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One Child Policy
By the end of this series of lessons students
• Understand the reasons why the policy
  was introduced
• Be able to discuss the positives and
  negatives of the policy and its impact upon
  the population
By the end of this series of lessons students
• All students will be able to explain why
  China needed to introduce a one child
• All students will present the positives and
  negatives of the policy in a table
• Most students will be able to explain the
  impact of the policy on the economy
• China is the fourth largest
  country in the world
• Total Land Area
  9,596,960 Sq. Kms
• Population of China
  according is
  1,313,973,713. It is
  officially the most
  populated country in the
• The Chinese Government
  has adopted a "one child"
  policy in an effort to curb
  the high numbers.
  Unfortunately this also
  makes China one of the
  fastest aging countries
            One Child Policy
• Officially restricts the number of children married
  urban couples can have to one, although it
  allows exemptions for several cases:
   – rural couples
   – ethnic minorities
   – parents without any siblings themselves
• 35.9% of China's population is currently subject
  to the one-child restriction
• The policy does not apply to Hong Kong and
  Macau, or Tibet.
• The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1979
  to alleviate social, economic, and environmental
• The policy has prevented more than 250 million births
• The policy has been blamed for an increase in forced
  abortions and female infanticide, and has been
  suggested as a possible cause behind China's gender
• 76% of the Chinese population support the policy
• The policy is enforced at the provincial level through
  fines that are imposed based on the income of the family
Effects on the population pyramid?
• China, like many other Asian countries, has a long
  tradition of son preference
• The commonly accepted explanation for son preference
  is that sons in rural families may be thought to be more
  helpful in farm work
• Sons are preferred as they provide the primary financial
  support for the parents in their retirement, and a son's
  parents typically are better cared for than his wife's.
• Chinese traditionally view that daughters, on their
  marriage, become primarily part of the groom's family.
  High male-to-female sex ratios in the current population
  of China do not occur only in rural areas; the ratio is
  nearly identical in rural and urban areas. Men outnumber
  women by 60 million
• The number of births has fallen, which means natural increase has
  slowed. This means there is less stress on services for young

Increased savings rate
• The individual savings rate has increased since the introduction of
   the One Child Policy. The average Chinese household expends
   fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children,
   which gives many Chinese more money with which to invest.
   Second, since young Chinese can no longer rely on children to care
   for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the

Economic growth
• The original intent of the one-child policy was economic, to reduce
  the demand of natural resources, maintaining a steady labour rate,
  reducing unemployment caused from surplus labour, and reducing
  the rate of exploitation
•   In 2002, China outlawed the use of
    physical force to make a woman submit to
    an abortion or sterilization, but it is not
    entirely enforced. Women as far along as
    8.5 months pregnant were forced to abort
    by injection of saline solution. There have
    also been reports of women, in their 9th
    month of pregnancy or already in labour,
    having their children killed whilst in the
    birth canal or immediately after birth

•   The one-child policy includes selective
    breeding regulations. Both partners
    have to be rigorously tested before they
    marry. If one spouse has an
    "unsatisfactory" physical or mental
    condition, ranging from dyslexia to
    schizophrenia, they are banned from
• As the one-child policy begins to
  near its next generation, one adult
  child is left with having to
  provide support for his or her
  two parents and four
  grandparents. This leaves the
  older generation with more of a
  dependency on retirement funds or
  charity in order to have support.
  This means there is a large
  dependent population.

• If personal savings, pensions, or
  state welfare should fail, then
  the most senior citizens would
  be left entirely dependent upon
  their very small family or
  neighbours for support
  How far do you agree that the
   one child policy has been
• Has it met its aims?
• Has it brought benefits to China?
• What is the impact in the future going to
  be? Is the policy sustainable?
• Should this policy continue?
• Is there a better way to control the
  population and ensure it is sustainable in
  the future?