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                                                       Land of the Rising Sun

4/11/2011   JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki                 1
   Introduction                               Infrastructure
   National Anthem                            Utilities & Public Safety
   Country Profile                            Time Zones, Time Perceptions,
   Demographics & Geography                    Political System
   Background & History                       Economy
   Culture, Society, &Art                     Japanese Cultural Exports
   Language & Dialects                        Industrialization & Resources
   Religious Practices                        Business Protocols
   Tourism                                    Etiquette
   Food & Beverage                            Housing
   Legal System, Reporting                    Conclusion
    Requirements, & Regulations                Summary
   Technology                                 Work Cited
   Technology Differences

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                      JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   For a country that lived in self-imposed isolation until 150 years ago, Japan has
    not hesitated in making up for lost time. Anyone who's eaten sushi, or used a
    Sony Playstation feels they know something about this slinky archipelago of some
    6800 volcanic islands and yet, from the moment of arrival in Japan, it's almost as
    if you've touched down on another planet.

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                          JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
National Anthem

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            JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Country Profile
    Language: Japanese                                Climate: varies from tropical in
    Government: Parliamentary with                     south to cool temperate in north
     constitutional monarchy                           Exports: Motor vehicles,
    Prime Minister: Yukio Hatoyama                     semiconductors, and office
     (2009)                                             machinery
    Capital: Tokyo                                    Agriculture: Rice, sugar beets,
                                                        vegetables, fruit, pork, fish
    Flag description:
     White with a large red disk                       Currency: Yen
     (representing the sun without rays)               Life Expectancy: Average: 82,
     in the center                                      Male: 78.8, Female: 85.6
    Population: 127,078,679                           GDP per Capita: $33,800
     (2009 est.)                                       Literacy Rate: 99%
           98.5% ethnic Japanese.                     Unemployment Rate: 5.5%
           1.5 percent are mostly Korean              Oil imports: 5.425 million bbl/day
           considerable numbers of Brazilians,        Internet Users: 87.5 million
            Chinese, and Filipinos
    Population Growth Rate: -                         Environmental Issues: Acid rain;
     0.191% (2009 est.), World Rank:                    Japan is the largest consumer of
     219th                                              Amazon rainforest, timberdegrading
                                                        water quality and threatening aquatic
    GDP: 4.34 Trillion (2008)                          life; Japan is one of the largest
    Industries: Consumer electronics,                  consumers of fish and tropical timber
     motor vehicles, machine tools,                    Most popular sport: Baseball
     steel, and nonferrous metals

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                               JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Demographics & Geography
   Japan is an island nation in East Asia comprising a large stratovolcanic archipelago
    extending along the Pacific coast of Asia, off the coast of Russia &the Korean

   Japan consists of four main larger islands and more than 4000 smaller islands. The
    main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu.

   The area of Japan is 377,873km2, which makes it slightly
    smaller in land mass than California.

   Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous/
   Highest pt: Mount Fuji 3,776,

   Natural hazards: many dormant and some active
    volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors)
    every year; tsunamis.

   Disaster risks arising from population growth and climate

   Japan is the 19th most densely populated country in the world

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Background & History
    Japan history begins with the migration of people from the Asian mainland during a
     period in which the sea separating present day Japan from China and the Korean
     Peninsula was only partially formed. When the sea rose and the land bridges
     washed away, these first inhabitants of ancient Japan were left to settle the islands.

    During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two
     atomic bombings against Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    10,000BC – 300BC: Jomon Period
    300BC – 300AD: Yayoi Period
    300AD – 710AD: Kofun Period or the Yamato Period
    710 – 794: The Nara Period
    794 – 1192: Heian Period
    1191 – 1333: Kamakura Period
    1333 – 1573: Muromachi Period
    1600 – 1867: Edo Period
    1868 – 1912: Meiji Period:
    1926 – 1989: Showa Period
    1926 – 1945: Expansionism Period
    1952 – 1989: Post-occupied Japan: Japan entered a period of peace and great economic growth after
     enacting the Treaty of San Francisco.
    1989 - PresentHeisei Period: Japan's current period named by Emperor Akihito after the death of his
     father, Hirohito, the Showa Emperor.

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   Technological sophistication and mass culture have not led to strongly rooted
    individualism in Japan. Groups are still a very strong source of identity.

   Japanese culture consists of the interaction between a strong original Jōmon
    culture and subsequent influences from the rest of the world. Culture of China
    was first mostly influential, starting with the development of the Yayoi culture
    from around 300BC.

   After several waves of immigration from the continent and nearby Pacific islands
    (see History of Japan), the inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of
    relative isolation from the outside world under the Tokugawa shogunate until the
    arrival of "The Black Ships" and the Meiji era.

   Japan is one of the world's largest
    exporters of popular culture. Japanese
    cartoons, comic books, fashion, films,
    literature, and music have gained
    popularity around the world, especially
    in the other countries of Asia.

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                          JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   Japan is an extremely homogeneous society with non-Japanese, mostly Koreans
    and Chinese, making up only about 1% of the population.

   The vast majority of the population live on the crowded coastal plains of the main
    island of Honshū.

   The Japanese people are primarily the descendants of various peoples who
    migrated from Asia in prehistoric times; the dominant strain is N Asian or
    Mongolic, with some Malay and Indonesian admixture.

   One of the earliest groups, the Ainu, who still persist to some extent in Hokkaido,
    are physically somewhat similar to Caucasians. Japanese is the official language.

   Of major concern to Japanese government policy planners are the expected
    steady decline in the population during the 21st cent. (the population decreased
    for the first time in 2005) and the large and growing portion of the population
    that is elderly.

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                          JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
     Japan developed a unique original culture in various mediums;

     Arts                                          Performances

    Origami      Ikebana         Ukivo-e            Noh               Kabuki   Bunraku
     Crafts
                                                     Traditions


Lacquer ware      Dolls        Pottery           Traditional Tea      Onsen        Sento

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Language and Dialects
   Japanese is the sixth most spoken language in the world

   Japanese is believed to be linked to the Altaic language family, which includes
    Turkish, Mongolian and other languages, but also shows similarities to
    Austronesian languages like Polynesian.

   Dozens of dialects are spoken in Japan

   Japanese uses four different writing systems; Kanji (Chinese characters),
    Hiragana (phonetic alphabet for native words), Katakana (phonetic alphabet for
    foreign words), and Romaji (western alphabet used to write Japanese)

   Dialects are used in areas, particularly in Kyoto and Osaka, but standard
    Japanese, based on the speech of Tokyo, has become more popular through the
    use of television, radio and movies.

   In newspapers, the words of Chinese and origin number greater than the
    Japanese native words.

   Japanese is written using two systems of orthography, Chinese characters and

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                          JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Religeous Practices
   There are two principal religions in Japan, Shintoism and Buddhism, officially
    followed by 54% and 40% of the population respectively.

   The Japanese people's concern towards religion is mostly related to mythology,
    traditions, and neighborhood activities rather than as a source of morality or a
    guideline for one's life.

   The largest new religion is Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect, founded in 1930. Its
    declared motto is peace, culture and education.

   Religion in Japan tends to be synergetic in nature, and this results in a variety of
    practices such as parents and children celebrating Shinto rituals, students
    praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and
    funerals being held at Buddhist temples.

   Miyajima is universally recognized as being among the top three scenic places in
    Japan. A short ferry ride from Hiroshima, Myajima island is home to the beautiful
    Itskushima Shrine, a World Heritage Site, and home to the famous "floating" Torii

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Centuries of excitement await throughout Japan. Experience the beauty and splendor
of ancient shrines, temples, and traditions as you explore Tokyo, Kyoto, Nara and other
cities throughout the country.

                               The famous floating torii at          Himeji castle
                               Itsukushima Shrine

    Cherry blossoms frame a
   pagoda on Miyajima Island
         in Hiroshima.                                                                   This is a solar-powered,
                                                                                         illuminated rooftop garden
                                                              Great Buddha of Kotokuin   at the top of the legendary
                                 Sunrise on Mt. Fuji
                                                                                         Tokyo landmark,
                                                                                         115-year-old Imperial Hotel.

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Food & Beverage
     Meals
           The typical Japanese meal consists of a bowl of rice (gohan), a bowl of miso
            soup (miso shiru), pickled vegetables (tsukemono) and fish or meat.
           Bentō, boxed meals in Japan, are very common and constitute an important
            ritual during lunch
           A meal at a more average restaurant costs roughly between 1,000 and 3,000
           Sticky, short-grained rice is the staple food, uncooked rice is called kome
           Rice is generally eaten plain or sometimes with nori (dried-pressed seaweed)
            or furikake (various seasonings).
           In Japanese restaurants, customers are given a rolled hand towel called
           Soybean is a key ingredient without which Japanese food wouldn't exist. Tofu,
            miso, natto and soy sauce are all made from soybeans.

     Beverage
           Beer is the most popular alcohol beverage in Japan, and Japanese sake (rice
            wine) is the second most popular, and an important part of Shinto religion and
            Japanese culture
           If alcohol is served, DO NOT drink from the bottle. Pour the beverage into a
            cup or glass provided and then drink Tipping is not customary in Japan.

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                            JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Legal Systems, Reporting
Requirements, & Regulations

   Government type: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government

   Independence: 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor JIMMU)

   National holiday: Birthday of Emperor AKIHITO, 23 December (1933)

   Constitution: 3 May 1947

   Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal

   The Japanese Constitution contains thirty-one articles relating to human rights
    and it also provides for the separation of three powers: Legislative, Judicial and
    Governmental power.

   The law of Japan was historically heavily influenced by Chinese law

   The modernization of the Law of Japan was based on the European legal system.

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Legal Systems, Reporting
Requirements, & Regulations

   A firms ability to borrow may also be based on its personal relationship and
    rapport with bank officials rather than on typical US standards of credit

   For US companies with operations in Japan, teaming up with Japanese partners
    in a joint venture has been effective as a way to receive better treatment from
    Japanese Banks.

   The Japanese government has removed most legal restrictions on exports and
    foreign investments in Japan

   Under the Economic Partnership for growth, the US and Japanese governments
    have worked to cut regulations in sectors of key economic importance where US
    firms are globally competitive – telecommunications, medical equipment,
    energy, information technology, insurance and financial services

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   Mobile technology
           Mobile subscriber penetration77.6%, Internet user penetration34.3%,
            Broadband subscriber penetration
           Japan is a leader in mobile phone (keitai denwa) technology and usage with
            about 75% of the population owning one.
           The only foreign phones that work in Japan are some 3G models, however the
            number of compatible phones is increasing.

   Japanese research and development efforts increasingly stress what one
    Japanese policymaker calls the "fusion" solution, or combining advances in
    different technologies to generate new products and innovations.

   Electronic goods, such as TVs, stereo sets, cameras and computers are relatively
    inexpensive at stores like Yamada Denki, Yodobashi Camera, Sakuraya and Bic
    Camera, and in discount shopping areas like Akihabara in Tokyo.

   Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of
    742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing.

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                             JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Technology Differences
   Telephones - main lines in use:     47.579 million (2008)country comparison to the
    world: 4

   Telephones - mobile cellular:     110.395 million (2008)country comparison to the
    world: 7

   Telephone system:
        general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
        domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind
        international: country code – 81

   Radio broadcast stations:      AM 215 (plus 370 repeaters), FM 89 (plus 485 repeaters),
    shortwave 21 (2001)

   Television broadcast stations: 211 (plus 7,341 repeaters); in addition, US Forces
    are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999)

   Internet country code:   .jp

   Internet hosts:   47.249 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 2

   Internet users:   90.91 million (2008)country comparison to the world: 3

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    Transportation in Japan is modern and infrastructure
     spending has been large.

    Roads
           A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads
            connects major cities and are operated by toll-collecting
           Japan has 1,152,207 km of highways with 863,003 km
            (including 6,114 km of expressways) paved and
            289,204 km of unpaved ways (1997 est.).
           Japan has left-hand traffic
    Trains
           total: 23,506 km
           country comparison to the world: 11
           Each train travels as quickly as 300 kilometers per hour.
           All trains are known for punctuality.
           Japan is the most railway using nation per capita
    Waterways
           1,770 km (seagoing vessels use inland seas)

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                                 JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   Airports
           There are 173 airports, and the largest domestic
            airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's busiest airport.The
            largest international gateways are:
                 Narita International Airport (Tokyo area),
                 Kansai International Airport (Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto
                 Chūbu Centrair International Airport (Nagoya
   Heliports
           Total: 14, Rank: 15
   Marine Transport
           There are 1770 km of Waterways in Japan; seagoing
            ply all coastal inland seas.
           The scheduled international passenger routes are to
            China, Russia, South Korea and Taiwan.
   Bridges
           The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge is the longest-span
            suspension bridge in the world, whose total length and
            central span length are 3,911m and 1,991m
   Pipeline
           Japan has 84 km of pipelines for crude oil, 322 km for
            petroleum products, and 1,800 km for natural gas.
   Port
           Chiba, Kawasaki, Kobe, Mizushima, Moji, Nagoya,
            Osaka, Tokyo, Tomakomai, Yohohama

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                                  JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Utlities & Public Safety

   Utilities such as gas, water and especially electricity are expensive, and phone
    rates are high. For international calls, consider internet phones, callback services
    and other offers for the expat community

   Coal imports by Japan reached 186 Mt [million tonnes - ed] in 2007, which was
    an increase of 5.2% compared with those of 2006.

   In solar power, Japan ranks third in the world for installed capacity, behind only
    Germany and Spain

   Crime in Japan is lower than in many other first world countries.

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Time Zone, Time Perceptions,
& Political Systems
   What time is it? - Nan ji desu ka. -何時ですか。

   Japan is 14 hours ahead of New York (standard time) and 9 hours ahead of

   Time perception between urban and rural population is observed to be shifting in
    Japan. People in a bustling city like Tokyo, even being the Eastern city that it is,
    surely must monitor time more closely and break it down into finer units than
    they used to as Japan's competitor status in the world market escalates.

           The Japanese believe strongly in 'no hidden surprises' and are committed to a
            very high degree of predictability and consistent reliability (not just reliability).
           This is reflected in their business practices and everyday living, such that the
            train or bus schedule would read "Arrival: 8.23 p.m." and the train or bus would
            pull in exactly at that time!
           People in Japan, on the other hand, arrive for meetings at least 5 minutes before
            a scheduled 9:00 a.m. appointment! The simple logic is that it takes about 5
            minutes to get seated and settled in and the meeting is support to START at 9

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                               JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Political System
   The politics of Japan is conducted in a framework of a parliamentary
    representative democratic monarchy, where Prime Minister of Japan is the head
    of government.

   The current government is led by Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama

   Most political parties in Japan are small and do not have broad, mass
    memberships; their members are mainly professional politicians.

   The ruling coalition is formed by the liberal Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), the
    leftist Social Democratic Party and the conservative People's New Party

   The Imperial Household of Japan is headed by Emperor Akihito

   Military: Sixth largest in the world

   Foreign Relations
           Close with the United States - Japan maintains close economic and military
            relations with its key ally and partner, the United States, and therefore the US-
            Japan security alliance serves as the cornerstone of its foreign policy.

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                              JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   The Japanese economy is one of the largest in the world
   Japan's farming population has been declining steadily and was less than 5% of the
    total population in 2004; agriculture accounted for less than 2% of the gross
    domestic product.
   Fishing is highly developed, and the annual catch is one of the largest in the world.
   Japanese industry is concentrated mainly in S Honshu and N Kyushu, with centers at
    Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, and Nagoya.
   20.1% of outsourcing firms outsourced their job training, compared with 19.7% for
    information systems, 17.4% for production processes, 14% for accountancy and tax
    affairs and 13.7% for R&D.

                  Exports:
                        Cars, electronic devices and computers. Most important trade partners are China
                         and the USA, followed by South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand
                         and Germany.
                  Imports:
                        The most important import goods are raw materials such as oil, foodstuffs and wood.
                         Major supplier is China, followed by the USA, Australia, Saudia Arabia, South Korea,
                         Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates.
                  Industries:
                        Manufacturing, construction, distribution, real estate, services, and communication
                         are Japan's major industries today. Agriculture makes up only about two percent of
                         the GNP. Most important agricultural product is rice. Resources of raw materials are
                         very limited and the mining industry rather small.

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                            JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Japanese Culture as Export
   10% of GNP is „cultural export‟ material

   300% growth in cultural exports between 1996-2008

   Foreign Ministry have started traveling abroad to introduce
    Japanese pop culture to young people overseas.

   Anime, manga and cosplay are part of “Japanese youth culture”
    and have proven surprisingly popular with young people around
    the world.

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                          JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Industrialization &
Energy Resources
   Leading Auto Makers

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                      JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Business Protocol
   Understanding Foreign ways
           Japanese understand that it is very difficult for foreigners to work in Japan.
           They will not expect you to speak or read Japanese, or be conversant with their strict cultural
            nuances and protocol.
           Japan has great health care, team culture, and socialization outside office hours.
   Relationships and Communication
           Japanese prefer to do business on the basis of personal relationships.
           It is important to be a good correspondent as the Japanese hold this in high esteem.
   Business Meeting Etiquette Japanese prefer to do business on
           Appointments are required and, whenever possible, should be made several weeks in advance.
           It is best to telephone for an appointment rather than send a letter, fax or email
           The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest from the door, with the rest of the
            people in descending rank until the most junior person is seated closest to the door.
           Always provide a package of literature about your company including articles and client
   Business Negotiation
           Japanese are non-confrontational.
           They have a difficult time saying 'no', so you must be vigilant at observing their non-verbal
           Never lose your temper or raise your voice during negotiations.
   Dress Etiquette
           Business attire is conservative.
   Business Cards
           Business cards are exchanged constantly and with great ceremony
           It is wise to have one side of your business card translated into Japanese.
           During a meeting, place the business cards on the table in front of you in the order people are
           Treat the business card you receive as you would the person

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                                  JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   Gifts & Gift Giving in Business
           Gifts play a major role in Japanese business. It is customary to exchange gifts.
           In a business situation, avoid framing the gift in such terms, as it denotes the
            insignificance of the gift and therefore belittles the recipient's worth.
           It is considered good luck to give gifts in pairs, such as a double pen set.
           Do not give gifts in groups of four, as the Japanese word for four means death.
           Wrap the gift in pastel colors, but not white, as this color is associated with
           Do not take flowers; they are not considered an appropriate gift.
   Gifts & Gift Giving
           Many people will ask a guest to open a gift, but if they do not, the Japanese will
            resist the urge to ask if they can open the gift.
           It is considered impolite to go to someone's house without a gift. In Japanese
            this is called tebura (手ぶら?) (empty-handed)
   Making Payment
           Instead of handing a cashier cash from one's hands to the cashier's hands, it is
            a commonplace practice in Japan to place the money onto a small tray that is
            placed specifically for the purpose near the cashier machine.
   Phone Etiquette
           The use of mobile phones on public transport is frowned upon, and messages
            asking passengers not to make calls and to switch their phones to silent mode
            ("public mode" or "manners mode" in Japanese) are played frequently.

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                              JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   The code of etiquette in Japan governs the expectations of social behavior in the
    country and is considered very important
   Greetings are considered to be of importance in Japanese culture
   When greeting people, always bow before the person, and they will bow to you
    as well.

           ohayō gozaimasu (おはようございます?) or "good morning"
           oyasuminasai (お休みなさい?) or "good night"

   Home Etiquette
       Removal of the shoes before entering a house is customary and in even
        Westernized homes, a room can be found with a tatami (Japanese mat)
       During the winter time, if a guest is wearing a coat or hat, the guest will
        take it off before the host opens the door.
   Dining Etiquette
       It is considered particularly taboo to pass food from chopsticks to chopsticks.
       In sushi-only restaurants, it is acceptable to use fingers instead of
        chopsticks to eat the nigiri-zushi.
       In Japan, you say "itadakimasu" ("I gratefully receive") before eating, and
        "gochisosama (deshita)" ("Thank you for the meal") after finishing the meal.
       It is considered polite to clear one's plate, even to the last grain of rice

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   Two patterns of residences are predominant in contemporary Japan: the single-
    family detached house and the multiple-unit building, either owned by an individual
    or corporation and rented as apartments to tenants, or owned by occupants.

   Some of the world's most expensive land can be found in central Tokyo

   Apartments
           Japanese rooms are measured by "tatami" (woven thatch flooring); each tatami mat is 6 feet by
            3 feet.
           A standard room is 6 mats, or 9 feet by 12 feet. Some rooms can be as small as three tatami,
            others as big as 9 or even 12.
           In a metropolis, expect to pay about 70,000 yen a month for a standard 1-room
           The average renter has 2.84 rooms

   Housing
           Dwellings of homeowners in Japan are 121.67 sq. meters (1308 sq. ft.)
           The average homeowner has 5.91 rooms
           Six out of 10 Japanese live in single family houses, the rest live in apartments
           About 50% provide 1 room for each child

   Gardens
           Garden architecture is as important as building architecture and very much influenced by the
            same historical and religious background.
           In Japanese culture, garden-making is a high art, intimately related to the linked arts of
            calligraphy and ink painting.

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                               JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Conclusion: What would it be like to
conduct a project in Japan?
    JAPAN IS A MODERN, thriving democracy, yet it retained a long and esteemed
    imperial tradition. The Japanese take great pride in being "unique," yet much of
    Japanese civilization is composed of selective borrowings, from the Chinese written
    language in the sixth century A.D. to United States semiconductors in the latter half
    of the twentieth century.

    The scope of Japan's economy is second only to that of the United States. Japan's
    continued rapid economic growth since the nation's modernization began in the later
    half of the nineteenth century has gained the world's attention. Now that the
    nation's economy generally is prospering in quantitative terms, the focus has turned
    to the improvement of the quality of people's lives.

    An ancient culture which has evolved within the geographical boundaries of an island
    has produced a modern day society with unique values, traditions and customs.
    Doing business in Japan arguably poses the most potential for cross cultural

    However, Japan's professionals are well educated in doing business with the West
    and will try to modify their own behaviors to accommodate you. Nonetheless, doing
    business in Japan necessitates preparing oneself by understanding areas such as
    business culture, business etiquette, negotiation and meeting protocol.

    Enjoy doing business in Japan!

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                           JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
   Harmony is a key value in Japanese society and is the guiding philosophy for the
    Japanese in family and business settings and in society as a whole.

   In Japan, the family is of great importance, and you will often find several
    generations living under one roof.

   You are expected to respect and honor elders and obey family laws.

   You are not likely to see a Japanese man lose his temper or show immense emotion;
    this results in a loss of integrity, therefore, a loss of face.

   Punctuality is important.

   Japanese place a great deal of importance into what is not being said, whereas
    Westerners have a need to fill the gaps in conversation.

   The Japanese word kimono means "something one wears" and they are the
    traditional garments of Japan.

   Today, despite suffering massive losses during World War II and possessing very
    little natural resources, Japan has become an economic and technological

   All business and personal dealings in Japan happen only when a strong relationship
    of trust has been established. Trust is the foundation of any business and a
    transaction will follow only after the Japanese counterpart has been assured of trust.
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                            JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki
Works Cited
             
       k=
    furl=                                               
          anesesake.htm
          
    -Market-Report/japan-infrastructure-report-q4-          k=
    2009-159499.asp                                     
       
              
   http://web-                                             japan.htm           
           tm
             
   
    2/S0105.jpg&imgrefurl=                                  e-solar-power-investments/446
   http://web-                                                        world-factbook/geos/ja.html
    
    pa                                                      world-factbook/geos/ja.html

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                                  JAPAN Country Profile – Karen Ostromecki

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