
                                                                0.10
                                                                                  0.06
                                                                        0.04
                                                                0.05

                                                                0.00
                                                                       walking   bicycle   bus (busway)   bus (mixed   passenger train   motor car
                                                                                                            traffic)

                              Data source: Zegras and Birk (1994)
                                       Energy consumption by passenger travel mode in
                                       European cities

                                     3,500
                                                                                                                                2,900
                                     3,000
kilojoules per passenger kilometre




                                     2,500
                                                                                                               2,100
                                     2,000

                                     1,500
                                                                                                        900
                                     1,000
                                                                                          550
                                      500                            260
                                                   27
                                        0
                                                 bicycle           walking           train (electric)   bus   motor car   motor car (petrol)
                                                                                                               (diesel)

                                     Data source: Zeus, European Commission (2000)
                                             Energy consumption by passenger travel mode


                                           2,500
British thermal units per passenger mile




                                                                                                                                          2,083
                                           2,000


                                           1,500                                                                              1,321
                                                                                                                    1,042
                                                                                              867        925
                                           1,000
                                                                                    625
                                            500                     300
                                                       200

                                              0
                                                     bicycle      walking      motor car   passenger subway train motor car   bus (40   motorcycle
                                                                                 (high      train (10  (10 cars)              seater)
                                                                               economy)       cars)

                                           Data source: Howes and Fainberg (1991)
                                   Energy consumption by passenger travel mode in
                                   the United Kingdom

                                 3.5                                                                                              3.21
                                                                                                                        3.13
                                                                                                              2.96
                                 3.0
mega-joules per passenger mile




                                 2.5

                                 2.0

                                                                                            1.31    1.40
                                 1.5
                                                                                  1.15
                                 1.0                                      0.83
                                                               0.70
                                 0.5               0.25
                                        0.10
                                 0.0
                                       bicycle              passenger            minibus-            bus             motorcycle
                                                               train               taxi            (single-
                                                             (electric)                            decker)

                                 Data source: Hughes 1990
                                        Energy consumption by passenger travel mode in
                                        London

                                      4.0                                                                                    3.73

                                      3.5
mega-joules per passenger kilometre




                                                                                                           3.15
                                      3.0
                                                                                            2.50
                                      2.5

                                      2.0

                                      1.5
                                                                      0.84        0.90
                                      1.0

                                      0.5         0.32

                                      0.0
                                             underground        passenger train   bus    motorcycle   motor car (outer motor car (inner
                                            passenger train                                                city)            city)

                                      Data source: Tolley and Turton (1995)
                                       Summary of energy use data (converted to
                                       kilojoules per passenger kilometre)


                                     3,500
kilojoules per passenger kilometre




                                     3,000

                                     2,500

                                     2,000

                                     1,500

                                     1,000

                                      500

                                        0
                                             bicycle   walking   passenger     bus      minibus-      bus      motor car motorcycle motor car
                                                                    train    (double-     taxi      (single-    (diesel)             (petrol)
                                                                  (electric) decker)                decker)

                                 Zegras and Birk (1994)   Zeus (2000)   Howes and Fainberg (1991)     Hughes (1990)   Tolley and Turton (1995)
                                      Energy comsumption and total cost by travel mode
                                      in Asian cities

                                    120
total cost/seat kilometre (cents)




                                    100

                                    80

                                    60

                                    40

                                    20

                                      0
                                          0               200               400               600                   800              1,000     1,200
                                                    energy consumption/seat kilometre, including energy needed to construct guideways,
                                                                manufacture vehicle and operation the system (kilojoules)

                                                          walking     cycling     motor car   bus (mixed traffic)     bus (busway)     train

                                    Data source: Zegras and Birk (1994)
      Fuel consumption and emissions by travel mode in
      Indian cities

3

2

2

1

1

0
           bicycle               walking     bus 80 seater       bus 40 seater    minibus taxi 15      motor car
                                               (diesel)            (diesel)           seater

                hydrocarbons (grams/passenger km)                carbon monoxide (grams/passenger km)
                nitrogen oxides (grams/passenger km)             particulate matter (grams/passenger km)
                fuel consumption per passenger (litres/100 km)

    Data source: Fulton (2003)
Summary of conclusions



•   contextual differences and differing definitions and methods of measurement result in
    inconsistencies across energy efficiency findings

•   nevertheless the weight of evidence indicates that non-motorised modes are the most
    energy efficient, most affordable and least polluting passenger travel modes – followed
    by electric rail and diesel bus public transport modes

•   the weight of evidence further indicates that the low occupancy motor car is the least
    energy efficient, most unaffordable and most polluting of passenger travel modes

•   consequently any strategy to improve a city’s energy efficiency would need to both
    promote the use of non-motorised and public transport modes, and, because private
    transport will remain an important even if reduced travel mode, promote the
    introduction of more efficient and cleaner technologies, operations and fuels

								
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