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					The Technology
   Walter Ellis
Photohydroionization Cell




  Broad spectrum lamp
  Quad-metallic hydrophilic coating
“Photo” Process
                       PHI Cell
                                  Hydrated Coating
 Broad spectrum
    UV lamp




                                          PPC Sleeve




                                    Quad-metallic
Optimal surface area
                                  Hydrophilic coating
        Germicidal Inactivation

254 nm hv
Photo-Catalytic Hydrated – Quad-Metallic


 High intensity UV light activates the
hydrated quad-metallic catalyst target
  Photoelectric Effect:
The conversion of light to electricity
Conventional Advanced Oxidation Reaction
                             HO2
                 H       H
                     O
                                 254 nm hv
                 O2-


                             Formation of OHo
                 O2-
                             Super Oxide Ions O2-
             H       H
                 O           Hydroperoxides HO2
                     HO2
                     H       H
                         O
Hydrated Quad-metallic Catalytic Coating
 Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent


                 The Quad-metallic coating:
                  has particular affinities,
                  breaks bonds,
                  releases electrons,
                  holds and releases atoms,
                  steals other electrons.
                  absorbs water vapor
                 It changes everything but itself
                 remains unchanged. It is a
                 “Catalytic” process.
 Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating

                   This creates
“Hydrophilic
                         an
” means that
                   abundance
  it attracts
                   of hydrogen
    water,
                   and oxygen
 (H2O from             on the
  the air)            coating
Quad-metallic
Hydrophilic Coating
Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
          Different catalysts do different things!




                        Catalytic Surface
Quad-metallic
Hydrophilic Coating
Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
          Different catalysts do different things!




  Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a multifaceted compound.
  It's the stuff that makes toothpaste white and paint
  opaque. TiO2 is also a potent photocatalyst that can
  break down almost any organic compound.
Quad-metallic
Hydrophilic Coating
Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
                      Different catalysts do different things!




 “when TiO2 is exposed to UV light of a wavelength
 below 385 nanometers in the presence of water
 vapor, two highly reactive substances are formed:
 hydroxyl radicals [OH] and a superoxide ion [O2-1].”

"These are highly reactive chemical species.
Hydroxyl radicals are very strong oxidizers and will
attack all kinds of organic materials.” Daniel Blake, Dept of Energy’s
Natural Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado
   Quad-metallic
   Hydrophilic Coating
   Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
                Different catalysts do different things!



Silver speeds     Vol. 05, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHOTOENERGY, 2003
up titanium        Enhanced activity of silver modified thin film TiO2 photocatalysts
reactions         This silver doped photocatalyst decomposes the
                  pollutant 3-times faster than the un-doped TiO2.


                  It was postulated that silver enhanced the
The amount of
                  reduction potential of TiO2, … It was found that …
silver alters the
                  the reduction potential of the photocatalytic
photocatalytic
                  system can be altered by varying the amount of
system
                  silver doped onto the TiO2.
   Quad-metallic
   Hydrophilic Coating
  Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
                Different catalysts do different things!

Silver has some           Atomic Oxygen Species Adsorbed on Silver. V.I.Bukhtiyarov,
                          Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva prosp., 5,
unique abilities to       Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
work with energized       This paper summarizes our efforts to study the
forms of oxygen           nature of oxygen species adsorbed on silver
                          and their reactivity
Silver is an excellent
                                      The Current Status of Catalysis by Silver
electrical conductor       R Schlögl, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Ges., Faradayweg.
                                             4-6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany
Silver is stable and      Elemental silver is a unique catalyst for
will not itself oxidize   selective oxidation reactions, … Four different
in the course of          species of atomic oxygen interacting in
                          spectroscopically distinct ways with silver have
creating and
                          been identified
transporting oxidizers
  Quad-metallic
  Hydrophilic Coating
  Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent
               Different catalysts do different things!

                   Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1999, Vol. 20, No. 8
Copper, like       Photocatalytic Activity of Cu/TiO2 with Oxidation State of Surface-
silver, can        loaded Copper
improve the        the effect of oxidation state of loaded Cu on the photo-
functions of       catalytic oxidation reaction. … it is expected that the
titanium           loaded Cu may improve photocatalytic activity of TiO2,


                   SOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER
Copper has         USING A DUAL BED PHOTOSYSTEM, Clovis A. Linkous, Darlene K.
                   Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida
unique abilities
to work with       …As it turned out, the more common copper Pc
hydrogen           evolved the most H2… our best H2-evolving
                   photocatalyst was copper.
Why the PHI Technology is Unique

 By utilizing our broad spectrum lamp, we
 not only produce conventional AOP
 reactions on the cell surface, we also
 produce AOP reactions within the air that
 passes through the cell.
185 nm emitted from cell

              O2

         O2
              185 nm
    O2



         O2

         O2
              O2
185 nm produces ozone




          185 nm




         Ozone
254 nm decomposition of ozone




              254 nm




              254 nm breaks O3 back
                   down to O2
 AOP formation

       O3            HO2
                -
  OH          O2




HO2    Germicidal UV Light Rays
        Hydroxyl Radicals OHo
  O3         Super Oxides O2-
         Hydroperoxides H2O2
  OH
             Ozonide Ions O3-
        O-
         2
               Hydroxides
     PHI Cell advantages

The PHI Cell produces and destroys ozone to
facilitate the AOP reactions.
Typically greater than 87% of the actual
produced ozone is decomposed in the AOP
process.
Devices utilizing the PHI cells are not ozone
generators.
      PHI Cell advantages

•Uses germicidal UV for microbe inactivation.
•Uses germicidal UV for Catalytic AOP reactions.
•Uses the combination of UV wavelengths to
produce AOP reactions in air.
•AOP reactions inactivate microbes as well as
destroy odors.
•AOP reactants remain effective after leaving cell
 APS Cartridges
  The Technology

•Fog       •Mercury
•HEPA      •Radon
•Ultra     •VOC
RGF APS
FOG Cartridge
                Oleophillic Media
Negatively                                       +         +
charged oil sticks
                                         -
to positively
charged filter       -
                                 -

                                             -
                             -

                                 -
                         -

                                     -

                                         Macro matrix   Micro matrix
Ultra Pleated Particulate Cartridge
Ultra Pleated Particulate Cartridge

                 3,240 square inches versus
                 66 square inches. Almost 50
                 times more surface area.
                 The same filter area as 4.5’ x
                 5’ HVAC filter
                 MERV 15
Adsorbtion
Mercury Cartridge
      Mercury Cartridge

A specialty bed of sublimed sulfur carbon
designed for maximum adsorption of airborne
mercury.
Calculated maximum adsorption per cartridge:
APS Mini   26 grams
APS        148 grams
VOC Cartridge
           VOC Cartridge

A blend of activated carbon and natural
elements for adsorption of a wide variety of
volatile organic compounds.
Calculated typical adsorption per cartridge:
APS Mini    32.9 grams *
APS         191 grams *
* Actual adsorption may vary dependent on
VOC encountered
Radon Cartridge
       Radon Cartridge

A blend of natural elements poly activated for
efficient absorption of radioactive radon gas.
Calculated typical adsorption per cartridge:
APS Mini    37.6 grams
APS         225 grams
        Multi Cartridge




245 square inches versus 66 square inches
  Particulate and Odor (carbon coated)
 Rated at 90% down to 7 micron MERV 7
                  IAQ
     Acceptable indoor air quality:
Air in which there are no known
contaminants at harmful concentrations
as determined by cognizant authorities
and which a substantial majority (80%)
or more of the people exposed do not
express dissatisfaction.

ASHRAE Standard 62-2001
                IAQ
• OSHA has proposed IAQ regulations
• Some legislation was introduced on
  toxic mold -Melina Bill
• No specific IAQ Laws or Regulations
  currently
            IAQ TESTING
• Identify the problem
     -Use a common sense approach
     -Does the establishment have
      visible indicators?
     -Use the test sensors you walk
      around with.
     -Communicate with the owner
     -IAQ professionals are actually
      using quantitative testing as a
      last resort
Test Kit
Typical PHI Cell Reductions in air

                   Reduction Over 4 Day Period

             140
             120
             100
    CFU/m3




              80                          Bacteria and Mold CFU
              60
              40
              20                         2nd Day 71.2 %
               0                         3rd Day 86.8 %
                                         4rd Day 95.4 %
                    1    2      3    4
                         Days 1- 4
PHI Cell Odor Reductions in air
    100
    90
    80
    70
    60                                Off ~ 25%
    50                                On ~ 75%
    40
    30
    20
    10
     0
                    24 HOURS

          Unit on          Unit off
Thank you for
your attention

				
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