Developing Capacity to Engage Latino Families Andrew Behnke, PhD Plan de “Aprendizaje” Recent trends What we can do Strategies for working with Latino families Crecimiento 1000% (56,667 to 553,113) Latino Families in North Carolina “Immigrants” not “Migrants” 68% are from Mexico Michoacan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Hidalgo, Chiapas From Poor/Rural Areas Great diversity Acculturation, sending, generation Latino Families in North Carolina 73% lack conversational English Spanish, Nahuat, and Otomi Median parent education = 5th grade 78% of children live with both parents (Census 2000, Public Use Microdata, 2006; Kaufman & Naomi, 2004) Latino Adolescents 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 Hispanic High 15000 School Students 10000 5000 0 90 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 38% of all H.S. Latinos do not graduate 20 High rates of risky behaviors Substance abuse, gangs, sex, violence (Census 2000; WICHI, 2006; Kaufman & Naomi, 2004) Maslow’s Pyramid Need for: 5 Self-Actualization 4 Self-Image (esteem, status) 3 Belonging (love, friendship) 2 Security (shelter, income, safety) 1 Survival (food, water) “Maslowify” Maslow’s Pyramid (1954) Census 2000: North Carolina Population that Lives in Poverty 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Latinos African- Whites Americans Latino Families in North Carolina Limited Formal Education Wage Gap Most Working but Lowest Earnings Rural Urban White non- $20,000 $26,000 Latino Black non- $11,000 $15,000 Latino Latino $9,000 $12,000 Context Discrimination “Geography of Opportunity” “White Flight” Poor housing environments Limited jobs Chronic stress = Stressed parents (Peters & Massey, 1983; Galster & Killen, 1995) Occupation of Latinos in North Carolina in 2005 Challenges and Opportunities Schools Unprepared for Influx of Latino Students Access to Health Care heart attacks and high blood pressure Nutrition Fast food vs fresh food costs Diabetes – 30% over 50yr olds Language and Cultural Barriers Slow Response to Huge Growth Immigration Status Transportation Immigration Reasons •Better education for children •Better economic future •Safer environment •Family reunification Acculturation Acceptance of a new culture High Acculturation ≠ Assimilation Language proficiency Limited English Acculturative Mismatch Spouse or Parent/Child Dyads Different language abilities Gender and Generation Role Mismatch Values, domestic & paid labor (Landale & Oropesa, 1995; Phinney, Madden, & Ong, 2000) Acculturative Stress, Trauma, & PTSD Immigrant experiences Undocumented persons fear Heightened need for psychological services Children traumatized Posttraumatic stress high among immigrants & disrupted attachment Resource Caravans and Loss Spirals (Hobfoll, 2001) Every problem magnifies the impact of others, and all are so tightly interlocked that one reversal can produce a chain reaction with results far distant from the original cause. A run-down apartment can exacerbate a child's asthma, which leads to a call for an ambulance, which generates a medical bill that cannot be paid, which ruins a credit record, which hikes the interest rate on an auto loan, which forces the purchase of an unreliable used car, which jeopardizes a mother's punctuality at work, which limits her promotions and earning capacity, which confines her to poor housing…. (Shipler, 2004, p.11) Why Do this Work? Latinos are often: Very child focused Highly motivated to increase skills Curious about resources Willing to contribute Competition & Leverage New market niche We must serve all families No Child Left Behind Title 1 Title VI of 1965 Civil Rights How Do We Get Started? Create personal connections... with service agencies and find a trusted mentor within Latino community with families and individuals in the community (DeBord & Reguero, 1999) Hold focus groups or advisory group meetings and explore the needs of families (DeBord, Kirby, & Meade, 1999) Join an collaborative effort or expand on a existing program Program Planning: First Steps Involve Latino Families in the Planning “funds of knowledge” Think teams - what talents do we lack? Eligibility - what kind of documents you ask for will create trust or distrust Transportation - especially for programs for women or youth will be an issue Childcare - working with parents with children present Group activities vs home visits Location – working off site Considerations: Cultural Competence “Word of mouth” better than flyers Churches, ESL classes, schools, tiendas, restaurants, apt. managers Less formal schooling & literacy Use a variety of teaching styles: Oral presentation, role plays, hands-on activities, drama, video, use of personal history, culturally relevant materials Written material should be a supporting player Machismo and Marianismo Both are changing Men less likely to find work Provider role challenged Increased women's power in some families Women are less available in their homes Family structure and relationships changing within their families Abuse… Values Familism or Familismo Put family first References to other family members Knowledge of institutional community or enclave Respect family hierarchy Education Values Personalismo Warm, individualized attention and responsiveness Specific behaviors: close proximity, hand shaking discussing personal issues gifts – offering food & drinks Avoid task oriented approach Relaxed about TIME Formal at first -> Personal Considerations: Universals Focus on children's success Celebrate accomplishments Personal relationships make a difference Trust ¡Comida! Considerations: The Language Barrier Start small – Find 1 in road A church, community group, & team up Realize that many Latinos speak English Familiarize yourself with some Spanish-language handouts Use dual language flyers/handouts Attempt to speak Spanish Learn to read Spanish Use common phrases Avoid using children as interpreters Train front-line staff in best practices with Latino families Hire bilingual staff Considerations: Leadership Start “Escuelas de Pesca” Train leaders, educators, and interventionist on how to serve the Latino community Use the pool of individuals you serve as the primary source of new leaders Give them the tools they need Provide them with opportunities to be mentored or “to shadow” Show them the value of their skills both monetary and social value Considerations: Volunteers Consider how Latino participants can contribute: Bringing food Outreach Trained to provide phone support Hiring committees Childcare Considerations: Evaluation Respeto/Simpatia: Eager to please and reluctant to criticize Pretest & post then pretest Focus groups Journaling - Diarios Any Questions? Feel free to email me for more information or a copy of these slides: email@example.com ¡ Gracias y Buena Suerte!
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