China One Child Policy Objectives By the end of this series of lessons students will: • Understand the reasons why the policy was introduced • Be able to discuss the positives and negatives of the policy and its impact upon the population Outcomes By the end of this series of lessons students will: • All students will be able to explain why China needed to introduce a one child policy • All students will present the positives and negatives of the policy in a table • Most students will be able to explain the impact of the policy on the economy • China is the fourth largest country in the world • Total Land Area 9,596,960 Sq. Kms • Population of China according is 1,313,973,713. It is officially the most populated country in the world. • The Chinese Government has adopted a "one child" policy in an effort to curb the high numbers. Unfortunately this also makes China one of the fastest aging countries One Child Policy • Officially restricts the number of children married urban couples can have to one, although it allows exemptions for several cases: – rural couples – ethnic minorities – parents without any siblings themselves • 35.9% of China's population is currently subject to the one-child restriction • The policy does not apply to Hong Kong and Macau, or Tibet. • The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979 to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems • The policy has prevented more than 250 million births • The policy has been blamed for an increase in forced abortions and female infanticide, and has been suggested as a possible cause behind China's gender imbalance • 76% of the Chinese population support the policy • The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family Effects on the population pyramid? • China, like many other Asian countries, has a long tradition of son preference • The commonly accepted explanation for son preference is that sons in rural families may be thought to be more helpful in farm work • Sons are preferred as they provide the primary financial support for the parents in their retirement, and a son's parents typically are better cared for than his wife's. • Chinese traditionally view that daughters, on their marriage, become primarily part of the groom's family. High male-to-female sex ratios in the current population of China do not occur only in rural areas; the ratio is nearly identical in rural and urban areas. Men outnumber women by 60 million http://www.china-europe-usa.com/level_4_data/hum/011_7a.htm Positives Population • The number of births has fallen, which means natural increase has slowed. This means there is less stress on services for young people. Increased savings rate • The individual savings rate has increased since the introduction of the One Child Policy. The average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese more money with which to invest. Second, since young Chinese can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future. Economic growth • The original intent of the one-child policy was economic, to reduce the demand of natural resources, maintaining a steady labour rate, reducing unemployment caused from surplus labour, and reducing the rate of exploitation Negatives • In 2002, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization, but it is not entirely enforced. Women as far along as 8.5 months pregnant were forced to abort by injection of saline solution. There have also been reports of women, in their 9th month of pregnancy or already in labour, having their children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth • The one-child policy includes selective breeding regulations. Both partners have to be rigorously tested before they marry. If one spouse has an "unsatisfactory" physical or mental condition, ranging from dyslexia to schizophrenia, they are banned from marrying. • As the one-child policy begins to near its next generation, one adult child is left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents. This leaves the older generation with more of a dependency on retirement funds or charity in order to have support. This means there is a large dependent population. • If personal savings, pensions, or state welfare should fail, then the most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for support How far do you agree that the one child policy has been effective? • Has it met its aims? • Has it brought benefits to China? • What is the impact in the future going to be? Is the policy sustainable? • Should this policy continue? • Is there a better way to control the population and ensure it is sustainable in the future?