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Latino Families - Slide 1.ppt

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					Developing Capacity
 to Engage Latino
     Families

    Andrew Behnke, PhD
    Plan de “Aprendizaje”

   Recent trends

   What we can do

   Strategies for working with
    Latino families
Crecimiento 1000%
  (56,667 to 553,113)‫‏‬
          Latino Families in
           North Carolina
   “Immigrants” not “Migrants”
   68% are from Mexico
       Michoacan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz,
        Hidalgo, Chiapas
   From Poor/Rural Areas
   Great diversity
       Acculturation, sending, generation
             Latino Families in
              North Carolina
   73% lack conversational
    English
       Spanish, Nahuat, and Otomi
   Median parent education
      = 5th grade
   78% of children live
    with both parents


     (Census 2000, Public Use Microdata,
       2006; Kaufman & Naomi, 2004)
                       Latino Adolescents
                                                        40000

                                                        35000

                                                        30000

                                                        25000

                                                        20000   Hispanic
                                                                High
                                                        15000   School
                                                                Students
                                                        10000

                                                        5000

                                                        0
  90

         94

                98

                       02

                              06

                                     10

                                            14

                                                   18
19

       19

              19

                     20

                            20

                                   20

                                          20

  38% of all H.S. Latinos do not graduate       20

  High rates of risky behaviors
       Substance abuse, gangs, sex, violence
                        (Census 2000; WICHI, 2006; Kaufman & Naomi, 2004)‫‏‬
Maslow’s Pyramid

          Need for:

          5 Self-Actualization
          4 Self-Image (esteem, status)‫‏‬
          3 Belonging (love, friendship)‫‏‬
          2 Security (shelter, income, safety)‫‏‬
          1 Survival (food, water)‫‏‬


    “Maslowify”
     Maslow’s Pyramid (1954)‫‏‬
       Census 2000:
North Carolina Population
  that Lives in Poverty

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%
      Latinos    African-   Whites
                Americans
           Latino Families in
            North Carolina
   Limited Formal Education
   Wage Gap
        Most Working but Lowest
         Earnings

                     Rural         Urban
    White non-
                    $20,000        $26,000
    Latino
    Black non-
                    $11,000        $15,000
    Latino
    Latino          $9,000         $12,000
                   Context
     Discrimination
     “Geography of Opportunity”
     “White Flight”
     Poor housing environments
     Limited jobs
     Chronic stress = Stressed parents




(Peters & Massey, 1983; Galster & Killen, 1995)
Occupation of Latinos in
North Carolina in 2005
            Challenges and
             Opportunities
   Schools Unprepared for Influx of
    Latino Students
   Access to Health Care
       heart attacks and high blood pressure
   Nutrition
       Fast food vs fresh food costs
       Diabetes – 30% over 50yr olds
   Language and Cultural Barriers
   Slow Response to Huge Growth
   Immigration Status
   Transportation
  Immigration Reasons


•Better education for children
•Better economic future
•Safer environment
•Family reunification
                       Acculturation
            Acceptance of a new culture
                  High Acculturation ≠ Assimilation
            Language proficiency
                  Limited English
            Acculturative Mismatch
                  Spouse or Parent/Child Dyads
                  Different language abilities
            Gender and Generation Role
             Mismatch
                  Values, domestic & paid labor


(Landale & Oropesa, 1995; Phinney, Madden, & Ong, 2000)
        Acculturative Stress,
         Trauma, & PTSD
   Immigrant experiences
     Undocumented persons fear
     Heightened need for
      psychological services
     Children traumatized

     Posttraumatic stress high
      among immigrants & disrupted
      attachment
  Resource Caravans and Loss
         Spirals          (Hobfoll, 2001)‫‏‬


Every problem magnifies the impact of others, and
all are so tightly interlocked that one reversal can
produce a chain reaction with results far distant
from the original cause. A run-down apartment can
exacerbate a child's asthma, which leads to a call
for an ambulance, which generates a medical bill
that cannot be paid, which ruins a credit record,
which hikes the interest rate on an auto loan, which
forces the purchase of an unreliable used car,
which jeopardizes a mother's punctuality at work,
which limits her promotions and earning capacity,
which confines her to poor housing….
(Shipler, 2004, p.11)‫‏‬
        Why Do this Work?
   Latinos are often:
     Very child focused
     Highly motivated to increase skills
     Curious about resources
     Willing to contribute

   Competition & Leverage
     New market niche
     We must serve all families
           No Child Left Behind Title 1
           Title VI of 1965 Civil Rights
How Do We Get Started?
 Create personal connections...
   with service agencies and find a
    trusted mentor within Latino
    community
     with families and individuals in
      the community   (DeBord & Reguero, 1999)‫‏‬



 Hold focus groups or advisory
  group meetings and explore the
  needs of families      (DeBord, Kirby, & Meade, 1999)‫‏‬




 Join an collaborative effort or
  expand on a existing program
          Program Planning:
             First Steps
   Involve Latino Families in the Planning
       “funds of knowledge”
   Think teams - what talents do we lack?
   Eligibility - what kind of documents you
    ask for will create trust or distrust
   Transportation - especially for programs
    for women or youth will be an issue
   Childcare - working with parents with
    children present
   Group activities vs home visits
   Location – working off site
          Considerations:
        Cultural Competence
   “Word of mouth” better than flyers
       Churches, ESL classes, schools,
        tiendas, restaurants, apt. managers
   Less formal schooling & literacy
   Use a variety of teaching styles:
       Oral presentation, role plays, hands-on
        activities, drama, video, use of personal
        history, culturally relevant materials
       Written material should be a supporting
        player
    Machismo and Marianismo

   Both are changing
     Men less likely to find work
     Provider role challenged

     Increased women's power in some
      families
     Women are less available in their
      homes
     Family structure and relationships
      changing within their families
     Abuse…
                   Values

   Familism or Familismo
       Put family first
       References to other family members
       Knowledge of institutional community or
        enclave
       Respect family hierarchy
       Education
                       Values

   Personalismo
       Warm, individualized attention and
        responsiveness
       Specific behaviors:
            close proximity, hand shaking
            discussing personal issues
            gifts – offering food & drinks
       Avoid task oriented approach
       Relaxed about TIME
       Formal at first -> Personal
Considerations: Universals

          Focus on children's
           success
          Celebrate accomplishments
          Personal relationships
           make a difference
          Trust
          ¡Comida!
          Considerations:
        The Language Barrier
   Start small – Find 1 in road
        A church, community group, & team up
        Realize that many Latinos speak English
   Familiarize yourself with some
    Spanish-language handouts
        Use dual language flyers/handouts
   Attempt to speak Spanish
        Learn to read Spanish
        Use common phrases
        Avoid using children as interpreters
   Train front-line staff in best practices
    with Latino families
   Hire bilingual staff
              Considerations:
                Leadership
   Start “Escuelas de Pesca”
       Train leaders, educators, and
        interventionist on how to serve the
        Latino community

   Use the pool of individuals you
    serve as the primary source of
    new leaders
       Give them the tools they need
       Provide them with opportunities to be
        mentored or “to shadow”
       Show them the value of their skills
            both monetary and social value
         Considerations:
           Volunteers
   Consider how Latino
    participants can contribute:
     Bringing food
     Outreach

     Trained to provide phone support

     Hiring committees

     Childcare
          Considerations:
            Evaluation
   Respeto/Simpatia: Eager to please
    and reluctant to criticize
   Pretest & post then pretest
   Focus groups
   Journaling - Diarios
    Any Questions?

         Feel free to email me for
           more information or a
           copy of these slides:

         andrew_behnke@ncsu.edu


 ¡ Gracias y
Buena Suerte!

				
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