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Critical Analysis Teaching - A Collaboration between the Faculty

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Critical Analysis




                           Ethan Rhemahn
                    1/22
“Analysis involves breaking down information into its component
parts and examining the relationships within these parts and with
the whole. By doing this the student shows the ability to
differentiate and distinguish between components or elements of
the topic area.”
(Gopee , 2008)
   Definitions
Critical thinking is: “ the rational
examination of ideas, inferences,
assumptions, principles, arguments,
conclusions, issues, statements, beliefs
and actions”
(Bandman & Bandman, 1988)

                                           2/22
Critical Analysis




    Arrrgh! Critical Analysis!!!
                    3/22
In groups of 3- 6 discuss:
 A good evening out?
What makes a good evening out?!




                                  4/22
Most of your assignments are formed around one basic
structure:

            Applying theory to practice




   THEORY                        PRACTICE


                                 5/22
However there is a classic trap many students fall into…

Being too descriptive . . .

You can include lots of
Literature but end up just
describing it rather than using it
to create a critical argument or
discussion




                                           6/22
In many ways critical analysis is about trouble shooting


                              A trouble shooter is somebody
                              who can approach any situation
                              or topic and:

                              Highlight potential issues ,
                              problems or good practice

                              & suggest solutions (with an
                              awareness of their possible
                              pro’s & con’s)



                                     7/22
Isn’t this exactly what you should be doing in
practice when caring for a patient?




                                8/22
 Even if guidance
Studentyou have chosen an e.g. from your clinical experience
 where there were no actual problems or issues you can still
 use the literature to discuss what could have been the
 potential problems or issues

 This kind of trouble shooting is what you probably do
 unconsciously when presented with a patient or situation in
 clinical practice

 In an assignment you can use the literature to help you
 discuss what may be the possible issues/problems/
 advantages or disadvantages associated with your topic



                                     9/22
Critical Analysis is . . .
        the exploration & evaluation of possibilities




                                    10/22
              Critical/Creative Thinking

Information         Critical Thinking            Reasoned
                                                 Judgement



                                   Recognition of
                                   problem existence




                    Consideration or
                    generation of alternatives

                                   11/22
Applying Critical Thinking
 to Information Literacy


                        Stephen Gough, June 2009



                12/22
Information Need Cycle 1




                 13/22
                     Information Need Cycle 2
Need:
   Determined by learning outcomes / information
   need:
   a) “I need something on smoking”
   b) “I have an assignment for which I need to
      find the best evidence to support an
      intervention”
   c) “I have an assignment for which I need to
      find research” .

Map:
  Map all the possible/potential conceptual
  pathways to developing a question which will
  provide an answer. This is a keyword generator
  and uses reflection, critical creative thinking and
  language skills.


                                               14/22
                      Information Need Cycle 3


Formulate Question:
 The ability to give focus to a question.

   a) “I need something on smoking” becomes
    “I need information on the nurses role in
     smoking cessation programmes”

   b) “I’m interested in preventing colds” becomes
    “Is Vitamin C effective in the prevention or
     treatment of the common cold?”




                                                   15/22
                   Information Need Cycle 4


Source:
    Which information sources will provide the
    answer to my question?
    Involves critically choosing the appropriate
    information sources. (CINAHL or Medline or
    PsychINFO or all three)

Find:
    Requires the development       of   a   search
    strategy and IT skills.
    Strategies will vary according to the
    information source but developed in line with
    a standard framework.



                                              16/22
                      Information Need Cycle 5

Evaluate:
    Does the information found answer the question?

    Is the information of sufficient quality? (The
    Evidence Hierarchy)


Apply:
    How can the information be used to answer my
    question?
    What conclusions can I draw?
    Does the evidence support a particular conclusion
    or intervention?



                                                17/22
                Essential Underpinning Skills

• Language skills: an understanding of, or an ability to find, the language of
  a subject area

• IT Skills: Basic skill in using a computer (hardware and software)

• Critical thinking / creative critical thinking / critical analysis: the ability
  to analyse and make conceptual connections (conceptual awareness) in
  assessing
             – information need
             – source appropriateness
             – the information found
             – the application




                                                 18/22
Library & Learning Resources /
   Faculty Collaboration




                                 19/22
Definitions 2

“Analysis involves breaking down information into its component parts
and examining the relationships within these parts and with the whole. By
doing this the student shows the ability to differentiate and distinguish
between components or elements of the topic area.” (Gopee, 2008)



Critical thinking is:
“the rational examination of ideas, inferences, assumptions, principles,
arguments, conclusions, issues, statements, beliefs and actions”
(Bandman & Bandman, 1988)




                                             20/22
Your turn…..
               Psychosocial




SMOKING        Physical




               Public Policy




                               21/22
References / Further Reading
BANDMAN, E.L. & BANDMAN, B. (1988) Critical thinking in nursing. Norwalk (CT): Appleton &
   Lange. p 5

DALY, W.M. (1998) Critical thinking as an outcome of nursing education. What is it? Why is it
   important to nursing practice? Journal of Advanced Nursing 28(2) pp 323-331

GOPEE, N. (2008) Mentoring and supervision in healthcare. London: Sage. p 76

HOUSER, J. (2008) Nursing research: reading, using, and creating evidence. Sudbury (MA): Jones
   and Bartlett.

KOSTOVICH, C.T., PORADZISZ, M., WOOD, K. O’BRIEN, K.L. (2007) Learning style preference and
   student aptitude for concept maps. Journal of Nursing Education 46(5) pp 225 - 231

KUIPER, R.A. & PESUT, D.J. (2004) Promoting cognitive and metacognitive reflective reasoning
    skills in nursing practice: self-regulated learning theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(4)
    pp381-391

NAYDA, R. & RANKIN, E. (2009) Information literacy skill development and life long learning:
   exploring nursing students’ and academics’ understandings. Australian Journal of Advanced
   Nursing 26(2) pp 27-33

SEYMOUR, B., KINN, S. & SUTHERLAND, N. (2003) Valuing both critical and creative thinking in
   clinical practice: narrowing the research-practice gap? Journal of Advanced Nursing 42(3)
   pp288-296



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