Tong hop Ngu phap anh cap 3 by hotelforlove

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									English Grammar
   Biên t p:   Tiêu_Long_tiên_t
   Cu n sách English Grammar ñư c biên t p nh m b tr vi c h c Ti ng Anh cho các b n
h c sinh Đa Phúc. Cu n sách này g m nh ng lí thuy t Ng pháp cơ b n, thông d ng nh t
cùng m t s bài t p th c hành ñ các b n có th luy n l i ngay các Ng pháp ñư c gi i thi u.

    Vì là nh ng Ng pháp căn b n nh t, nên mình không ñ c p ñ n nh ng quy t c nâng cao
hay nh ng Ng pháp nâng cao ñi kèm. ñây yêu c u v Ng pháp là r t cơ b n. Các b n chú
ý nên làm bài t p ngay sau ph n lý thuy t ñ n m ñư c Ng pháp m t cách hi u qu . Cu n
sách dành cho t t c các b n h c sinh l p 10, 11, 12 và k c các b n khác mu n t h c. Mình
s c g ng trình bày các v n ñ Ng pháp ñơn gi n, ng n g n và d hi u nh t.

     Cu n sách này Tiêu_Long biên so n theo kinh nghiêm h c Anh c a b n thân nên ch c
ch n s còn nhi u thi u sót. R t mong các b n ñ c s ñóng góp ý ki n nhi t tình, Tiêu_Long s
rút kinh nghi m, b sung, hoàn thi n ñ ñem l i cu n Ng pháp th t t t cho t t c các b n.
Chân thành c m ơn!

                                                              Tiêu_Long_tiên_t (Voi Còi)
1.    V n ñ 1: Các thì trong ti ng anh (12 thì)
a.    Hi n t i ñơn
b.    Hi n t i ti p di n
c.    Hi n t i hoàn thành
d.    Hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n
e.    Quá kh ñơn
f.    Quá kh ti p di n
g.    Quá kh hoàn thành
h.    Quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n
i.    Tương lai ñơn
j.    Tương lai g n
k.    Tương lai ti p di n
l.    Tương lai hoàn thành
2.    V n ñ 2: L i nói tr c ti p và gián ti p
3.    V n ñ 3: Nh ng ñ ng t có ngôi ñ c bi t
a.    Đ ng t khuy t thi u
b.    To be, to have, to do
4.    V   nñ    4: Câu ñi u ki n
5.    V   nñ    5: Câu ñi u ki n v i “wish”, “if only”
6.    V   nñ    6: Câu b ñ ng
7.    V   nñ    7: M nh ñ quan h
8.    V   nñ    8: Cách rút g n m nh ñ ph
9.    V   nñ    9: So sánh tính t
10.   V   nñ    10: M o t
11.   V   nñ    11Cách dùng “..too..to..”, “enough”, “..so..that..”
12.   V   nñ    12: Câu h i ñuôi (Tag question)
13.   V   nñ    13: Cách dùng although, in spite of, despite
14.   V   nñ    14: Cách dùng because, because of
15.   V   nñ    15: Gi i t
V n ñ 1: Các thì trong Ti ng Anh
(12 thì)
1. Hi n t i ñơn: (Simple present)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + V/ V(s;es) + Object......
(-) S do/ does not + V +................
(?) Do/ Does + S + V
* Cách dùng:
- Hành ñ ng x y ra hi n t i.

Eg: I smell something burning.
- Thói quen hi n t i. (thư ng ñi kèm tr ng t ch t n su t như always, usually, often,
sometime…)

Eg: I always get up early.
- S th t hi n nhiên; Chân lí ko th ph nh n.

Eg: The sun rises in the East.
* Tr ng t ñi kèm: always; usually; often; sometimes; occasionally; ever; seldom; rarely;
every..............




2. Hi n t i ti p di n: (Present Continuous)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + is/am/are + Ving
(-) S + is/am/are not + Ving
(?) Is/Am/ Are + S + Ving
* Cách dùng:
- Đang x y ra t i 1 th i ñi m xác ñ nh     hi n t i.

Eg: It is raning now
- S p x y ra có d ñ nh t trư c.

Eg: Tam is leaving for New York tomorrow.

 ** Không dùng v i các ñ ng t chi c m giác như: SEE; HEAR; LIKE; LOVE...
* Tr ng t ñi kèm: At the moment; at this time; right now; now; ........
3. Hi n t i hoàn thành: (The Present Perfect tense)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + have/has + PII
(-) S + have/has not + PII
(?) Have/ Has + S + PII
* Cách dùng:
- X y ra trong quá kh , k t qu liên quan ñ n hi n t i.
( Nh n m nh ñ n k t qu c a hành ñ ng)



                        Thì hi n t i hoàn thành




      Quá kh                                              hi n t i (lúc nói)

Eg: + I have lived here since 1987 (ý là lúc nói câu này v n s ng    ñây)

+ I have painted the door. Don’t touch it! (hành ñ ng sơn c a v n còn liên quan ñ n hi n t i là
c a còn ư t không nên ñ ng vào)

- Di n ñ t m t hành ñ ng x y ra     m t th i ñi m không xác ñ nh trong quá kh .

Eg:
 - John has traveled around the world. (We don't know when)


- Ch m t hành ñ ng x y ra nhi u l n trong quá kh và còn ti p t c        tương lai

Eg:
- George has seen this movie for three times. (Maybe he will see this movie more)

3.1 Cách dùng SINCE và FOR:
FOR + kho ng th i gian: for three days, for ten minutes, for twenty years ...
SINCE + th i ñi m b t ñ u: since 1982, since January, ...

3.2 Cách dùng ALREADY và YET:
Already dùng trong câu kh ng ñ nh, already có th ñ ng ngay sau have và cũng có th ñ ng
cu i câu.




We have already written our reports.
We have written our reports already.

Yet dùng trong câu ph ñ nh, câu nghi v n. Yet thư ng xuyên ñ ng          cu i câu.
We haven't written our reports yet.
Have you written your reports yet?

Trong m t s trư ng h p th ph ñ nh, yet có th ñ ng ngay sau have nhưng ph i thay ñ i
v m t ng pháp: ñ ng t PII tr v d ng nguyên th có to và không dùng not.




     John has yet to learn the material = John hasn't learnt the material yet.

3.3 Thì hi n t i hoàn thành thư ng dư c dùng v i tr ng t như sau:
· Dùng v i: now that... (gi ñây khi mà...)
     Now that you have passed the TOEFL test successfully, you can apply for the scholarship.
· Dùng v i m t s phó t như: till now, untill now, so far (cho ñ n gi ). Nh ng c m t này có
th ñ ng ñ u câu ho c cu i câu.
     So far the problem has not been resolved.
· Dùng v i recently, lately (g n ñây) nh ng c m t này có th ñ ng ñ u ho c cu i câu.
     I have not seen him recently.
· Dùng v i before ñ ng cu i câu.
     I have seen him before.

- Dùng v i ever, never ñ ng sau have/ has trong câu.
     I have never met him

- C m t ch th i gian:       for, over, in, during: the past, the last + kho ng th i gian

* Tr ng t : just; recently; lately; ever; never; already; yet; since; for; so far; until now; up to now;
up to present..
4. Hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n: (The Present Perfect
Continuous)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + have/has been + Ving
(-) S + have/has been + Ving
(?) Have/Has + S + been + Ving
* Cách dùng:
- X y ra trong quá kh , kéo dài ñ n hi n t i và có th ti p t c x y ra trong tương lai. ( Nh n
m nh tính liên t c c a hành ñ ng)

Eg:They have been studying French since 1998.

- M t hành ñ ng ñã k t thúc nhưng k t qu ñư c lưu l i r t rõ ràng      hi n t i:

Ex: She has been working with her computer for hours so her eyes are burnt.

- Di n t quá trình c a m t hành ñ ng ñã ñư c b t ñ u trong quá kh (all day, all....)

Ex: Mary has been learning cooking all day.

- M t hành ñ ng kéo dài ñ n hi n t i
Ex: Lan has been waiting for Tuan for 4 hours.

* Tr ng t ñi kèm: just; recently; lately; ever; never; since; for….




5. Quá kh ñơn: (The Past Simple tense)
* C u trúc
(+) S + Ved/ PI-c t 2 trong b ng Đ ng t b t quy t c.
(-) S + didn’t + V
(?) Did + S + V
* Cách dúng:
- X y ra và ch m d t hoán toàn trong quá kh .
- Nhi u hành ñ ng x y ra liên ti p trong quá kh .
- Trong câu ñi u ki n lo i 2.
* Tr ng t ñi kèm: Yesterday; the day before yesterday; ago; already; last; in + m c th i gian
trong quá kh .
6. Quá kh ti p di n: (The Past Continuous)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + was/ were + Ving
(-) S + was / were not + Ving.
(?) Was/ Were + S + Ving.
* Cách dùng:
_ Các hành ñ ng x y ra t i 1 th i ñi m xác ñ nh trong quá kh

Eg: At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
_ Nhi u hành ñ ng x y ra ñ ng th i trong quá kh .

Eg: While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
_ 1 hành ñ ng ñang x y ra 1 hành ñ ng khác xen vào: hành ñ ng ñang x y ra dùng QKTD;
hành ñ ng xen vào dùng QKĐ.

Eg: I was watching TV when she called.

- Thì Quá kh ti p di n v i "always"hay "constantly" di n ñ t m t hành ñ ng thư ng x y ra
trong quá kh nhưng l i gây khó ch u v i ngư i khác trong quá kh . Ý nghĩa c a nó gi ng như
là "used to" nhưng v i ý nghĩa tiêu c c.

Eg: + She was always coming to class late.

+ He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
* T n i ñi kèm: While; when.




7. Quá kh hoàn thành: (The past perfect)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + had + PII
(-) S + had not + PII
(?) Had + S + PII
- Hành ñ ng x y ra trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác

Eg: I had eaten lunch before they arrived.
- Hành ñ ng x y ra trong 1 kho ng th i gian trong quá kh , trư c 1 m c th i gian khác

Eg: I had lived abroad for twenty years when I received the transfer.
- Hành ñ ng x y ra như là ñi u ki n tiên quy t cho hành ñ ng khác

Eg: I had prepared for the exams and was ready to do well.
- Trong câu ñi u ki n lo i 3 ñ di n t ñi u ki n không có th c

Eg: If I had known that, I would have acted differently.


- Dùng v i wish ñ di n t ư c mu n trong quá kh
Eg: She wishes she had known about his problems.

* Tr ng t ñi kèm: before; after; when; while; as soon as; by(trư c); already; never; ever;
until……….
8. Quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n (The past perfect progressive):
* C u trúc:
(+) S + had been + Ving
(-) S + hadn’t been + ving
(?) Had + S + been + Ving
* Cách dùng:
_ Ch hành ñ ng ñã và ñang di n ra và có th hoàn t t trư c 1 hành ñ ng khác trong quá kh (
nh n m nh ñ n tính liên t c c a hành ñ ng)
* Tr ng t : before; after; when; while; as soon as; by(trư c); already; ever; until………….




9. Tương lai ñơn: (Simple future)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + will/ shall + V (will ngày nay có th dùng v i t t c các ngôi nhưng shall dùng v i “ I” và
“WE”
(-) S + will/ shall not + V
(?)Will / Shall + S + V
* Cách dùng:
- D ñoán trong tưng lai

It will snow tomorrow.
She won't win the election.

- S ki n ñã ñư c lên l ch

The concert will begin at 8 o'clock.
When will the train leave?

-H ah n

Will you marry me?
I'll help you with your homework after class

- Đ ngh

I'll make you a sandwich.
They'll help you if you want

- K t h p v i m nh ñ th i gian (như: as soon as, when, before, after)

He will telephone as soon as he arrives.
Will you visit me when you come next week?

* Tr ng t : tomorrow; the day after tomorrow; next; in + th i gian tương lai…
 next (week, month, year), tomorrow, in X's time (kho ng th i gian: two week's time), in year,
time clauses (when, as soon as, before, after), thì hi n t i ñơn (ví d : I will telephone as soon as
I arrive.) soon, later
10. Tương lai g n: (Near future)
* C u trúc:
(+) S + is/am/are + going to + V
(-) S + is/am/ are not + going to + V
(?)Is/Am/ Are + S + going to + V
* Cách dùng:
- S p x y ra trong tương lai có d ñ nh trư c.

Eg: We are going to have a reception in a moment
- Ch c ch n s x y ra trong tương lai như d tính cho dù th i gian là tương lai xa

Eg: We are going to take a TOEFL test next year.


* Tr ng t : tomorrow; the day after tomorrow; next; in+ th i gian   tương lai………….




11. Tương lai ti p di n: (The future progressive )
(+) S + will / shall + be + Ving
(-) S + will / shall not + be + Ving
(?) Will / Shall + S + be + Ving
* Cách dùng:
• Dùng ñ di n ñ t m t hành ñ ng s x y ra vào m t th i ñi m nh t ñ nh trong tương lai.
Eg: + At 8:00 am tomorrow morning we will be attending the lecture.


• Dùng k t h p v i present progressive khác ñ di n ñ t hai hành ñ ng ñang song song x y ra.
M t hi n t i, còn m t tương lai.
Eg: Now we are learning English here, but by this time tomorrow we will be attending the
meeting at the office.


• Đư c dùng ñ ñ c p ñ n các s ki n tương lai ñã ñư c xác ñ nh ho c quy t ñ nh (không
mang ý nghĩa ti p di n).
Eg: Professor Baxter will be giving another lecture on Roman glass-making at the same time
next week.


• Ho c nh ng s ki n ñư c mong ñ i là s x y ra theo m t ti n trình thư ng l (nhưng không
di n ñ t ý ñ nh c a cá nhân ngư i nói).
Eg: + You will be hearing from my solicitor.
+ I will be seeing you one of these days, I expect.


• D ñoán cho tương lai:
Eg: Don't phone now, they will be having dinner.


• Di n ñ t l i ñ ngh nhã nh n mu n bi t v k ho ch c a ngư i khác
Eg: Will you be staying in here this evening? (ông có d ñ nh l i ñây t i nay ch    )

*Tr ng t : các tr ng t như trong tương lai ñơn; nhưng ph i d a vào t ng hoàn c nh c th ñ
chia thì.
12. Tương lai hoàn thành: (The future perfect)
C u trúc:
(+) S + will / shall + have + PII
(-) S will/ shall not + have + PII
(?) Will / Shall + S + have + PII
* Cách dùng:
_Di n t hành ñ ng gì s x y ra ho c di n ra trong bao lâu tính ñ n 1 th i ñi m xác ñ nh trong
tương lai.

Eg: We will have finished the report by the time arrives

* Tr ng t : By the time; By + m c th i gian trong quá kh .
Bài t p t                       luy n:
Chia ñ ng t cho ñúng thì:

Ex1
1. Jack (look) no trouble with my English lesson up to now. ........................................................
2. The weather generally (get) quite hot in July and August. .......................................................
3. That brown briefcase (belong) to Dr. Rice.
..................................................................................
4. Yes, I (remember) that order fellow’s name now. ......................................................................
5. Michael (work) thirsty eight hours a week. .................................................................................
6. I (be) sorry. I (forget) that girl’s name already. ........................................................................
7. How many times you (see) him since he went to Edinburgh? ....................................................
8. Fred’s brother just (graduate) from Oxford University. ........................................................
9. The earth (circle) the sun once every 365 days. .......................................................................
10. Up to the present, we (write) almost every lesson in the book. ...............

Ex2

1. We (study) a very hard lesson the day before yesterday. .....................................................
2. I (read) that novel by Hemingway several times before. .......................................................
3. We (study) almost every lesson in this book so far. ................................................................
4. My wife and I (travel) to Mexico by air last summer. .............................................................
5. I (have) a little trouble with my car last week. .........................................................................
6. What you (do) yesterday?
.............................................................................................................
7. How long you (learn) English?
.......................................................................................................
8. Tom (never be) in Hanoi.
...............................................................................................................
9. The plane (stop) at a small town. It the (take) off immediately after refueling. ...........
10. She (be) so happy when she (hear) the news that she (cry). ..............................................

Ex3:

1. John (not read) ________ a book now.
     2. What you (do) ________ tonight?
     3. Jack and Peter (work) ________ late today.
     4. Silvia (not listen) ________ to music at the moment.
     5. Maria (sit) ________ next to Paul right now.
     6. How many other students you (study) ________ with today?
   7. He always (make) ________ noisy at night.
   8. Where your husband (be) ________?
   9. She (wear) ________ earrings today.
   10. The weather (get) ________ cold this season.
   11. My children (be)________ upstairs now. They (play)________ games.
   12. Look! The bus (come)________.
   13. He always (borrow) ________me money and never (give)________ back.
   14. While I (do)________ my housework, my husband (read)________ books.
Ex4:

1. Yesterday, I (go)______ to the restaurant with a client.
2. We (drive) ______ around the parking lot for 20 mins to find a parking space.
3. When we (arrive) ______ at the restaurant, the place (be) ______ full.
4. The waitress (ask) ______ us if we (have) reservations.
5. I (say), "No, my secretary forgets to make them."
6. The waitress (tell)______ us to come back in two hours.
7. My client and I slowly (walk) ______ back to the car.
8. Then we (see) ______ a small grocery store.
9. We (stop) in the grocery store and (buy) ______ some sandwiches.
10. That (be) ______ better than waiting for two hours.
11. I (not go) ______ to school last Sunday.
12. She (get) ______ married last year?
13. What you (do) ______ last night?
- I (do) ______ my homework.
14. I (love) ______ him but no more.
15. Yesterday, I (get) ______ up at 6 and (have) ______ breakfast at 6.30.

Ex 5:
Dear Linda,
I’m sorry I ……..(1)…….to you for so long, but I……….(2)…….very busy lately. All last month
I………(3)……exams, and I………(4)………anything else but study for ages. Anyway,
I……….(5)……studying now, and I………(6) for my exam results.


As you can see from this letter, I……….(7)……..my address and……….(8)……..in Croydon
now. I…….(9) …….that I wanted a change from central London because it…….(10)……….so
expensive. A friend of mine……..(11)…….me about this flat, and I……..(12)………here about 2
months ago. When you ………….(13)…..to London this summer, please visit me.
I………..(14)……..here until the middle of August. Then I……..(15)………..on holiday to
Scotland.
Please write soon
Margaret.


1. A. don’t write B. haven’t written C. am not writing D, wasn’t writing
2. A. was being B. had been C. am D. have been
3. A. had B. was having C. had had D. have had
4. A. haven’t done B. don’t do C. wasn’t doing D. am not doing
5. A. stop B. will have stopped C. have stopped             D. was stopping
6. A. wait B. am waiting C. have waited D. was waiting
7. A. am changing B. had changed          C. will change       D. have changed
8. A. will live B. have been living    C. live   D. have lived
9. A. decided    B. have decided      C. was deciding       D. decide
10. A. will become B. becomes C. has become D. will have become
11. A. tells B. told C. was telling D. will tell
12. A. have moved B. had moved C. was moving D. moved
13. A. will come B. came C. come D. were coming
14. am staying B. stayed C. stay D. have stayed
15. have gone B. went C. am going D. will have gone




Ex 6:
1. The performance (begin) at 7 o'clock and (last) for three hours. We all (enjoy) it.
2. "You (be) here before?" "Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year."
3. He (leave) for London 2 years ago and I (not see) him since.
4. You (be) to the laboratory this week?
5. "You (find) the key which you (lose) yesterday?" "Yes. I (find) it in the pocket of my other
coat."
6. I (see) him in the library today. We (be) there together.
7. We never (meet) him. We don't know what he looks like.
8. I suppose when I (come) back in two years 'time, They (pull) down all these old buildings.
9. We (finish) all our housework by tomorrow evening.
10. "your face (be) dirty, Tom." "All right, I (wash) it"
Ex7:
1. I (never see) anyone more punctual than your brother.
2. I (meet) your brother this afternoon at Green Street.
3. I understand you (have) an unpleasant experience at the weekend. What (happen) exactly?
4. He (light) a cigrarette and (walk) to the window.
5. My clothes are not in the room. They (take) them away.
6. "Good night". It (be) nice to meet you," he (say) and (go) off his car.
7. A lot of modern medicines (make) from plants.
8. The music for " The Marriage of Figaro" (write) by Mozart.
9. The results (announce) tomorrow morning at nine o'clock.
10. All the beautiful buildings in our cities (destroy) by exhaust gases from cars- we must (do)
something to stop this.

                                        Do it carefully!
V n ñ 2: L i nói tr c ti p và gián ti p
(Dicrect and Indirect Speeches)
1.Gi i thi u:
- Trong l i nói tr c ti p, chúng ta ghi l i chính xác nh ng t , ng c a ngư i nói dùng. L i nói
tr c ti p thư ng ñư c th hi n b i: các d u ngo c kép " ".
Ví d : 1- Tam said, “I am going to the cinema”.
2- "I love you," she said.

- Nhưng chúng ta hoàn toàn có th s a ñ i chút ít và l ng vào câu nói c a mình ñ thu t l i câu
nói c a ngư i khác. (g i là l i nói gián ti p)

Ví d :

   1. Tam said that he was going to the cinema.

   2. She said that she loved him

Trư c khi ñi sâu vào ng pháp c a ph n này, hs c n lưu ý các khái ni m thư ng dùng trong khi
g p bài t p lo i này:
+ Ph n gi i thi u: Là ph n ñ ng bên ngoài d u ngo c kép
+ Ph n tr c ti p: Là ph n ñ ng bên trong d u ngo c kép.
E.g.: She said to me: "I will call you tomorrow"
       Ph n gi i thi u           Ph n gián ti p
+ Ngôi th nh t: I: ngôi th nh t s ít
                  We: ngôi th nh t s nhi u
+ Ngôi th hai: You: v a s ít, v a s nhi u.
+ Ngôi th 3: các ngôi và các ch ng còn l i ñ u ñư c x p vào ngôi th 3
+ Đ i t nhân xưng làm ch ng : I - We - You - They - He - She - It
+ Đ i t nhân xưng làm tân ng : me - us - you - them - him - her - it
+ Tính t s h u:                     my - our - your - their - his - her - its
+ Ch ng là thành ph n luôn ñ ng ñ u câu như các ñ i t nhân xưng làm ch ng : I - We -
You - They - He - She - It ho c các danh t chung, riêng, danh ñ ng t ....
+ Tân ng ñ ng sau ñ ng t , gi i t như các Đ i t nhân xưng làm tân ng : me - us - you -
them - him - her - it ho c tên riêng, danh t chung
+ Tính t s h u ñ ng trư c danh t ñ bi u th r ng v t mà danh t ñó nh c ñ n là c a ai
N u trong câu tr c ti p là d ng t gì thì khi chuy n sang câu gián ti p nó ph i d ng t ñó,
ch thay ñ i ngôi trong m t s trư ng h p, tùy vào t ng câu c th .
E.g.: She said to me:"I will call you tomorrow"
Trong câu trên ta có:
+ Ch ng c a ph n gi i thi u là "She"
+ Ch ng c a ph n gián ti p là "I"
+ Tân ng c a ph n gi i thi u là "me"
+ Tân ng c a ph n gián ti p là "you"
Trong câu tr n thu t/phát bi u có th không có tân ng nhưng b t bu c ph i có ch ng .
Trư c khi chuy n t tr c ti p sang gián ti p c n ph i lưu ý m i quan h gi a các ch ng , tân
ng , tính t s h u trong ph n gi i thi u và ph n gián ti p ñ bi n ñ i các ñ i t , tính t m t
cách phù h p.
VD: trong câu trên, "I" chính là "she", "you" chính là "me" nên khi ñ i sang câu gián ti p thì "I"
s ñư c chuy n thành "she", "you" s ñư c chuy n thành "me".
Vi c thay ñ i này ph thu c vào t ng câu, theo kinh nghi m c a mình thì nh ng ngư i m i h c
r t hay nh m l n ph n này.

2. Quy t c chuy n l i nói tr c ti p sang gián ti p
2.1 Đ i thì c a câu:
Thì c a các ñ ng t trong l i nói gián ti p thay ñ i theo m t nguyên t c chung là lùi v quá kh
(các thì xu ng c p):

Thì trong L i nói tr c ti p Thì trong L i nói gián ti p
- Hi n t i ñơn -> Quá kh ñơn
- Hi n t i ti p di n -> Quá kh ti p di n
- Hi n t i hoàn thành -> Quá kh hoàn thành
- Hi n t i hoàn thành TD -> Quá kh hoàn thành TD
- Quá kh ñơn -> Quá kh ñơn hoac Quá kh hoàn thành
- Quá kh hoàn thành -> Quá kh hoàn thành

- Tương lai ñơn -> Tương lai trong quá kh
- Tương lai TD -> Tương lai TD trong quá kh
- Is/am/are going to do -> Was/were going to do
- Can/may/must do -> Could/might/had to do

Hãy xem nh ng ví d sau ñây:

He does -> He did
He is doing -> He was doing
He has done -> He had done
He has been doing -> He had been doing
He will do -> He would do
He will be doing -> He would be doing
He will have done -> He would have done
He may do -> He might do
He may be doing -> He might be doing
He can do -> He could do
He can have done -> He could have done
He must do/have to do -> He had to do


2.2 Các thay ñ i khác:
a. Thay ñ i Đ i t
Các ñ i t nhân xưng và ñ i s h u khi chuy n t l i nóitr c ti p sang l i nói gián ti p thay
ñ i như b ng sau:

TR C TI P GIÁN TI P

Đ it
nhân xưng

Ch ng
I he, she
we they
you they

Tân ng
me him, her
us them
you them


Đ it
s h u
mine his, her
ours theirs
yours theirs
Tính t
s h u
my his, her
our their
your their

Ngoài quy t c chung v các thay ñ i ñ i t ñư c nêu trên ñây, ngư i h c c n chú ý ñ n các
thay ñ i khác liên quan ñ n v trí tương ñ i c a ngư i ñóng vai trò thu t l i trong các ví d sau
ñây:

Ví d : Jane, "Tom, you should listen to me."
+ Jane t thu t l i l i c a mình:
I told Tom that he should listen to me.

+ Ngư i khác thu t l i l i nói c a Jane
Jane told Tom that he should listen to her

+ Ngư i khác thu t l i cho Tom nghe:
Jane told you that he should listen to her.

+ Tom thu t l i l i nói c a Jane
Jane told me that I should listen to her.
b. Các thay ñ i tr ng t không gian và th i gian:

Tr c ti p Gián ti p
This -> That
That -> That
These -> Those
Here -> There
Now -> Then
Today -> That day
Ago -> Before
Tomorrow -> The next day / the following day
The day after tomorrow -> In two day’s time / two days after
Yesterday -> The day before / the previous day
The day before yesterday -> Two day before
Next week -> The following week
Last week -> The previous week / the week before
Last year ->The previous year / the year before

Ví d :
Tr c ti p: "I saw the school-boy here in this room today."
Gián ti p: She said that she had seen the school-boy there in that room that day.

Tr c ti p: "I will read these letters now."
Gián ti p: She said that she would read those letters then.

Ngoài quy t c chung trên dây, ngư i h c c n ch r ng tình hu ng th t và th i gian khi hành
ñ ng ñư c thu t l i ñóng vai trò r t quan tr ng trong khi chuy n t l i nói tr c ti p sang l i nói
gián ti p.

3. Câu h i trong l i nói gián ti p: Câu h i trong l i nói gián ti p ñư c chia làm 3 lo i:
3.1. Câu h i b t ñ u v i các tr ñ ng t : Ta thêm If/whether
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: "Does John understand music?" he asked.
Gián ti p: He asked if/whether John understood music.

3.2. Câu h i b t ñ u who, whom, what, which, where, when, why, how: Các t ñ h i trên s
ñư c gi nguyên trong câu gián ti p, ñ ng th i ñ o ch ng lên trư c ñ ng t (làm m t d ng
câu h i)
Tr c ti p: "What is your name?" he asked.
Gián ti p: He asked me what my name was.

3.3. Các d ng ñ c bi t c a câu h i trong l i nói gián ti p
a. Shall/ would dùng ñ di n t ñ ngh , l i m i:
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: "Shall I bring you some tea?" he asked.
Gián ti p: He offered to bring me some tea.

Tr c ti p: "Shall we meet at the theatre?" he asked.
Gián ti p: He suggested meeting at the theatre.

b. Will/would dùng ñ di n t s yêu c u:
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: Will you help me, please?
Gián ti p: He asked me to help him.

Tr c ti p: Will you lend me your dictionary?
Gián ti p: He asked me to lend him my dictionary.

c. Câu m nh l nh và câu yêu c u trong l i nói gián ti p.
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: Go away!
Gián ti p: He told me/the boys to go away.

Tr c ti p: Listen to me, please.
Gián ti p: He asked me to listen to him.

d. Câu c m thán trong l i nói gián ti p.
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: What a lovely dress!
Tuỳ theo xúc c m và hình th c di n ñ t, chúng ta có th dùng nhi u hình th c khác nhau như
sau:
Gián ti p: She exclaimed that the dress was lovely.
She exclaimed that the dress was a lovely once.
She exclaimed with admiration at the sight of the dress.

e. Các hình th c h n h p trong l i nói gián ti p.
L i nói tr c ti p có th bao g m nhi u hình th c h n h p: câu kh ng ñ nh, câu h i, câu m nh
l nh, câu c m thán:
Ví d :
Tr c ti p: She said, "can you play the piano?” and I said”no”
Gián ti p: She asked me if could play the piano and I said that I could not.

Chú ý: Câu gián ti p là m t ph n khá khó và nhi u ki n th c, các b n nên ch ñ ng tìm hi u
thêm ph n này ñ có ki n th c ñ y ñ nh t. Mình s c p nh t thêm nh ng d ng thư ng dùng
nh t ñ các b n ti n h c.
Các c u trúc thư ng g p c n nh :

1. Accept (Ch p nh n)

2. Invited sb to V (invite : M i)

3. Add (Thêm vào)

4.Object (Ph n ñ i)

5. Admitted V-ing (admit: Công nh n)

6. Offered to V (offer: Đ ngh )

7. Advised sb to V (advise : Khuyên)

8. Point out (Ch ra)

9. Agreed to V (agrre: Đ ng tình)

10. Predict (Đoán)

11. Answer (Tr l i)

12. Promised to V ( promise : H a)

13. Apologised (to sb) for V-ing (apologise :Xin l i)

14. Recommend (G i ý)

15. Argue (Tranh lu n)

16. Refuse (T ch i)

17. Ask sb to V (ask: H i)

18. Said (that) (say: Nói)

19. Begged sb to V (beg: C u kh n)

20. Suggested V-ing (suggest: G i ý)

21. Command (Ra l nh)

22. Told sb to V (tell: K , nói)

23. Comment (Nh n xét)

24. Thanked sb for V-ing (thank: C m ơn)

25. Complain (Phàn nàn)

26. Think (Nghĩ)

27. Decide (Quy t ñ nh)
28. Warned to V (C nh báo)

29. Demand to V(Yêu c u)

30. Wondered to V (Băn khoăn)

31. warned sb to V

   warned sb against V-ing

32. reminded sb to V

33. blamed sb for V-ing

34. denied V-ing (ph nh n)

35. insisted on V-ing (khăng khăng)

36. congratulated sb on V-ing (chúc m ng)

37. threatened to V (ñe do )

38. encouraged sb to V (khuy n khích ñ ng viên)

39. accused sb of V-ing (bu c t i)

40. hoped to V (hy v ng)

…etc…

Ch c n hi u lí thuy t và nh ñư c m y c u trúc này thì có th chi n ñ u v i bài t p câu gián
ti p r i ^_^
Bài t p t luy n:
Rewrite the following sentences:

1. “Open the door,” he said to them.
-He told them...
2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.
-He asked her where...
3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.
-He asked...
4. “Bring it back if it doesn’t fit”, I said to her.
-I told...
5. “Don’t try to open it now,” she said to us.
-She told...
6. “Is it going to be a fine day today?” I asked her.
-I asked her...
7. “He’s not at home”, she said.
-She said that...
8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.
-The girl wanted to know...
9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.
-Tom told Ann...
10. “Please let me borrow your car,” he said to her.
-He asked...
11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.
-Thomas asked Jean.....
12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.
-I told Mary....
13. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you,” she said.
She said that...
14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.
-She said that...
15. “What are you going to do next summer?” she asked.
- She asked us....
16. “I’ll phone you next Tuesday,” he told Jack.
-He told Jack that....
17. “Can I sit beside you at present, Jean?” Tom asked.
-Tom asked Jean....
18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.
-He said that....
19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said to us.
-He told us....
20. “How long are you going to stay?” I asked him.
-I asked him how long....
21. He asked her what she had been doing the day before.
- “What ......
22. The conductor asked them not to smoke in that bus.
- “Please...
23. She said that she had lost her key.
-She said, “I...
24. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.
-She wanted to know....
25. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said to us.
-She asked us....
26. “Will you come to my party?” she said to me.
-She asked me....
27. “Don’t do it again,” she said to them.
She told them.......
28. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes a long time ago?” she asked.
-She asked....
29. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.
-She told.......
30. “What do you want for lunch today, Peter?” Gwen asked.
-Gwen asked....
31. I asked the hotel porter to wake me at 8 o’clock the following morning.
-“Please...
32. “I don’t think John will come,” said Bill.
- Bill doubted.......
33. She asked John how he liked her new dress.
-“How....
34. John asked if it was the blue one or the green one she wanted.
- “Which....
35. “Why don’t you put a better lock on the door, Mary?” said John.
- John suggested.....
36. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.
- Peter asked if ....
37. “Why don’t you put your luggage under the seat?” he asked.
-He suggested....
38. “Bring you swimming things in case it is sunny”
-He told me.....
39. “Keep away from this area,” said the security guard when we approached the fence.
-The security guard told....
40. “why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.
-The office manager wondered.....
41.You had better not lend him any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.
-John advised Elizabeth.......
42. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.
-John accused....
43. “why don’t you meet them to discuss the pay offer?” I asked him.
-I suggested...........
44. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.
-Mary accused...
45. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse to Mrs Bingley.
-The nurse asked Mrs Bingley....
46. “Never borrow money from friends,” my father said.
- My father told me.......
47. “Where is the station car park?” Mrs Smith asked.
Mrs Smith asked......
48. Philip asked Olive if she could remember where she had put the camera.
-Philip said, “Olive.......
49. “You’d better go to the doctor’s if you have got a pain in your back, Anna”, Henry said.
-Henry suggested......
50. Peter said he wasn’t feeling well.
-Peter said, “I.....
51. “You should take more exercise, Mr Robert,” the doctor said, “if you want to lose weight”.
-The doctor advised.......
52. “Will I ever find ajob?”, Tim said to himself.
-Tim wondered.......
53. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul to Susan.
-Paul apologised......
54. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.
- Martha asked Peter when...........
55. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anna to her mother.
-Anna asked........
56. “Don’t leave the house until I get back, William”, his mother said.
- William’s mother told.........
57. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs Rogers to her son.
-Mrs Rogers told.......
58. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.
-George said.....
59. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.
-Martin apologised......
60. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.
-The landlady asked..............
61. “ John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.
-Mary asked............
62. “Would you mind waiting for a few minutes?”
-We were asked......
63. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.
-The notice said that.............
64. “Where is the best place to buy souvenirs in your town?”
-I asked.........
65. “Don’t forget to bring your passport with you tomorrow”
- She reminded me ..........
66. “Give us our money back or we’ll take you to court”
- We threatened...............
67. “There is a strong current so be careful not to swim out too far”
-He warned..........
68. “Why don’t we go and look at the cathedral?”
- He suggested..........
69. The receptionist promised to give us an early call tomorrow morning.
- “I will...........
70. The travel agent advised us not to go by plane that day.
- “If I...............
71. They told me how lovely their holiday had been.
- “We ............
72. “If Brain doesn’t train harder, I won’t select him for the team,” said the manager.
- The manager threatened........
73. “Our correspondent in Paris sent this report some days ago” said the editor- in - chief.
-The editor- in - chief told ............
74. “How long have you been waiting here?” the girl asked me.
-The girl asked me ........
75. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher to the boys.
-The teacher told the boys...........
76. “Take your place in the queue”, said the nurse to the old man.
-The nurse asked .........
77. “How many jobs have you had since you left school?” the interviewer asked Mr Simpson.
- The interviewer asked ........
78. “Why didn’t you report the incident to the police last week?” the officer asked the frightened
witness.
- The officer wanted to know.........
79. “Why hasn’t Peter phoned?” she wondered.
- She wondered .........
80. “If I were you, I wouldn’t trust Peter” she told John.
- She advised ...........
81. “I’m sorry that I broke the glass,” said Peter.
- Peter apologised ........
82. “You were cheating,” said Carol to him.
- Carol accused ..........
83. “I think you should go by train” he told us.
He advised ........
84. “Don’t forget to phone the office”, she told him.
- She reminded .......
85. “Where are you spending your holidays?” Janet asked us.
- Janet asked .........
86. “Why don’t you complain to the company, Peter” said William.
-William suggested ..........
87. “I was not there at the time,” he said.
- He denied ........
88. “Who does that suitcase belong to?”, the policeman asked us.
-The policeman asked us whose .........
89. “Please don’t make such a mess in your room,” his mother said.
-His mother asked .........
90. He said, “You must walk faster, you are too slow”.
-He told her..........
V n ñ 3: Nh ng ñ ng t có ngôi ñ c bi t
   1. Đ ng t khuy t thi u (Model verbs)

   2. To be, to have, to do

1. Đ ng t khuy t thi u (Can, could, may, might, must,
need, ought to, dare, use to)
Ngoài nh ng ñ c tính như tr ñ ng t , ñ ng t khuy t thi u còn có thêm m t s ñ c tính riêng
như sau:

1.Không có TO     nguyên m u và không có TO khi có ñ ng t theo sau.
Eg: They can speak French and English.
2.Không có S    ngôi th ba s ít thì Hi n t i.
Eg: He can use our phone.
3.Ch có nhi u nh t là 2 thì: Thì Hi n t i và thì Quá kh ñơn.
Eg: She can cook meals.

CAN
CAN là m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u, nó ch có 2 thì Hi n t i và Quá kh ñơn. Nh ng hình
th c khác ta dùng ñ ng t tương ñương be able to. CAN cũng có th ñư c dùng như
m t tr ñ ng t ñ hình thành m t s cách nói riêng.

1.CAN và COULD có nghĩa là "có th ", di n t m t kh năng (ability).

Eg :Can you swim?

She could ride a bicycle when she was five years old.

 2. Trong văn nói (colloquial speech), CAN ñư c dùng thay cho MAY ñ di n t m t s
cho phép (permission) và th ph ñ nh CANNOT ñư c dùng ñ di n t m t s c m ñoán
(prohibition).

Eg: In London buses you can smoke on the upper deck, but you can’t smoke downstairs.

3. CAN cũng di n t m t ñi u có th x y ñ n (possibility). Trong câu h i và câu c m thán
CAN có nghĩa là ‘Is it possible...?’

Eg: Can it be true?

It surely can’t be four o’clock already!

4. CANNOT ñư c dùng ñ di n t m t ñi u khó có th x y ra (virtual impossibility).

Eg: He can’t have missed the way. I explained the route carefully.

5. Khi dùng v i ñ ng t tri giác (verbs of perception) CAN cho m t ý nghĩa tương ñương
v i thì Ti p di n (Continuous Tense).

Eg: Listen! I think I can hear the sound of the sea.(không dùng I am hearing)
COULD
1.COULD là thì quá kh ñơn c a CAN.

Eg: She could swim when she was five.

2. COULD còn ñư c dùng trong câu ñi u ki n.

Eg: If you tried, you could do that work.

3. Trong cách nói thân m t, COULD ñư c xem như nhi u tính ch t l ch s            hơn CAN.

Eg: Can you change a 20-dollar note for me, please?

Could you tell me the right time, please?

4. COULD ñư c dùng ñ di n t m t s              ng v c hay m t l i ph n kháng nh nhàng.

Eg: His story could be true, but I hardly think it is.

I could do the job today, but I’d rather put it off until tomorrow.

5. COULD - WAS/WERE ABLE TO

 a) N u hành ñ ng di n t m t kh năng, m t ki n th c, COULD ñư c dùng thư ng hơn
WAS/WERE ABLE TO.

Eg: He hurt his foot, and he couldn’t play in the match.

The door was locked, and I couldn’t open it.

 b) N u câu nói hàm ý m t s thành công trong vi c th c hi n hành ñ ng (succeeded in
doing) thì WAS/WERE ABLE TO ñư c s d ng ch không ph i COULD.

Eg: I finished my work early and so was able to go to the pub with my friends.
MAY - MIGHT


1.MAY và d ng quá kh MIGHT di n t s xin phép, cho phép (permission).

Eg: May I take this book? - Yes, you may.

She asked if she might go to the party.

2. MAY/MIGHT dùng di n t m t kh năng có th x y ra hay không th x y ra.

Eg: It may rain.

He admitted that the news might be true.

3. Dùng trong câu c m thán MAY/MIGHT di n t m t l i c u chúc.

Eg: May all your dreams come true!

 4. MAY/MIGHT dùng trong m nh ñ theo sau các ñ ng t hope (hy v ng) và trust (tin
tư ng).

Eg: I trust (hope) that you may find this plan to your satisfaction.

He trust (hoped) that we might find the plan to our satisfaction.

5.MAY/MIGHT dùng thay cho m t m nh ñ tr ng ng ch s                     như ng b (adverb clauses
of concession).

Eg: He may be poor, but he is honest. (Though he is poor...)

Try as he may, he will not pass the examination. (Though he tries hard...)

Try as he might, he could not pass the examination. (Though he tried hard...)

 6. MAY/MIGHT thư ng ñư c dùng trong m nh ñ tr ng ng ch m c ñích (adverb
clauses of purpose). Trong trư ng h p này ngư i ta cũng thư ng dùng CAN/COULD ñ
thay cho MAY/MIGHT.

Eg: She was studying so that she might read English books.

 7. MIGHT (không dùng MAY) ñôi khi ñư c dùng trong câu ñ di n t m t l i trách m ng
có tính h n d i (petulant reproach).

Eg: You might listen when I am talking to you. (Làm ơn ráng mà l ng nghe tôi nói)

- You might try to be a little more helpful. (Làm ơn ráng mà t ra có ích m t chút)

 8. Trong trư ng h p c n thi t ngư i ta dùng be allowed to, permit... tùy theo ý nghĩa
c n di n t ñ thay cho MAY và MIGHT.

Eg: I shall be allowed to go to the party.
MUST
MUST là m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u và ch có hình th c hi n t i.

1. MUST có nghĩa là "ph i" di n t m t m nh l nh hay m t s            b t bu c.

Eg: You must drive on the left in London.

2.MUST bao hàm m t k t lu n ñương nhiên, m t cách gi i thích duy nh t h p lý theo ý
nghĩ c a ngư i nói.

Eg: Are you going home at midnight? You must be mad!

You have worked hard all day; you must be tired.

3. MUST NOT (MUSTN'T) di n t m t l nh c m.

You mustn’t walk on the grass.

4.Khi mu n di n t th ph ñ nh c a MUST v i ý nghĩa "không c n thi t" ngư i ta s
d ng NEED NOT (NEEDN’T).

Must I do it now? - No, you needn’t. Tomorrow will be soon enough.

 5. CANNOT (CAN’T) ñư c dùng làm ph ñ nh c a MUST khi MUST di n t ý nghĩa k t
lu n ñương nhiên, m t cách gi i thích duy nh t h p lý theo ý nghĩ c a ngư i nói như ñã
ñ c p trong ñi m 2 trên ñây.

Eg: If he said that, he must be mistaken.

If he said that, he can’t be telling the truth.

6. MUST và HAVE TO

a) HAVE TO dùng thay cho MUST trong nh ng hình th c mà MUST không có.

Eg: We shall have to hurry if we are going to catch the twelve o’clock train.

 b) HAVE TO không th thay th MUST khi MUST mang ý nghĩa k t lu n ñương nhiên,
m t cách gi i thích duy nh t h p lý theo ý nghĩ c a ngư i nói như ñã ñ c p trong ñi m
2 trên ñây. Ngư i ta ph i di n t b ng nh ng cách khác.

Eg: He must be mad. (I personally thought that he was mad)

 c) MUST và HAVE TO ñ u có th dùng ñ di n t s cư ng bách, b t bu c
(compulsion). Tuy nhiên MUST mang ý nghĩa s cư ng bách ñ n t ngư i nói trong khi
HAVE TO mang ý nghĩa s cư ng bách ñ n t hoàn c nh bên ngoài (external
circumstances)

Eg: You must do what I tell you.

Passengers must cross the line by the bridge. (L nh c a C c Đư ng S t)

Passengers have to cross the line by the bridge. (Vì không còn ñư ng nào khác)
SHALL - SHOULD


1. SHALL có th là:

M t tr ñ ng t giúp hình thành thì Tương lai (Simple Future)             ngôi th nh t s ít.

Eg: I shall do what I like.

 M t ñ ng t khuy t thi u. Khi là ñ ng t khuy t thi u SHALL di n t m t l i h a
(promise), m t s qu quy t (determination) hay m t m i ñe d a (threat) theo ý nghĩ c a
ngư i nói.

Eg: If you work hard, you shall have a holiday on Saturday. (promise)

He shall suffer for this; he shall pay you what he owes you. (threat)

These people want to buy my house, but they shan’t have it. (determination)

2. SHOULD ñư c dùng trong nh ng trư ng h p sau:

Làm m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u có nghĩa là "nên" và tương ñương v i ought to.

Eg: You should do what the teacher tells you.

People who live in glass houses should not throw stones. (proverb)

Dùng thay cho must khi không mu n di n t m t ý nghĩa quá b t bu c v i must.

Eeg: Members who want tickets for the dance should apply before September 1st to the
Secretary.
WILL - WOULD
1. WILL có th là:

 M t tr ñ ng t . Dùng làm tr ñ ng t WILL giúp hình thành thì Tương lai (simple
future).

M t ñ ng t khuy t thi u. Khi là m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u WILL di n t m t s mong
mu n (willingness), m t l i h a (promise) hay m t s qu quy t (determination).

Eg: All right; I will pay you at the rate you ask. (willingness)

I won’t forget little Margaret's birthday. I will send her a present. (promise)

Trong cách di n t s qu quy t (determination) c SHALL l n WILL ñ u có th s          d ng
nhưng m i t mang m t nghĩa riêng. V i SHALL, s qu quy t là ngư i nói.

V i WILL, s     qu quy t      ch t (subject) c a ñ ng t . So sánh hai thí d sau:



       (a) George shall go out without his overcoat.



       (b) George will go out without his overcoat.



        câu (a), ngư i nói nh t ñ nh b t George ph i ñi ra ngoài mà không ñư c m c
áo khoác. câu (b) George nh t ñ nh ñi ra ngoài mà không thèm m c áo khoác.

2. WOULD có th là:

M t tr ñ ng t . WOULD giúp hình thành m t Tương lai trong quá kh (future in the
past) hay các thì trong câu ñi u ki n.

Eg: He said he would send it to me, but he didn’t.

If she were here, she would help us.

He would have been very happy if he had known about it.

Khi dùng như m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u, WOULD di n t m t thói quen trong quá kh .

V i nghĩa này, WOULD có th dùng thay cho used to.

Eg: Every day he would get up at six o'clock and light the fire.
OUGHT TO - DARE - NEED
OUGHT TO
 OUGHT TO là m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u ch có thì Hi n t i (simple present). Nó có nghĩa
là "nên", g n gi ng v i should. Trong h u h t các trư ng h p OUGHT TO có th ñư c
thay th b ng should.

Eg: They ought to (should) pay the money.

He ought to (should) be ashamed of himself.

1.OUGHT TO cũng dùng ñ di n t m t s g n ñúng, r t có th ñúng (strong
probability).

Eg: If Alice left home at 9:00, she ought to be here any minute now.

 2.OUGHT TO có th dùng trong tương lai v i các t xác ñ nh th i gian tương lai như
tomorrow, next Tuesday..

Eg: Our team ought to win the match tomorrow.

3. OUGHT NOT TO HAVE + past participle di n t m t s không tán ñ ng v m t hành
ñ ng ñã làm trong quá kh .

Eg: You ought not to have spent all that money on such a thing.




DARE


DARE có nghĩa là "dám, c gan" có th ñư c xem như m t ñ ng t khuy t l n ñ ng t
thư ng. Khi là m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u, nó có ñ y ñ ñ c tính c a lo i ñ ng t này.

Eg: Dare he go and speak to her? (ñ ng t khuy t thi u)

You daren’t climb that tree, dare you? (ñ ng t khuy t thi u)

He doesn’t dare to answer my letter. (ñ ng t thư ng)

She didn’t dare to say a word, did she? (ñ ng t thư ng)

Thành ng I daresay có nghĩa là "có th , có l " ñ ng nghĩa v i các t perhaps, it is
probable. Thành ng này thư ng không dùng v i ch t nào khác ngoài ngôi th nh t.

Eg: He is not here yet, but I daresay he will come later.
NEED
 Có hai ñ ng t NEED: m t ñ ng t thư ng và m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u. Khi là ñ ng t
khuy t thi u NEED ch có hình th c Hi n t i và có ñ y ñ ñ c tính c a m t ñ ng t
khuy t thi u. Nó có nghĩa là "c n ph i", tương t như have to. Vì th nó cũng ñư c xem
là m t lo i ph ñ nh c a must.

Eg: Need he work so hard?

You needn’t go yet, need you?

Có m t ñi u c n nh là ñ ng t khuy t thi u NEED không dùng th xác ñ nh. Nó ch
ñư c dùng th ph ñ nh và nghi v n. Khi dùng th xác ñ nh nó ph i ñư c dùng v i
m t t ng ph ñ nh.

Eg: You needn’t see him, but I must.

I hardly need say how much I enjoyed the holiday.




USED TO
Đ ng t khuy t thi u USED TO

 USED TO là m t hình th c ñ ng t ñ c bi t. Nó có th ñư c xem như m t ñ ng t
thư ng hay m t ñ ng t khuy t thi u trong vi c hình thành th ph ñ nh và th nghi v n.

Eg: You used to live in London, usedn’t you?

He usedn’t to smoke as much as he does now.

He didn’t use to smoke as much as he does now.

Did you use to climb the old tree in the garden?

 Ngày nay ngư i ta có khuynh hư ng dùng did và didn’t ñ l p th ph ñ nh và th nghi
v n cho USED TO. Trong nhi u trư ng h p th ph ñ nh có th ñư c hình thành b ng
cách s d ng never.

Eg: You never used to make that mistake.

USED TO ñư c dùng ñ ch m t hành ñ ng liên t c, kéo dài, l p ñi l p l i trong quá kh
mà nay không còn n a.

Eg: People used to think that the earth was flat.

V i thì Quá kh ñơn ngư i ta ch bi t hành ñ ng ñã x y ra. V i USED TO ngư i ta th y
ñư c tính ch t kéo dài c a hành ñ ng y.

Eg: He was my classmate. (không rõ trong th i gian bao lâu)

He used to be my classmate. (trong m t th i gian khá lâu)
Phân bi t USED TO và m t s hình th c khác



1.      USED TO + infinitive: hành ñ ng liên t c trong quá kh

2.      (be) USED TO + V.ing: quen v i m t vi c gì

3.      (get) USED TO + V.ing: làm quen v i m t vi c gì.

Eg: He used to work six days a week. (Now he doesn’t)

It took my brother two weeks to get used to working at night. Now he’s used to it.




2. to be, to have, to do

1) BE
1.BE ñư c s d ng làm tr ñ ng t ñ hình thành các thì ti p di n (Continuous Tenses)
và th th ñ ng (Passive Voice).

Eg: She was washing clothes when we came.

He was washed to sign his name.

 2. BE là m t lo i ñ ng t chưa ñ y ñ (incomplete predication). Vì th luôn ñòi h i ph i
có m t b ng t (Complement) ñ hoàn thành ý nghĩa c a câu.

Eg: Your dinner is ready.

His father was a famous man.

3. Khi ñư c s     d ng như m t ñ ng t hoàn ch nh, BE có nghĩa là "hi n h u, t n t i".

Eg: I think, therefore I am.

4. BE TO di n t :

a) M t s    thu x p, s p ñ t (arrangement).

Eg: The wedding is to take place on Saturday.

b) M t m nh l nh, m t yêu c u.

Eg: You are to see the headmaster at 4 o’clock.

 c) Tính ch t tương lai trong nh ng trư ng h p c n di n t tương lai trong quá kh
(Future in the Past).

Eg: My sister and her husband were to come and see us this weekend, but they couldn’t come.
5. DO BE là m t hình th c nh n m nh, làm tăng ý nghĩa tình c m c a hành ñ ng hay làm
cho câu nó có ý nghĩa thuy t ph c hơn.

Eg: Do be careful when you cross the road.

Do be as nice to him as you can.

6. M t s thành ng v i BE

- be able to: có th , có kh năng

Eg: I am not able to guarantee the results.

- be about to: s p s a

Eg: The plane is about to take off.

- be apt to: có khi u, nhanh trí v

Eg: He’s apt to ask awkward questions.

- be bound to: nh t ñ nh, có khuynh hư ng

Eg: Prices are bound to go up this autumn.

- be certain to: ch c ch n

Eg: The match is certain to start on time.

- be due to: vì, do b i, t h n, nh t ñ nh

Eg: He’s due to arrive at any moment.

- be going to: ñ nh s

Eg: We’re going to need more staff here.

- be liable to: có kh năng s

Eg: This machine is liable to break down.

- be sure to: ch n ch n, d t khoát là

Eg: He’s sure to be waiting outside.

- be likely to: có v như là

Eg: They’re likely to win by several goals.

- be meant to: ý mu n nói là

Eg: Are you meant to work overtime?

- be supposed to: xem là, có nhi m v là

Eg: We’re not supposed to smoke in here.
III. Tr ñ ng t HAVE

1. HAVE ñư c dùng làm tr ñ ng t ñ t o các thì hoàn thành (Perfect Tenses).

Eg: I have answered your questions.

Has he finished his dinner?

 2. Khi ñư c dùng như m t ñ ng t chính trong câu, HAVE có nghĩa là s h u
(possess). V i ý nghĩa này, trong văn nói và trong nhi u c u trúc văn vi t, got ñư c
thêm vào v i have mà không làm tăng thêm ý nghĩa.



The man has (got) a car.

How many children have you (got)?

3. Khi dùng v i nghĩa khác hơn là s h u, HAVE có các hình th c ph ñ nh, nghi v n...
như các ñ ng t thông thư ng khác. Khi y HAVE cũng không dùng v i got phía sau.

Did you have a letter from home? (= receive)

I don’t have much difficulty with English grammar (= find, experience)



       V i cách s d ng này HAVE thư ng di n t m t hành ñ ng có tính ch t c a m t
thói quen, m t s l p ñi l p l i nhi u l n. Hãy so sánh hai câu sau:



He has a walk in the garden.



(Ông ta ñi d o trong vư n)



He walks in the garden.



(Ông ta bư c ñi trong vư n)



4.     HAVE có th ñư c dùng trong th nguyên nhân (Causative). Cách s d ng này
cho bi t ai ñã gây nên m t hành ñ ng nào. Causative c a HAVE có hai c u trúc sau:



active: S + (have) + O1 + V + O2
passive:        S + (have) + O2 + past participle (by O1)



They had Daisy clean the floor.



(H b o Daisy lau nhà)



We have just had our house painted.



(Chúng tôi v a cho ngư i sơn căn nhà c a chúng tôi)



Why don’t you have your hair cut?



(T i sao anh không ñi h t tóc)



- Trong h u h t các trư ng h p này HAVE có th ñư c thay th b i GET.



Why don’t you get your hair cut?



They got the floor cleaned.



5. HAVE TO (ph i, c n ph i) dùng di n t m t s c n thi t (necessity), s cư ng bách,
b t bu c (compulsion). Trư ng h p này HAVE cũng có th dùng v i got phía sau.



I missed the bus, so I had to walk to the office.



You’ve got to work hard to make a living.



6. HAVE TO ñư c dùng thay cho MUST             các thì mà MUST không có.
You will have to leave for work early in the morning.



We had to answer all the questions in the examination.

IV. Tr ñ ng t DO



DO có th là



- m t ñ ng t thư ng:



He does his work well.



- m t tr ñ ng t . Khi dùng làm tr ñ ng t , DO có nh ng cách s   d ng sau ñây:



1. Dùng ñ hình thành th ph ñ nh (negative) và th nghi v n (interrogative) cho các
ñ ng t thư ng.



What does he read?



She doesn’t like swimming.



Don’t sit on that chair!



2.Dùng ñ hình thành Câu h i ñuôi (Tag-questions) khi ñ ng t trong câu chính là m t
ñ ng t thư ng.



They stayed in that hotel, didn’t they?



Mary doesn't clean the floor, does she?
3. Dùng ñ tránh l p l i ñ ng t chính khi ñ ng t chính là m t lo i ñ ng t thư ng
trong câu tr l i ng n (short answer).



David likes swimming. - So do I.



Did they go to London? - Yes, they did.



Mary doesn’t like fish, neither does Fred.



4.Dùng ñ hình thành Th Nh n m nh (Emphatic Form).



You did make me surprised.



He does write his name on the board.
V n ñ 4: Câu ñi u ki n (Conditionals)
Lo i 1: (conditional type 1) (Real conditional)
Công th c :
            IF S + V (hi n t i) , S + WILL ( CAN, MAY) + V (nguyên th )
Cách dùng:
Ch s vi c có th x y ra hi n t i ho c tương lai.
Ví d :
If it is sunny, I will go fishing. ( n u tr i n ng, tôi s ñi câu)
Lo i 2: (conditional type 2) (Unreal conditional in the present)
Công th c :
       IF S + V (quá kh ) , S + WOULD ( COULD, MIGHT ) + V (nguyên th )
( be luôn dùng were dù ch t s ít hay nhi u )
Cách dùng:

Ch s vi c không có th t        hi n t i.

Ví d :
If I were you, I would go abroad. ( n u tôi là b n, tôi s ñi nư c ngoài)

Chuy n này không th x y ra ñư c vì tôi ñâu th nào bi n thành b n ñư c.

Lo i 3: (conditional type 3) (Unreal conditional in the past)
Công th c :
        IF S +HAD +P.P , S + WOULD ( COULD, MIGHT ) HAVE + P.P
Cách dùng:
Ch s vi c không có th t quá kh .
Ví d :

If I hadn’t been absent yesterday, I would have met him. ( n u hôm qua tôi không v ng m t thì
tôi ñã g p anh ta r i) => nhưng th c s tôi ñã v ng m t

LƯU Ý:

+ Unless = if … not : tr phi

+ Bên m nh ñ có if, ch had trong lo i 3, ch were trong lo i 2 và ch should trong lo i 1 có
th ñem ra ñ u câu th cho if. (c u trúc ñ o ng )

type 1: should có th ñưa lên trư c và b if
eg: If u should need my help, just give me a ring
= Should u need my help, just give me a ring

type 2: có th ñ were lên trư c và b if
eg: If I were u, I wouldn't go there
= Were I you, I wouldn't go there

type 3: ñưa had lên trư c và b if
eg: If I had known u were ill, I would have visited you
= Had I known u were ill, I would have visited you
Câu ñi u ki n ph c: (Mixed Conditional) (ph c gi a lo i 2 và lo i 3)

  Active: S     Vhi    nt i   , S’ Vquá kh          Passive: If S V, S’ V’
                                                                lo i 2   lo i 3
                                                    (were/ Vquá kh ñơn ) would have PII

  Active: S     Vquá kh , S’           Vhi   nt i   Passive: If S    V, S’   V’

                                                            (had PII) (would V)

Eg: - If you hadn’t been cought yesterday, you wouldn’t been ill now

              lo i 3                                        lo i 2

- If I were you, I wouldn’t have kissed him ^^

    lo i 2                    lo i 3



Lo i 0

C u trúc câu ñi u ki n lo i 0 dùng ñ di n ñ t nh ng s th t t ng quan, nh ng d ki n khoa
h c luôn luôn x y ra v i m t ñi u ki n nh t ñ nh. Ta còn có th g i câu ñi u ki n lo i 0 là câu
ñi u ki n hi n t i luôn có th t. Trong m t câu ñi u ki n luôn có hai m nh ñ : m nh ñ N U và
m nh ñ chính.

* Công th c câu ñi u ki n lo i 0:

IF + S1+ V(HTĐ) +B ng , S2 + V(HTĐ)+ B ng (n u có).

- Nói cách khác, câu ñi u ki n lo i 0, c hai m nh ñ IF (N U) và m nh ñ chính ñ u s
d ng thì hi n t i ñơn.

- Ch ng 1 và ch ng 2 có th trùng nhau.

- B ng có th không có, tùy ý nghĩa c a câu.

- M nh ñ IF và m nh ñ chính có th ñ ng trư c hay sau ñ u ñư c.

- Thí d :

+ IF YOU EXPOSE PHOSPORUS TO AIR, IT BURNS. = N u b n ñ ph t-pho ra ngoài không
khí, nó s cháy.
Bài t p t        luy n:
Exercise 1. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences.

   1. If I ……….a lot of money now, I …………..a new car.

   a. have /will buy    b. have / would buy      c. had/ will buy d. had/ would buy.

   2. If I ……………you, I …………….do that.

   a. am/ will          b. were /would          c. were/ will          d. had been/ would.

   3. if I were offered the job, I think I ………. it.

   a. take             b. will take             c. would take           d. would have taken.

   4. I would be very surprised if he……………..

   a. refuses           b. refused               c. had refused          d. would refuse.

   5. Many people would be out of work if that factory………..down.

   a. closes            b. had closed            c. closed               d. would close.

   6. If she sold her car, she ………… much money.

   a. gets             b. would get             c. will get             d. would have got.

   7. They would be disappointed if we…………….

   a. hadn’t come       b. wouldn’t come         c. don’t come          d. didn’t come.

   8. Would John be angry if I ……. ……his bicycle without asking?

   a. take             b. took                  c. had taken            d. would take.

   9. She ……….terrible upset if I lost this ring.

   a. will be           b. would be             c. were                 d. had been.

   10. If someone…………in here with a gun, I would be very frightened.

   a. would walk       b. walks                 c. had walked          d. walked.

   11. What would happen if you ……………..to work tomorrow?

   a. don’t go         b. didn’t go             c. won’t go            d. wouldn’t go.

   12. We ‘ll get wet if we ………….out.

   a. go                b. did go                c. went                d. had gone.

   13. If I go shopping, I ………some food.

   a. buy              b. will buy              c. would buy            d. would have bought.
14. If I find it, I ………you.

a. will tell        b. would tell            c. had told              d. told.

15. What would you do if you……………a million dollars?

a. would win        b. win                  c. had won                d. won.

16. They ‘d be hurt if I ……………….

a. don’t go         b. didn’t go             c. hadn’t gone            d. wouldn’t go.

17. If we took the 6: 30 train, we…………too early.

a. would have arrived         b. arrived      c. will arrived          d. would arrive.

18. If I had known you were in hospital, I …………to see you.

a. will go          b. would go              c. went                  d. would have gone.

19. If I …………., I would have said hello.

a. had seen         b. see                   c. saw                   d. would see.

20. I…………..out if I hadn’t been so tired.

a. will go          b. went                  c. would have gone        d. would go.

21. If I ………..a camera, I would have taken some pictures.

a. have             b. had                   c. would have            d. had had.

22. You won’t pass the examination……………you study more.

a. as long as        b. unless                c. if                     d. whether.

23. If only I …………you wanted to invest money in business.

a. had known        b. knew                  c. have known            d. know.

24. If I were to leave my country , I ……………disappointed.

a. probably be      b. would have been       c. will be               d. would be.

25. If he hadn’t wasted too much time, he…………….in his examination.

a. would fail       b. wouldn’t fail c. wouldn’t have failed. d. won’t fail.

26. If I had taken that English course, I ………..much progress.

a. had made         b. would have made         c. made                  d. would make.

27. If I were in your place, I ……….a trip to England.

a. will make        b. had made              c. made.                 d. would make.
28. If I ………….. you , I’d save some of your lottery winning.

a. be                       b. were                                 c. am                                 d. was

29. If the car ……….. larger, we would have bought it.

a. had been                 b. have been                                c. has been                        d. been

30. If I had enough money, I ……… abroad to improve my English.

a. will go                  b. should go                                c. would go                       d. should have go to

Exercise 2: Identify the one that has a mistake by circling the corresponding letter a,
b, c, d.

1. If we will reduce the speed of population growth, there will be less pressure on the earth.

                        A                                           b                                       c           d

2. Unless we leave a bowl of water under the sun, it will evaporate.

        A                           b                           c                         d

3. If we continue to use fuels at the current rate, we would soon have to face a fuel crisis.

    A                           b                                                             c                     d

4. If I am 10 centimeters taller, I would play basketball.

            A               b               c                   d

5. If the doctors could find in the remedy, a lot of people would be saved.

                A                       b                                 c                       d

6. If she bought that house now, she ran out of money.

                    A                           b               c         d

7. What you would do if you could speak French well?

        A               b                           c                                 d

8. If I had known he is not at home, I wouldn’t have gone all the way to his house.

                    A               b                                         c                                 d

9. If I had known that the road were flooded, I would never have taken that way.

                 A                                          b                     c                   d

10. If I were you, I will go to the dentist’s and have the tooth checked.

             a                  b                       c                                             d

Exercise 3: Rewrite those sentences with words given:
 1. Let me give you my advice. You should cut down on smoking right now.

 If I …………………………………………………………………………………………..............

 2. Leave me alone or I’ll call the police.

 Unless………………………………………………………………………………………….

 3. If you arrive at the office earlier than I do, please turn on the air-conditioner.

 Should………………………………………………………………………………………….

 4. The children don’t go to school in the snowy weather.

 If it ………………………………………………………………………………………….

 5. He died so young; otherwise, he would be a famous musician by now.

 Had ………………………………………………………………………………………….

 6. You must tell me the whole truth or I won’t help you.

 Unless………………………………………………………………………………………….

 7. The car breaks down so often because you don’t take good care of it.

 Were I………………………………………………………………………………………….

 8. He is very bad-tempered, that’s why his wife left him soon after marriage.

 If he………………………………………………………………………………………….

 9. Don’t tell lies to your boss or you’ll be fired at once.

 If………………………………………………………………………………………….

 10. She got married at such an early age: otherwise, she would be at university now.

Had ………………………………………………………………………
*V n ñ 5: Câu ñi u ki n v i wish ch                          có 1 v , cũng có 3 ñi u ki n: tương
lai, hi n t i và quá kh
                          FUTURE WISH (ư c mu n trong tưng lai)
S + wish + (that) + S + could/would/should + Vinf
   If only            + could

Eg: I wish you would pass the exam.(T ư c c u s thi t t)

                              PRESENT WISH (ư c mu n         hi n t i)

S + wish + (that) + S + VQK

   If only            + (VQK ; be-> were )


Eg: I wish I were a dove ( I'm not a dove)
(Tôi ư c tôi là chim b câu        )

                               PAST WISH (ư c mu n        quá kh )

S + wish + (that) + S + PII
   If only + could + have + PII

Eg:I wish that I had wash the clothes yesterday (I didn't wash the clothes)
(Tôi ư c gì tôi ñã gi t qu n áo hôm qua)
V n ñ 6: Câu b ñ ng (Passive voice)
1. Ph n chung                                1) Đ i ñ ng t chính ( ñã ch n trên) thành
                                             P.P.
Active: S      V               O             2) Thêm (BE) vào trư c PII, chia (BE) gi ng
                                             như ñ ng t câu ch ñ ng.
                                             3) Gi a ch t và ñ ng t có gì thì ñem
                                             xu ng h t.
Passive: SO be+PII             OS
B ng chia Ch ñ ng sang B ñ ng:

 Simple present                  do                             done
 Present continuous              Is / are doing                 is / are being done
 Simple Past                     did                            Were / was done
 Past continuous                 was / were doing               Were / was being done
 Present Perfect                 Has / have done                Have / has been done
 Past perfect                    Had done                       Had been done
 Simple future                   Will do                        Will be done
 Future perfect                  Will have done                 Will have been done
 Is/are going to                 Is / are going to do           Is / are going to be done
 Can                             Can / could do                 Can / could be done
 Might                           Might do                       Might be done
 Must                            Must do                        Must be done
 Have to                         Have to                        Have to be done

Ví d :

Chú ý: @@Đi u ki n ñ có th chuy n câu ch ñ ng sang b ñ ng:

- Câu ch ñ ng ph i xác l p có ñư c tân ng . (object)

- Câu ch ñ ng ph i có Ngo i ñ ng t . (transitive verbs)

@@ V i nh ng câu quá dài, có t 2 m nh ñ tr lên thì có th ng t b t ra, ñ i b ñ ng t ng m nh ñ m t.

2. Các d ng b ñ ng c th              ( ñây t ng h p g n ñ các d ng b ñ ng. )

2.1 D ng b ñ ng ñ i v i câu h i có 2 lo i : lo i câu h i yes/no và lo i câu h i có t        ñ h i (còn
g i là WH question)
1) Đ I V I CÂU H I YES / NO:
Câu h i yes / no là câu h i có ñ ng t ñ t bi t ho c tr ñ ng t do,does,did ñ u câu
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng
Bư c 2:
Đ i sang b ñ ng ( lúc này nó ñã tr thành câu thư ng, cách ñ i như ñã h c.)
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i thành câu h i yes / no
Em nào quên cách ñ i sang câu h i yes / no (câu nghi v n) thì VÀO ĐÂY xem nhé ñây các
em ph i làm quen v i c m t "ñ i sang câu thư ng" ( vì th y s dùng nó trong nhi u c u trúc
văn ph m khác n a) . Cách ñ i sang câu thư ng như sau :
N u các em bi t cách ñ i sang câu nghi v n thì cũng s bi t cách ñ i sang câu thư ng: làm
ngư c l i các bư c c a câu nghi v n, c th như sau:
- N u có do, does , did ñ u câu thì b - chia ñ ng t l i cho ñúng thì (d a vào do,does, did )
- N u có ñ ng t ñ c bi t ñ u câu thì chuy n ra sau ch t .
Ví d minh h a 1: ( tr ñ ng t ñ u câu)
Did Mary take it ?
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng : b did, chia ñ ng t take thành quá kh vì did là d u hi u c a quá kh
=> Mary took it.
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1
=> It was taken by Mary
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i nghi v n
=> Was it taken by Mary?
Các em cũng có th làm theo cách th to be vào do,does, did như "m o" bài 1
Ví d minh h a 2: ( ñ ng t ñ c bi t ñ u câu)

Is Mary going to take it ?
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng : chuy n ñ ng t ñ c bi t (is) ra sau ch t :
=> Mary is going to take it.
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1
=> It is going to be taken by Mary
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i nghi v n ( ñem is ra ñ u )
=> Is it going to be taken by Mary ?
2) Đ I V I CÂU H I CÓ CH H I:
Cách làm cũng chia ra các bư c như d ng trên, nhưng khác bi t n m    bư c 2 và 3

Bư c 1 : Đ i sang câu thư ng
Bư c này ph c t p hơn d ng 1, ñ làm ñư c bư c này các em ph i bi t chia nó làm 3 lo i
- Lo i ch h i WH làm ch t : ( sau nó không có tr ñ ng t do,does,did mà có ñ ng t + túc
t )
What made you sad? (ñi u gì làm b n bu n ?)
Who has met you ? (ai ñã g p b n ? )
Lo i này khi ñ i sang câu thư ng v n gi nguyên hình th c mà không có b t c s thay ñ i
nào
- Lo i ch h i WH làm túc t : ( sau nó có tr ñ ng t do, does, did ho c ñ ng t ñ c bi t + ch
t )
What do you want ?
Who will you meet ?
Khi ñ i sang câu thư ng s chuy n WH ra sau ñ ng t
- Lo i ch h i WH là tr ng t : là các ch : when, where, how , why
When did you make it ?
Gi nguyên ch h i , ñ i gi ng như d ng câu h i yes/no
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1

Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i có ch h i ( ñem WH ra ñ u câu)


Ví d minh h a:1 ( WH là túc t , có tr ñ ng t )
What did Mary take ?
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng : Có tr ñ ng t did => What là túc t :b did, chia ñ ng t take thành
quá kh vì did là d u hi u c a quá kh , ñem what ra sau ñ ng t :
=> Mary took what.
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1
=> What was taken by Mary
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i nghi v n : (vì lúc này what là ch t r i nên không có gì thay ñ i n a )
=> What was taken by Mary ?
Ví d minh h a:2 ( WH là túc t , có ñ ng t ñ c bi t)
Who can you meet ?
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng : Có ñ ng t ñ c bi t can , Who là túc t : chuy n ra sau ñ ng t meet ,
you là ch t :chuy n can ra sau ch t you
=> you can meet who.
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1
=> Who can be met by you ?
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i nghi v n : (vì lúc này who là ch t r i nên không có gì thay ñ i n a )
=. Who can be met by you ?

Ví d minh h a:3 ( WH là ch t )
Who took Mary to school ?
Bư c 1 :
Đ i sang câu thư ng : Sau who là ñ ng t + túc t => who là ch t => ñ i sang câu thư ng
v n gi nguyên hình th c
=> Who took Mary to school
Bư c 2 :
Đ i sang b ñ ng : làm các bư c như bài 1
=> Mary was taken to school by who
Bư c 3:
Đ i tr l i câu h i nghi v n : (vì lúc này là câu h i nên who ph i ñ u câu )
=> Who was Mary taken to school by ?
N u By ñem ra ñ u thì who ph i ñ i thành whom:
=> By whom was Mary taken to school ?

2.2 D ng b ñ ng ñ i v i câu kép
- V i nh ng câu có nhi u m nh ñ , ta nên tách ra thành t ng câu riêng r i làm bình thư ng,
gi l i các t n i.
Ví d :
When I came, they were repairing my car.
Nhìn vào là th y rõ ràng có 2 m nh ñ , các em c vi c tách chúng ra r i làm b ñ ng t ng
m nh ñ :
When I came : m nh ñ này không ñ i sang b ñ ng ñư c vì không có túc t
they were repairing my car. làm b ñ ng như bình thư ng => my car was being repaired
Cu i cùng ta n i l i như cũ :
When I came, my car was being repaired
D ng này suy cho cùng cũng là cách làm t ng câu như ta ñã h c trên, còn m t d ng n a
ph c t p hơn mà trong các bài ki m tra cũng thư ng hay cho, các em c n lưu ý.
Đó là d ng m t ch t làm 2 hành ñ ng khác nhau, ví d : They opened the door and stole
some pictures d ng này các em cũng tách làm 2 ph n nhưng nh thêm ch t cho ph n sau:
They opened the door and they stole some pictures
Lúc này các em ch vi c ñ i sang b ñ ng t ng câu riêng bi t và gi l i liên t and là xong.
=> The door was opened and some pictures were stolen.

2.3 B ñ ng c a câu m nh l nh
Trư c h t các em cũng nên bi t cách nh n d ng ra câu m nh l nh. Đó là câu không có ch t ,
mà là ñ ng t nguyên m u ñ ng ñ u câu.
Công th c: xem sơ ñ T I ĐÂY

- Thêm Let ñ u câu
- Đem túc t câu trên xu ng
- Thêm be vào sau túc t (be ñ nguyên m u không chia)

- Đ i ñ ng t thành P.P
- Các ph n còn l i (n u có ) vi t l i h t
Ví d :

Write your name on the blackboard.
- Thêm Let ñ u câu:
Let.....
- Đem túc t câu trên xu ng: (your name)
Let your name .....
- Thêm be vào sau túc t (be ñ nguyên m u không chia):
Let your name be.....
- Đ i ñ ng t thành P.P ( write => written)
Let your name be written.....
- Các ph n còn l i vi t l i h t (on the blackboard )
Let your name be written on the blackboard
2.4 Các d ng b ñ ng ñ c bi t

D NG 1: People say that ....
D ng này câu ch ñ ng c a nó có d ng sau:
People/ they + say/think/believe... + (that) + S + V + O
D ng này có 2 cách ñ i sang b ñ ng như sau

Cách 1:
- Bư c 1: L y ch t m nh ñ sau ñem ra ñ u câu
- Bư c 2: Thêm (be) vào : (be) chia gi ng ñ ng t say/think....
-Bư c 3: L y ñ ng t say/think.. làm P.P ñ sau (be)
- Bư c 4: L y ñ ng t m nh ñ sau ñ i thành to INF. r i vi t l i h t ph n sau ñ ng t này.
LƯU Ý :
N u ñ ng t trong m nh ñ sau trư c thì so v i say/think.. thì bư c 4 không dùng to INF mà
dùng : TO HAVE + P.P
Ví d 1:
People said that he was nice to his friends
- Bư c 1: L y ch t m nh ñ sau ñem ra ñ u câu (he )
=> He....
- Bư c 2: Thêm (be) vào : (be) chia gi ng ñ ng t say/think....
Said là quá kh nên (be) chia thành was
=> He was...
-Bư c 3: L y ñ ng t say/think.. làm P.P ñ sau (be)
P.P (c t 3) c a said cũng là said :
=> He was said..
- Bư c 4: L y ñ ng t m nh ñ sau ñ i thành to INF. r i vi t l i h t ph n sau ñ ng t này.
So sánh thì 2 m nh ñ , ta th y said và was cùng là thì quá kh nên ñ i ñ ng t m nh ñ sau
là was thành to be , vi t l i ph n sau ( nice to his friends)
=> He was said to be nice to his friends.
Ví d 2:
People said that he had been nice to his friends
3 bư c ñ u làm gi ng như ví d 1 nhưng ñ n bư c 4 thì ta th y said là quá kh nhưng had
been là quá kh hoàn thành ( trư c thì ) nên ta áp d ng công th c to have + P.P ( P.P c a was
là been )
=> He was said to have been nice to his friends.
Cách 2:
- Bư c 1: Dùng IT ñ u câu
- Bư c 2: Thêm (be) vào : (be) chia gi ng ñ ng t say/think....
-Bư c 3: L y ñ ng t say/think.. làm P.P ñ sau (be)
- Bư c 4: Vi t l i t ch that ñ n h t câu.


Ví d :
People said that he was nice to his friends
- Bư c 1: - Bư c 1: Dùng IT ñ u câu
=> It....
- Bư c 2: Thêm (be) vào : (be) chia gi ng ñ ng t say/think....
Said là quá kh nên (be) chia thành was
=> It was...
-Bư c 3: L y ñ ng t say/think.. làm P.P ñ sau (be)
P.P (c t 3) c a said cũng là said :
=> It was said...
- Bư c 4: Vi t l i t ch that ñ n h t câu.
=> It was said that he was nice to his friends

Nh n xét:
- Bư c 2 và 3 gi ng nhau c 2 cách
- Cách 2 d hơn do không ph i bi n ñ i ñ ng t phía sau do ñó khi ngư i ta kêu ñ i sang b
ñ ng mà không cho s n t ñ u tiên thì các em dùng cách 2 cho d

2.5 Nh ng d ng b ñ ng riêng l

M u1:
M u này có d ng :
It is sb's duty to inf.
=> Sb (be) supposed to inf.
Ví d :
It's your duty to do this work.
=> You are supposed to do this work.

M u2

M u này có d ng :
It is impossible to do sth
=> Sth can't be done.

Ví d :
It is impossible to repair that machine.
=> That machine can't be repaired

M u3

M u này có d ng :
S + enjoy + Ving + O
=> S + enjoy + O being + P.P
Ví d :
We enjoy writing letters.
=> We enjoy letters being written.

M u4
M u này có d ng :
S + recommend / suggest + Ving + O
=> S + recommend / suggest that S + should be p.p
Ví d :
He recommends building a house.
He recommends that a house should be built
Ghi nh :
Các ñ ng t dùng with thay cho by :
Crowd , fill , cover
Ví d :
Clouds cover the sky.
=> The sky is covered with clouds.
Bài t p t luy n:
1. The storm has delayed the 11.20 flight to London.

   •      a) The 11.20 flight has been delayed to London by the storm.
   •      b) The 11.20 flight to London has been delayed by the storm.
   •      c) The 11.20 flight to London has delayed the storm.
   •      d) All are correct.

2. The police stopped us on our way to school.

   •      a) We were stopped by the police on our way to school.
   •      b) We stopped by the police on our way to school.
   •      c) We stopped the police on our way to school.
   •      d) A & B are correct.

3. People believe that hundreds of homeless children are living on the streets.

   •      a) It is believed that hundreds of homeless children are living on the streets.
   •      b) Hundreds of homeless children are believed to be living on the streets.
   •      c) Hundreds of homeless children believe to be living on the streets.
   •      d) A & B are correct.

4. You should give us this information.

   •      a) We should give you this information.
   •      b) We should be given this information.
   •      c) We should be give this information.
   •      d) This information should give us.

5. They are repairing our car at the garage.

   •      a) Our car is repairing at the garage.
   •      b) Our car is being repairing at the garage.
   •      c) Our car is being repaired at the garage.
   •      d) They are being repaired our car at the garage.

6. No one has cleaned the floor for weeks.

   •      a) The floor hasn’t been cleaned for weeks.
   •      b) The floor has been cleaned by someone for weeks.
   •      c) The floor hasn’t cleaned for weeks.
   •      d) A & B are correct.
7. They have given me a chance to explain my view.

   •       a) I have given them a chance to explain my view.
   •       b) I have be given them a chance to explain my view.
   •       c) I have been given a chance to explain my view.
   •       d) B & C are correct.

8. We will finish the report in time.

   •       a) The report will finish in time.
   •       b) The report will be finished in time.
   •       c) The report will be finish in time.
   •       d) The report is finished in time.

9. Someone woke me up this morning.

   •       a) I woke up someone this morning.
   •       b) I was waken up this morning.
   •       c) I was being waken up this morning.
   •       d) B & C are correct.

10. We made certain mistakes.

   •       a) Certain mistakes were made.
   •       b) Certain mistakes made us.
   •       c) Certain mistakes made.
   •       d) Certain mistakes was made.

11. They considered his speech one of the best.

   •       a) His speech was considered one of the best.
   •       b) His speech was one of the best.
   •       c) His speech one of the best was considered.
   •       d) His speech considered them one of the best.

12. People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.

   •       a) 13 believes to be an unlucky number.
   •       b) 13 is believed to be an unlucky number.
   •       c) It is believed that 13 is an unlucky number.
   •       d) B & C are correct.

13. They thought that the man was still living.
   •       a) The man thought he was still living.
   •       b) The man was thought to be still living.
   •       c) The man is thought to be still living.
   •       d) It thought the man to be still living.

14. People know that English is an international language.

   •       a) English is known to be an international language.
   •       b) It is known that English is an international language.
   •       c) It is known that English to be an international language.
   •       d) A & B are correct.

15. She advised me to sell that house.

   •       a) I am advised to sell that house.
   •       b) I advised her to sell that house.
   •       c) I was advised to sell that house.
   •       d) She was advised to sell that house.

16. He recommends us to do the job.

   •       a) We are recommended to do the job.
   •       b) We recommended to do the job.
   •       c) We recommend him to do the job.
   •       d) A & C are correct.

17. She helps me to do all the difficult exercises.

   •       a) I am helped to do all the difficult exercises.
   •       b) I am helped her to do all the difficult exercises.
   •       c) I help her to do all the difficult exercises.
   •       d) B & C are correct.

18. How did the police find the lost man?

   •       a) How was the lost man found by the police?
   •       b) How the lost man found by the police?
   •       c) How the police found the lost man?
   •       d) How was the police found by the lost man?

19. They believed that she won the competition.

   •       a) She was believed to win the competition.
   •       b) It was believed to win the competition.
   •       c) It was believed her to win the competition.
   •       d) She believed them to win the competition.

20. How can they open this safe?

   •       a) How can this safe is opened?
   •       b) How can this safe opened?
   •       c) How can this safe be opened?
   •       d) B & C are correct.

21. Do they teach English here?

   •       a) Is English taught here?
   •       b) English is teach here?
   •       c) Is English teach here?
   •       d) English taught here?

22. Did the teacher give some exercises?

   •       a) Were some exercises given by the teacher?
   •       b) Were some exercises given to the teacher?
   •       c) Were the teacher given some exercises?
   •       d) A & B are correct.

23. People believe that red is the symbol of luck.

   •       a) Red believes people to be the symbol of luck.
   •       b) Red believed to be the symbol of luck.
   •       c) Red is believed to be the symbol of luck.
   •       d) B & C are correct.

24. They may use this room for the classroom.

   •       a) This room may use for the classroom.
   •       b) The classroom may be used for this room.
   •       c) They may be used for the classroom.
   •       d) This room may be used for the classroom.

25. The teacher is going to tell a story.

   •       a) A story is going to be told by the teacher.
   •       b) A story is going to tell by the teacher.
   •       c) A story be told by the teacher.
   •       d) A story is going to tell the teacher.
26. Mary is cutting a cake with a sharp knife.

   •      a) A cake is being cut with a sharp knife by Mary.
   •      b) A cake is cut with a sharp knife by Mary.
   •      c) A sharp knife is cut with a cake by Mary.
   •      d) A & C are correct.

27. Somebody has taken some of my books away.

   •      a) Some of my books have been taken away.
   •      b) Some of my books have taken away.
   •      c) Some of my books away have taken.
   •      d) Some of my books taken away.

28. People spend a lot of money on advertising every day.

   •      a) A lot of money is spent on advertising every day.
   •      b) A lot of money spent on advertising every day.
   •      c) On advertising a lot of money is spent every day.
   •      d) On advertising is spent a lot of money every day.

29. They have provided the victims with food and clothing.

   •      a) The victims have provided them with food and clothing.
   •      b) The victims have been provided them with food and clothing.
   •      c) The victims have been provided with food and clothing.
   •      d) B & C are correct.

30. You mustn’t use this machine after 5.30.

   •      a) This machine mustn’t be used after 5.30.
   •      b) This machine mustn’t used after 5.30.
   •      c) You mustn’t be used this machine after 5.30.
   •      d) A & C are correct.

31. You must wash this dress in cold water.

   •      a) Cold water must be washed in this dress.
   •      b) This dress in cold water must be washed.
   •      c) This dress must be washed in cold water.
   •      d) B & C are correct.

32. He has made no mistakes in his composition.
   •      a) No mistakes have been made in his composition.
   •      b) No mistakes have made in his composition.
   •      c) His composition has made no mistakes.
   •      d) A & C are correct.

33. They built this house 100 years ago.

   •      a) This house was built 100 years ago.
   •      b) This house was being built 100 years ago.
   •      c) This house being built 100 years ago.
   •      d) This house built 100 years ago.

34. People feed these animals twice a day.

   •      a) These animals are feed twice a day.
   •      b) These animals are fed twice a day.
   •      c) These animals fed twice a day.
   •      d) These animals were fed twice a day.

35. Someone was cleaning the room when I arrived.

   •      a) The room cleaned when I arrived.
   •      b) The room was being cleaned when I arrived
   •      c) The room was cleaned when I arrived.
   •      d) The room was cleaning when I arrived
V n ñ 7: M nh ñ quan h (Relative
clause)
I. Defining RelativeClauses(M nh ñ quan h xác ñ nh)
-Đư c dùng ñ b nghĩa cho danh t ñi trư c nó, t c là làm ch c năng ñ nh ng và c n thi t
cho ý nghĩa c a câu
Notes:
1. Đ i t quan h thay th cho danh t
e.g: + The students work very hard.The y come from japan
---> The students who/ that comes from Japan work very hard.
+ The shop is closed today.It sells that kind of bread.
---> The shop which/ that sells that kinds of bread is closed today
2. M nh ñ quan h xác ñ nh thư ng ñ ng sau the + noun.
Ngòai ra chúng có th ñư c dùng sau m o t a, an +danh t ho c danh t s nhi u không có
the, và nh ng ñ i t như all, none, anybody, somebody,....
e.g: + I like the rulerw hich my friend bought from Laos very much
+ Somebodyw ho must be a naughty boy made my window broken when i was not at home
3.M nh ñ quan h xác ñ nh thư ng ñư c ñ t ngay sau the+ danh t ho c ñ i t , nhưng ñôi khi
chúng b tách ra b i m t t ho c 1 c m t ( thư ng là tr ng ng ).
e.g: I saw something in the newspaper which would interest you.
4. D u ph y không ñư c dùng trong m nh ñ quan h xác ñ nh
5. Chúng ta không th b ñư c m nh ñ quan h trong câu vì như th làm nghĩa c a câu
không rõ ràng.
6.Whom là 1 t r t trang tr ng và ch ñư c s d ng trong văn vi t. Chúng ta có th s d ng
who/ that ho c b ñi cũng ñư c!
e.g: -The man whom we are talking about is a successfull businessman.
-The man (who/ that) we are talking about is a successfull businessman.
7. That thư ng theo sau các t như something, anything, everything, nothing, all và trong so
sánh b c nh t
e.g: + Is there anything that we must pay attention to?
+ It is the most delicious that i've ever tasted
8. Gíơi t trong m nh ñ quan h
a. Gi i t thư ng ñư c ñ t cu i m nh ñ quan h .
e.g: + The beautiful girl smiled. I was lookingat her


---> The beautiful girl that/ who i was lookingat smiled.
+ The room was untidy. The young boy livedin it.
---> The room which the young boy livedin was untidy

b. Trong văn vi t ho c ñ di n ñ t ý m t cách trang tr ng, gi i t thư ng ñ t trư c ñ i t quan
h .
e.g: +The girl at whom i was looking smiled
+ The room in which the young boy lived was untidy.
II. Non-defining RelativeClauses ( M nh ñ quan h không xác
ñ nh)
M nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh ñư c dùng ñ b nghĩa cho 1 danh t ñư c ñ c p ñ n
trongcâu. Nó cho ta bi t thông tin thêm v ngư i, v s v t, m t hi n tư ng nào ñó ñư c bi u
hi n danh t mà nó b nghĩa.
e.g: + William Shakespeare, who was in Stratford-on-Avon, wrote the play "Romeo and Juliet"
Notes:
1. M nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh luôn ñư c tách ra kh i ph n còn l i c a câu b ng d u ph y
e.g: + Mr John, who is the vice-president of our University, is going to LonDon next week.
+ This church, which is very quiet, is famous for its peaceful atmosphere.
2. Trong m nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh, ta không dùng that thay th cho who, whom, ho c
which

3. Chúng ta không ñư c phép b ñ i t quan h , ngay c khi nó là tân ng c a ñ ng t trong
m nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh.

e.g: + He told me about Susan,who he just met at a party
He told me about Susan, he just met at a party
4. M nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh có th ñư c m ñ u
b ng các c m t như all of, many of + Đ i t quan h
Vài c m t có th s d ng
All of
Some of
Many of
A few of
Each of
Neither of
Either of
None of
Many of
Much of
One,two,...of
Most of

E.g: There were a lot of students gathering at the hall, all of whom looked excited.
+ He was studying all the cameras in the shop, some of which attracted him


5. Đ i t quan h which ñ ng ñ u m nh ñ quan h không xác ñ nh có th ñư c dùng ñ ch
tòan b thông tin trong ph n trư c c a câu.

e.g: +He keeps asking a lot of questions, which annoys me.
+ She passed the exam without any difficulty, which surprised everyone




III. Đ i t quan h
1. WHO : thay th cho ngư i, làm ch t trong MĐQH.
EX: - I need to meet the boy. The boy is my friend's son.
—» I need to meet the boy who is my friend's son.

2. WHOM : thay th cho ngư i, làm túc t trong MĐQH.
EX: - I know the girl. You spoke to this girl.
—» I know the girl whom you spoke to.
* Đ ng sau ñ i t quan h who thư ng là m t ñ ng t , còn sau ñ i t quan h whom thư ng là
m t danh t .


3. WHICH :thay th cho v t, ñ v t. V a làm ch t , v a là túc t trong MĐQH.
EX: - She works for a company. It makes cars.
—» She works for a company which makes cars.
4. WHERE : thay th cho nơi ch n: there, at that place,... . Làm ch t , túc t trong MĐQH.
EX: - The movie theater is the place. We can see films at that place.
—» The movie theater is the place where we can see the films.
* Đ ng sau ñ i t quan h which thư ng là m t ñ ng t , còn sau ñ i t quan h where thư ng
là m t danh t . Sau ñ i t quan h which còn là m t danh t khi nơi ch n là b nghĩa cho m t
ñ ng t như visit...

5. WHOSE : thay th cho s h u c a ngư i, v t ( his- , her- , its- , their- , our- , my- , -'s )
EX: - John found the cat. Its leg was broken.
—» John found the catwhose leg was broken.

6. THAT : thay th cho ngư i, v t. Làm ch t , túc t trong MĐQH.
EX: - I need to meet the boy that is my friend's son.
- She has a car that is made in Japan.

* Không ñư c dùng that trong nh ng trư ng h p :
+ M nh ñ quan h không có gi i h n( m nh ñ b nghĩa cho 1 danh t ñ ng trư c ñã xác
ñ nh r i ).
EX: - Mary, ( who / that ) sits next to me, is good at maths.
—» Mary, who sits next to me, is good at maths. ( Không ñư c dùng that )
+ Sau gi i t :
EX: - The girl to ( whom / that ) I was talking yesterday is my sister.
—» The girl to whom I was talking yesterday is my sister. ( Không ñư c dùng that )
@@ That không ñ ng sau d u ph y


* B t bu c dùng that trong nh ng trư ng h p :
+ Sau danh t ch c ngư i l n v t :
EX: - I saw a lot of people and vehicles that were moving to the market.
+ Sau nh ng danh t         d ng so sánh c c c p ( superlative ) :
EX: - Yesterday was one of the hottest days that I have ever known.
+ Sau nh ng cách nói m ñ u b ng ' It is/was...'
EX: - It is the teacher that is important, not the kind of school he teaches in.
+ Sau 'all, everybody, everything, nothing, nobody,...'
EX: - Answer all the questions that I asked.


7. WHY : thay th cho c m tr ng t ch lí do : for that reason.
EX: - Tell me the reason. You are so sad for that reason.
—» Tell me the reason why you are so sad.

8. WHEN : thay th cho c m t ch th i gian : then, at that time, on that day....
EX:- Do youremember the day. We fisrt met on that day.
—» Do you remember the day when we fisrt met ?

- Ta có th lư c b ñ i t quan h whom, which khi nó là túc t ( tân ng ) trong MĐQH có gi i
h n ( m nh ñ b nghĩa cho 1 danh t ñ ng trư c chưa xác ñ nh ), không ñư c dùng v i m nh
ñ không có gi i h n ( m nh ñ b nghĩa cho 1 danh t ñ ng trư c ñã xác ñ nh r i ).
EX: - I know the boy whom you spoke to.
—» I know the boy you spoke to.
Bài t p t luy n:
I/Choose the most suitable word to complete sentence.
1. My friend,Jack,(that, who, whose) parents live in Glasgow, invited me to spend Christmas in
Scotland.
2. Here’s the computer program (that, whom, whose) I told you about.
3. I don’t believe the story (that, who, whom) she told us.
4. Peter comes from Witney,(that, who, which) is near Oxford.
5. This is the gun with (that, whom, which) the murder was committed.
6. Is this the person ( who, which, whose) you asked me about.
7. Have you received the parcel (whom, whose, which) we sent you?
8. That’s the girl (that, who, whose) brother sits next to me.
9. The meal,(that, which, whose) wasn’t very tasty, was expensive.
10. We didn’t enjoy the play ( that, who, whose) we went to see.
11. She gives her children everything (that, what, who) they want.
12. Tell me (what, that, which) you want and I’ll have you.
13.The reason (why, that, what) I phoned him was to invite him to party.
14. I don’t like people (who, whom, whose) never stops talking.
15. The day (which, that, when) they arrived was Sunday.
16. Ann,(whose, who, whom) children are at school all day is trying to get a job.


II/Rewrite these sentences, using relative pronouns
1. Brenda is a friend.I went on holiday with her.
-> ……………………………………………..
2. This is Mr Smith. His son Bill plays in our team.
->………………………………………………
3. Her book was published last year. It became a best seller.
->………………………………………………
4.This is the bank. We borrowed the money from it.
->……………………………………………….
5. I told you about a person. She is at the door.
->……………………………………………….
6. Jack’s car had broken down. He had to take a bus.
->………………………………………………..
7. I lent you a book. The book was written by one my friends.
->………………………………………………...
8. Some boys were arrested. They have been released.
->………………………………………………….
9. Do you know a restaurant? We can have a good meal there.
->………………………………………………….
10. I don’t remember the day. I left school on that day.
->…………………………………………………..

III. Dùng ''whose, who, whom, where, and, when '' vào ño n văn sau:

I’m going to the States at the beginning of January (1).............., hopefully, it won’t be too cold.
I’m flying to New York, (2)................my friend Brian has been living for the past two years. I’m
really looking forward to meeting his American girlfriend Cyndy, (3)...............I met when they
both came over to London last year. Cyndy, (4)...........brother is quite a famous jazz musician,
has promised to take me to Greenwich Village, (5)...............there are a lot of jazz clubs. After
two weeks in New York, I’ll take the Greyhound bus to Cleveland. Ohio. I’m going to stay there
with my Aunt jackie, (6)...............son-my cousin Abe- i met last summer in England. Then, if I
h v enough money, Ill travel south to New Oleans. I hope to get there by the first two weeks of
February, (7)........the Mardi Gras Festival takes place.
V n ñ 8: Cách lo i b m nh ñ ph
Đ i v i nh ng m nh ñ ph b t bu c ngư i ta có th lo i b ñ i t quan h và ñ ng t to be
(cùng v i các tr ñ ng t c a nó) trong m t s trư ng h p sau:


Ø     Trư c m t m nh ñ ph mà c u trúc ñ ng t            th i b ñ ng.




This is the Z value (which was) obtained from the table areas under the normal curve.




Ø     Trư c m t m nh ñ ph mà sau nó là m t ng gi i t .



The beaker (that is) on the counter contains a solution.




Ø     Trư c m t c u trúc ñ ng t       th ti p di n.



The girl (who is) running down the street might be in trouble.




Ø      Ngoài ra trong m t s trư ng h p khi ñ i t quan h trong m nh ñ ph b t bu c g n
    li n v i ch ng ñ ng trư c nó và m nh ñ ph y di n ñ t qui lu t ho c s ki n di n ñ t
    theo t n s , ngư i ta có th b ñ i t quan h và ñ ng t chính thay vào ñó b ng m t Verb-
    ing.



The travelers taking (= who take) this bus on a daily basis buy their ticket in booking.
Ø      Trong nh ng m nh ñ ph không b t bu c ngư i ta cũng có th lo i b ñ i t quan h
    và ñ ng t to be khi nó ñ ng trư c m t ng danh t . Tuy nhiên ph n ng danh t còn l i
    v n ph i ñ ng gi a 2 d u ph y.



Mr Jackson, (who is) a professor, is traveling in the Mideast this year.




Ø     Lo i b ñ i t quan h và ñ ng t chính, thay vào ñó b ng 1 Verb-ing khi m nh ñ ph
    này ñi b nghĩa cho m t tân ng (l i vi t này r t ph bi n).



The president made a speech for the famous man visiting (who visited) him.
V n ñ 9: So Sánh tính t
(Comparisons of adjective)
1. So sánh ngang/b ng nhau. (Comparative of equality)
Hình th c so sánh b ng nhau ñư c thành l p b ng cách thêm "as" vào trư c và sau tính t :
AS + adj/adv +AS
Ví d : John is as tall as his father.
This box is as heavy as that one
2. So sánh hơn/kém. (Comparative)
Hình th c so sánh b c hơn ñư c thành l p b ng cách thêm -er than vào sau tính t (ñơn âm
ti t) ho c thêm more +(tính t t hai âm ti t tr lên) + than
- so sánh hơn: adj –er + than

Eg:
You are teller than I am
John is tronger than his brother
more + adj + than

The first problem is more difficul than the second

- So sánh kém:

Less+ adj +than

Eg: She is less intelligent than her sister

Chú ý:
· N u tính t t n cùng b ng e, chúng ta ch thêm -r ho c -st mà thôi:
Nice nicer nicest
Large larger largest
·N u tính t g c t n cùng b ng ph âm +y, chúng ta ñ i y thành i trư c khi thêm -er ho c -est:
Happy happier happiest
Easy easier easiest
Nhưng n u tính t t n cùng b ng nguyên âm + y, y v n ñư c gi nguyên:
Gay gayer gayest
Gray grayer grayest
·N u tính t g c ch có m t v n và t n cùng b ng m t nguyên âm + m t ph âm , chúng ta ph i
g p ñôi ph âm trư c khi thêm - ho c -est
Hot hotter hottest
Big bigger biggest


3. So sánh nh t (superlative)
a. Hình th c so sánh b c nh t ñư c thành l p b ng cách thêm ñuôi -est vào sau tính t (ñơn
âm ti t) ho c thêm -most vào trư c tính t (tính t t hai âm ti t tr lên).
the adj -est

Eg: John is the tallest in the class

The most + adj

Eg: Da Lat is one of the most romantic cities in Viet Nam.

@@M t s trư ng h p B t quy t c:
- GOOD --> BETTER

- WELL --> BETTER

- BAD --> WORSE

- MANY --> MORE

- MUCH --> MORE

- LITTLE --> LESS

- FAR --> FARTHER/FURTHER (FARTHER dùng khi nói v kho ng cách c th , FURTHER dùng ñ
nói v kho ng cách tr u tư ng)

- QUIET --> QUIETER ho c MORE QUIETñ u ñư c

- CLEVER --> CLEVERER ho c MORE CLEVER ñ u ñư c

- NARROW --> NARROWER ho c MORE NARROW ñ u ñư c

- SIMPLE --> SIMPLER ho c MORE SIMPLE ñ u ñư c
Bài t p:
Ex1:

1. The problem isn’t important. It won’t cause us concern.
Câu 2, 3: Fill the banks any phrase to comfortable mean
2. ………………., the more difficult it is get up in the morning.
3. The bigger the European Union gets , ………………………
4. I‘ve never enjoyed myself so much
--- I‘ve never had ………..
5. If you run a lot, you will get finer
--- The more …………
6. I must have a rest. I can’t go any more.
--- I must have a rest. I can’t go ……………..
7. Home computers used to be much more expensive.
--- Home computers aren’t …………
8. Jack can skate just as well as John can
--- John isn’t …………………….
9. Bill was growing angrier all the time.
Rewrite use “and”.
10. That‘s the worst film I‘ve ever seen.
--- I‘ve never seen ………………
11. The weather is still unpleasant today but yesterday is was worse.
--- The weather isn’t ………………
12. I‘ve never had such a good friend as you.
--- You ……………………

Ex 2:

Hoàn thành câu b ng d ng so sánh ñúng c a ñ ng t trong ngo c
1. Her daughter is …………….her (beautiful).
2. Summer is………………..season of the year (hot)
3. That dog isn’t ………………..it looks (dangerous)
4. In the past, people were ………………..than today (polite)
5. It is ………..today than it was yesterday (cold)
6. Our hotel was …………..than all the others in the town (cheap)
7. What’s ………………..river in the world (long)
8. It was an awful day. It was ………….day of my life (bad)
9. Everest is……………………mountain in the world. It is ………….than any other mountain
(high)
10. I prefer this chair to the other one. It’s ………………(comfortable)


Ex 3:: Vi t l i các câu sau b t ñ u b ng t cho trư c sao cho nghĩa không thay ñ i.
1. This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever tasted.
–> I’ve…………………………..
2. I’ve never met any more dependable person than George.
–> George is…………………………
3. There isn’t anybody as kind-hearted as your mother.
–> Your mother is ……………………
4. There is no better teacher in this school than Mr John.
–> Mr John is……………………………..
5. Have you got any bigger than that one?
–> Is this………………………………...?
V n ñ 10: M o t (Articles)
1. M o t b t ñ nh (a, an)
M o t b t ñ nh "A" ho c "AN" luôn ñ ng trư c danh t ñ m ñư c s ít. Do ñó, có th
nói, v nghĩa thì "A" ho c "AN" tương ñương v i ONE (nghĩa là "m t"). Tuy nhiên, khi dùng
ONE, ta có ph n mu n nh n m nh s lư ng hơn, trong khi m o t b t ñ nh ch ñ gi i thi u
ra m t danh t ñư c nh c ñ n l n ñ u tiên trong m t cu c nói ñ i tho i.

Thí d : A TEACHER = m t giáo viên và ONE TEACHER cũng là "m t giáo viên", nhưng b n
ch nói "I AM A TEACHER" (tôi là giáo viên) ch không bao gi nói "I AM ONE TEACHER" vì
ch ng l b n có th là HAI giáo viên hay sao mà c n ph i nh n m nh ONE ch không ph i con
s nào khác. B n hi u r i, ñúng không? V y chúng ta hãy phân bi t khi nào dùng A trư c danh
t ñ m ñư c s ít và khi nào dùng "AN" trư c danh t ñ m ñư c s ít:

Dùng A trư c danh t ñ m ñư c s ít b t ñ u b ng PH ÂM. T i sao chúng ta c n nh n
m nh ÂM PH ÂM ñây? Vì ña s ch cái ph âm ñ u có âm ph âm, nhưng m t s t b t
ñ u b ng ch cái ph âm l i ñư c ñ c như nguyên âm vì ch cái ñó là âm câm không ñ c.
Ngư c l i, m t s ch cái l ra là nguyên âm nhưng l i ñư c ngư i b n x ñ c như m t ph
âm.

Thí d : A BOY = m t ñ a con trai, A GIRL = 1 ñ a con gái, A STREET = 1 con ñư ng, A FAN
= 1 cái qu t máy, A MOTORCYCLE = 1 chi c xe g n máy, A STUDENT = 1 h c viên, A
SINGER = 1 ca sĩ, A SONG = 1 bài hát, A LESSON = 1 bài h c, A TABLE = 1 cái bàn, A
HUSBAND = 1 ngư i ch ng, A FAMILY = 1 gia ñình, A MINUTE = 1 phút, A SECOND = 1
GIÂY, A YEAR = 1 năm, A MONTH = 1 tháng , A WEEK = 1 tu n, ...

Thí d trư ng h p ngo i l : A UNIFORM = 1 b ñ ng ph c (B n th y không, UNIFORM b t
ñ u b ng U, m t nguyên âm nhưng UNIFORM ñư c ñ c như /DIU-NI-FO;RM/ thành ra U là
ÂM PH ÂM r i.

Dùng AN trư c danh t ñ m ñư c s ít b ng ñ u b ng NGUYÊN ÂM (a, e, i, o, u           ñ c là
“u o i” cho d nh ^^ ) và âm h câm

Thí d : AN APPLE = 1 trái táo, AN EAR = 1 tai, AN UMBRELLA = 1 cái dù, AN OX = 1 con bò
ñ c, AN ARM = 1 cánh tay, AN EYE = 1 con m t, AN EGG = 1 qu tr ng

Thí d trư ng h p ngo i l : AN HOUR ("HOUR" b t ñ u b ng H, 1 ch cái ph âm nhưng
trong trư ng h p này ngư i b n x ñ c "HOUR" y như "OUR" nên ta ph i nói AN HOUR ch
KHÔNG th nói A HOUR.)

Khi danh t ñư c b nghĩa b i m t tính t ho c m t danh t khác ñ ng trư c nó, ta d a vào
âm b t ñ u c a t b nghĩa cho danh t chính ñ xác ñ nh dùng A hay AN.

Thí d : ta có ENGLISH TEACHER= giáo viên ti ng Anh. Ch ENGLISH ñ ng trư c danh t
TEACHER b nghĩa cho TEACHER. V y ta th y âm ñ u ti ng c a ENGLISH là nguyên âm nên
ta dùng AN --> AN ENGLISH TEACHER.

Tương t , ta có: BEUTIFUL = ñ p, WOMAN = ngư i ñàn bà --> BEAUTIFUL WOMAN = ngư i
ñàn bà ñ p. BEAUTIFUL b t ñ u b ng âm ph âm (B) v y ta nói A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN = 1
ngư i ñàn bà ñ p.
2. M o t xác ñ nh (the)
THE luôn ñ ng trư c danh t .

VD: THE SUN = m t tr i

     THE MOON = m t trăng

* Khi THE ñ ng trư c m t s tính t , tính t ñó ñư c bi n thành m t danh t nói v m t
t ng l p, m t th lo i liên quan ñ n tính t ñó. (b n không th l y b t c tính t nào ráp vô,
nh ng tính t ñư c dùng theo ki u này có h n)

VD: THE RICH = nh ng ngư i giàu

     THE POOR = nh ng ngư i nghèo

     THE WEAK = nh ng k y u

* Dùng THE trư c b t c m t danh t nào khi ngư i nói và ngư i nghe ñ u bi t v danh
t ñang ñư c nói t i ho cñư c xácñ nh rõ ràng:

 PAY HIM BACK THE MONEY YOU BORROWED FROM HIM = Hãy tr l i cho nó s ti n anh
ñã mư n nó! (Ngư i nói bi t v s ti n này m i nói ra câu này và ngư i nghe cũng bi t ñ n s
ti n này vì anh ta ñã mư n c a 1 ngư i th 3)

 PLEASE GIVE ME THE KEY TO MY CAR = Vui lòng ñưa tôi chìa khóa xe hơi c a tôi.

THE WOMAN IN BLACK IS HIS WIFE = Ngư i ñàn bà m c ñ ñen là v anh ta.

* Dùng THE trư c nh ng danh t thông thư ng ñư c xem là duy nh t, không có cái th
hai.

VD: The sun = m t tr i, the moon = m t trăng, the sea = bi n, the sky = b u tr i...

* Dùng THE trư c s th t :

VD: I am the first person to come here today. (Hôm nay, tôi là ngư i ñ u tiên ñ n ñây )

* Dùng THE ñ thành l p SO SÁNH NH T .

 THIS IS THE BEST DICTIONARY I HAVE EVER HAD. = Đây là t ñi n t t nh t mà trư c gi
tôi có ñư c.

* M t s tên qu c gia ph i có THE (ña s không có):

THE PHILIPPINES, THE USA, THE UNITED KING DOM...

* Trong m t s thành ng , ph i có THE (h c thu c lòng):

DONT' BEAT ABOUT THE BUSH! = Đ ng có vòng vo tam qu c.

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Như v y, chúng ta KHÔNG dùng m o t THE khi nào?
* KHÔNG dùng THE khi danh t ñư c ti p theo sau b ng m t ch s ho c ch cái.

      VD: The Chicago train is about to depart from track 5.

        Her flight leaves from gate 32.

        He fell asleep on page 816 of "War and Peace".

        She is staying in room 689.

* Không dùng THE khi có ng ñ ng t ñi trư c m t trong nh ng danh t bed (giư ng),
church (nhà th ), court (tòa án), hospital (b nh vi n), prison (nhà tù), school (trư ng h c),
college (trư ng ñ i h c), university (trư ng ñ i h c) n u như ch ng s d ng nh ng nơi ñó
ñúng như ch c năng c a nó

VD: N u tôi ñ n trư ng h c là ñ h c, t c là ñúng v i ch c năng c a trư ng h c, v y tôi không
c n dùng THE trư c danh t SCHOOL : I MUST GO TO SCHOOL NOW !(Bây gi tôi ph i ñi
h c r i!)

* Không dùng THE khi nói 3 b a ăn: ăn sáng, ăn trưa, ăn t i

I NEVER HAVE BREAKFAST. = Tôi không bao gi ăn sáng.

* Không dùng THE trong nhi u thành ng .

BIRDS OF THE SAME FEATHER FLOCK TOGETHER = Ngưu t m ngưu, mã t m mã.
Bài t p:
Ex1:
(1)_space is difficult to imagine and yet (2)_ man has been to (3)_ Moon and sent (4)_
machines to (5)_ Mars and far futher. There is no (6)_ air between us and the stars and yet light
and X-rays and radio waves reach us here on (7)_ earth. We are seeking (8)_ information,
trying to find planets with (9)_ air and (10)_ water and (11)_ valuable materials such as (12)_
minerals that we need. Perhaps we will find (13)_ world like ours with (14)_ oxygen that we can
breathe. Of course, (15)_ real romance would be to find other living species, to communicate
with them and share (16)_ knowledge of the universe.
At night ()_ trees release (17)_ carbon dioxide. In the day they make (18)_ oxygen. We need
(19)_ trees to live.
I love (20)_ trees. They give us (21)_ colour and (22)_ shade. They stop (23)_ noise from (24)_
trafic where we live. There was (25)_ beautiful tree behind my house for years. Then someone
cut (26)_ tree down so now all you can see is (27)_ buildings. So I'm going to sell (28)_ house
because looking into (29)_ other people's windows is no fun. I preferred looking at (30)_ tree
and (31)_ colour it had.


Ex 2:
1 My neighbour is . . . photographer; let's ask him for . . . advice about colour films.
2 We had . . . fish and . . . chips for . . . lunch. ~
   That doesn't sound . . . very interesting lunch.
3 I had . . . very bad night; I didn't sleep . . . wink.
4 He is . . . vegetarian; you won't get . . . meat at his house. He'll give you . . . nut cutlet. ~Last
   time I had . . . nut cutlet I had . . . indigestion.
5 . . . travel agent would give you . . . information about . . . hotels.
6 We'd better go by . . . taxi—if we can get . . . taxi at such . . . hour as 2 a.m.
7 . . . person who suffers from . . . claustrophobia has . . . dread of being confined in . . . small
   space, and would always prefer . . . stairs to . . . lift.
8 Do you take . . . sugar in . . . coffee? ~
   I used to, but now I'm on . . . diet. I'm trying to lose . . . weight.
9 . . . man suffering from . . . shock should not be given anything to drink.
10 You'll get . . . shock if you touch . . . live wire with that screwdriver.
    Why don't you get . . . screwdriver with . . . insulated handle?
11 It costs fifty-five and . . . half pence and I've only got . . . fifty pence piece. ~
     You can pay by . . . cheque here. ~
     But can I write . . . cheque for . . . fifty-five and . . . half pence?
12 . . . Mr Smith is . . . old customer and . . . honest man. ~
    Why do you say that? Has he been accused of . . . dishonesty?
13 I'm not . . . wage-earner; I'm . . . self-employed man. I have . . . business of my own. ~
    Then you're not . . . worker; you're . . . capitalist!
14 When he was charged with . . . murder he said he had . . . alibi.
15 . . . friend of mine is expecting . . . baby. If it's . . . girl she's going to be called Etheldreda. ~
    What . . . name to give . . . girl!
16 I have . . . hour and . . . half for lunch. ~
    I only have . . . half . . . hour—barely . . . time for . . . smoke and ... cup of coffee.
17 I hope you have . . . lovely time and . . . good weather. ~
    But I'm not going for . . . holiday; I'm going on . . . business.
18 He looked at me with . . . horror when I explained that I was . . . double agent.
19 I wouldn't climb . . . mountain for Ј1,000! I have . . . horror of . . . heights.
20 I have . . . headache and . . . sore throat. I think I've got . . . cold. ~
    I think you're getting . . . flu.
21 . . . Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He wants to make . . .
   complaint about . . . article in the paper. He was in . . . very bad temper.
22 If you go by . . . train you can have quite . . . comfortable journey, but make sure you get . . .
   express, not . . . train that stops at all the stations.
23 . . . few people know (hardly anyone knows) that there is . . . secret passage from this house
   to . . . old smugglers' cave in the cliffs.
24 I'm having . . . few friends in to . . . coffee tomorrow evening.
    Would you like to come? ~
   I'd love to, but I'm afraid I'm going to . . . concert.
25 It's time you had . . . holiday. You haven't had . . . day off for . . . month.
26 He broke ...leg in... skiing accident. It's still in . . . plaster.
27 I want . . . assistant with . . . knowledge of French and . . . experience of . . . office routine.
28 I see that your house is built of . . . wood. Are you insured against ... fire?
29 The escaping prisoner camped in . . . wood but he didn't light . . . fire because . . . smoke
   rising from the wood might attract . . . attention.
30 I had . . . amazing experience last night. I saw . . . dinosaur eating . . . meat pie in . . .
   London park. ~
  You mean you had . . . nightmare. Anyway, dinosaurs didn't eat . . . meat.
31 I'll pay you . . . hundred . . . week. It's not . . . enormous salary but after all you are . . .
   completely unskilled man.
32 If you kept . . . graph you could see at . . . glance whether you were making . . . profit or . . .
   loss.
33 . . . little (hardly anything) is known about the effect of this drug; yet . . . chemist will sell it to
   you without . . . prescription.
34 I have . . . little money left; let's have dinner in . . . restaurant.
35 Would it be . . . trouble to you to buy me . . . newspaper on your way home?
36 . . . man is . . . reasoning animal.



                                            Insert the if necessary.
1 . . . youngest boy has just started going to . . . school; . . . eldest boy is at . . . college.
2 She lives on . . . top floor of an old house. When . . . wind blows, all . . . windows rattle.
3 . . . darkness doesn't worry . . . cats; . . . cats can see in . . . dark.
4 My little boys say that they want to be . . . spacemen, but most of them will probably end up in
   . . . less dramatic jobs.
5 Do you know . . . time? ~
Yes, . . . clock in . . . hall has just struck nine. ~
  Then it isn't . . . time to go yet.
6 He was sent to . . . prison for . . . six months for . . . shop-lifting.
  When . . . six months are over he'll be released; . . . difficulty then will be to find . . . work. ~
   Do you go to . . . prison to visit him?
7 I went to . . . school to talk to . . . headmistress. I persuaded her to let Ann give up . . .
   gymnastics and take . . . ballet lessons instead.
8 . . . ballet isn't much use for . . . girls; it is much better to be able to play . . . piano.
9 I am on... night duty. When you go to . . . bed, I go to . . . work.
10 Peter's at . . . office but you could get him on . . . phone. There's a telephone box just round .
   . . corner
11 He got... bronchitis and was taken to . . . hospital. I expect they'll send him home
    at . . . end of . . . week. ~
   Have you rung . . . hospital to ask how he is?
12 Ann's habit of riding a motorcycle up and down . . . road early in . . . morning annoyed . . .
   neighbours and in . . . end they took her to . . . court.
13 He first went to . . . sea in a Swedish ship, so as well as learning . . . navigation he had to
   learn . . . Swedish.
14 . . . family hotels are . . . hotels which welcome . . . parents and . . . children.
15 On . . . Sundays my father stays in . . . bed till ten o'clock, reading . . . Sunday papers.
16 Then he gets up, puts on . . . old clothes, has . . . breakfast and starts . . . work in . . . garden.
17 My mother goes to . . . church in . . . morning, and in . . . afternoon goes to visit . . . friends.
18 Like many women, she loves . . . tea parties and . . . gossip.
19 My parents have ... cold meat and . . . salad for . . . supper, . . . winter and . . . summer.
20 During . . . meal he talks about . . . garden and she tells him . . . village gossip.
21 We have a very good train service from here to . . . city centre and most people go to . . .
    work by train. You can go by . . . bus too, of course, but you can't get a season ticket on . . .
    bus.
22 . . . dead no longer need . . . help. We must concern ourselves with . . . living. We must build
    . . . houses and . . . schools and . . . playgrounds.
23 I'd like to see . . . Mr Smith please. ~
Do you mean . . . Mr Smith who works in . . . box office or . . . other Mr Smith?
24 Did you come by . . . air? ~
     No, I came by . . . sea. I had a lovely voyage on . . . Queen Elizabeth II.
25 . . . most of . . . stories that . . . people tell about . . . Irish aren't true.
26 . . . married couples with . . . children often rent . . . cottages by . . . seaside for . . . summer
    holidays.
. . . men hire boats and go for . . . trips along . . . coast; . . . children spend . . . day on . . . beach
and . . . poor mothers spend . . . most of . . . time doing . . . cooking and cleaning.
27 It's usually safe to walk on . . . sand, but here, when . . . tide is coming in, . . . sand becomes
    dangerously soft. . . . people have been swallowed up by it.
28 When . . . Titanic was crossing . . . Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in
    her bow. . . . captain ordered . . . crew to help . . . passengers into . . . boats.
29 Everywhere . . . man has cut down . . . forests in order to cultivate . . . ground, or to use . . .
    wood as . . . fuel or as . . . building material.
30 But . . . interference with . . . nature often brings . . . disaster. . . . tree-felling sometimes turns
    . . . fertile land into a dustbowl.
31 . . . people think that . . . lead is . . . heaviest metal, but . . . gold is heavier.
32 Our air hostess said, '. . . rack is only for . . . light articles. . . . heavy things such as . . .
    bottles must be put on . . . floor.'
33 . . . windows are supposed to let in . . . light; but . . . windows of this house are so small that
    we have to have . . . electric light on all . . . time.
34 There'11 always be a conflict between . . . old and . . . young. . . . young people want . . .
    change but . . . old people want . . . things to stay . . . same.
35 . . . power tends to corrupt and . . . absolute power corrupts absolutely.
36 You can fool some of . . . people all . . . time, and all . . . people some of . . . time; but you
    cannot fool all . . . people all . . . time.



Insert a, an or the if necessary.

1 There was . . . knock on . . . door. I opened it and found . . . small dark man in . . . blue
  overcoat and . . . woollen cap.
2 He said he was . . . employee of . . . gas company and had come to read . . . meter.
3 But I had . . . suspicion that he wasn't speaking . . . truth because . . . meter readers usually
  wear . . . peaked caps.
4 However, I took him to . . . meter, which is in . . . dark corner under . . . stairs
  (. . . meters are usually in . . . dark corners under . . . stairs).
5 I asked if he had . . . torch; he said he disliked torches and always read . . . meters by . . . light
  of . . . match.
6 I remarked that if there was . . . leak in . . . gaspipe there might be . . . explosion while he was
  reading . . . meter.
7 He said, 'As . . . matter of . . . fact, there was . . . explosion in . . . last house I visited; and Mr
  Smith, . . . owner of . . . house, was burnt in . . . face.'
8 'Mr Smith was holding . . . lighted match at . . . time of . . . explosion.'
9 To prevent . . . possible repetition of this accident, I lent him . . . torch.
10 He switched on . . . torch, read . . . meter and wrote . . . reading down on . . . back of . . .
   envelope.
11 I said in . . . surprise that . . . meter readers usually put . . . readings down in . . . book.
12 He said that he had had . . . book but that it had been burnt in . . . fire in . . . Mr Smith's
   house.
13 By this time I had come to . . . conclusion that he wasn't . . . genuine meter reader; and . . .
   moment he left . . . house I rang . . . police.
14 Are John and Mary . . . cousins? ~
   No, they aren't . . . cousins; they are . . . brother and . . . sister.
15 . . . fog was so thick that we couldn't see . . . side of . . . road. We followed . . . car in front of
   us and hoped that we were going . . . right way.
16 I can't remember . . . exact date of . . . storm, but I know it was . . . Sunday because
   everybody was at . . . church. On . . . Monday . . . post didn't come because . . . roads were
   blocked by . . . fallen trees.
17 Peter thinks that this is quite . . . cheap restaurant.
18 There's been . . . murder here. ~
   Where's . . . body?~
   There isn't . . . body. ~
   Then how do you know there's been . . . murder?
19 Number . . . hundred and two, - . . house next door to us, is for sale.
   It's quite . - . nice house with . . . big rooms. . . . back windows look out on . . . park.
20 I don't know what . . . price . . . owners are asking. But Dry and Rot are . . . agents. You
   could give them . . . ring and make them . . . offer.
21 . . . postman's little boy says that he'd rather be . . . dentist than . . . doctor, because . . .
   dentists don't get called out at . . . night.
22 Just as . . . air hostess (there was only one on the plane) was handing me . . . cup of . . .
   coffee . . . plane gave . . . lurch and . . . coffee went all over . . . person on . . . other side of . .
   . gangway.
23 There was . . . collision between . . . car and . . . cyclist at . . . crossroads near . . . my house
   early in . . . morning. . . . cyclist was taken to . . . hospital with . . . concussion. . . . driver of . .
   . car was treated for . . . shock. . . . witnesses say that . . . car was going at . . . seventy
   miles . . . hour.
24 Professor Jones, . . . man who discovered . . . new drug that everyone is talking about,
   refused to give . . . press conference.
25 Peter Piper, . . . student in . . . professor's college, asked him why he refused to talk
    to . . . press.
26 We're going to . . . tea with . . . Smiths today, aren't we? Shall we take . . . car? ~
    We can go by . . . car if you wash . . . car first. We can't go to . . . Mrs Smith's in . . .
    car all covered with . . . mud.
27 He got . . . job in . . . south and spent . . . next two years doing . . . work he really enjoyed.
28 It is . . . pleasure to do . . . business with such . . . efficient organization.
29 . . . day after . . . day passed without . . . news, and we began to lose ... hope.
30 Would you like to hear . . . story about . . . Englishman, . . . Irishman and . . . Scotsman? ~
  No. I've heard . . . stories about . . . Englishmen, . . . Irishmen and . . . Scotsmen before
  and they are all . . . same.
31 But mine is not . . . typical story. In my story . . . Scotsman is generous, . . . Irishman is
   logical and . . . Englishman is romantic. ~
   Oh, if it's . . . fantastic story I'll listen with . . . pleasure.
32 My aunt lived on . . . ground floor of . . . old house on . . . River Thames. She was very much
   afraid of . . . burglars and always locked up . . . house very carefully before she went to . . .
   bed. She also took . . . precaution of looking under . . . bed to see if . . .
   burglar was hiding there.
33 '. . . modern burglars don't hide under . . . beds,' said her daughter.
   I'll go on looking just . . . same,' said my aunt.
34 One morning she rang her daughter in . . . triumph. 1 found . . . burglar under . . . bed . . . last
   night,' she said, 'and he was quite . . . young man.'
35 . . . apples are sold by . . . pound. These are forty pence . . . pound.
36 It was . . . windy morning but they hired . . . boat and went for . . . sail along . . . coast. In . .
- afternoon . . . wind increased and they soon found themselves in . . . difficulties.
V n ñ 11: Cách dùng “too”, “enough”, “so..
that”
C u trúc này r t ph bi n, cho phép b n ñ t câu ph c g m 2 m nh ñ , m nh ñ trư c THAT và m nh ñ
sau THAT. C u trúc này có nghĩa là QUÁ...Đ N N I ...

1. So.. that (quá .. ñ       n n i)

* CÔNG TH C:

S + V + so + adj/adv + that + S’ + V’

* VÍ D :

+ Tính t ñ ng sau không có danh t : khi dùng tính t thì trư c SO ph i là TO BE
(AM/IS/ARE hay WAS/WERE hay HAS BEEN. HAVE BEEN hay HAD BEEN)

 - HE IS SO RICH THAT HE CAN AFFORD TO BUY HIS OWN AIRPLANE. (Anh y giàu ñ n
n i anh y có th mua n i máy bay riêng).

 - THAT MAN IS SO FAT THAT HE CAN'T WALK. (ngư i ñàn ông y m p ñ n n i không th ñi
l i ñư c)

+ Tính t ñ ng sau có danh t : khi ñ ng sau tính t có danh t thì thư ng là trư c SO là
ñ ng t HAVE (có)

- HE HAS SO MUCH MONEY HE CAN AFFORD TO BUY HIS OWN AIRPLANE (anh y có
nhi u ti n ñ n n i anh y có th mua máy bay riêng)

- HE HAS SO MANY CHILDREN THAT HE CANNOT REMEMBER THEIR NAMES (anh y có
nhi u con ñ n m c anh y không th nh h t tên c a chúng)

+ Tr ng t : khi dùng tr ng t sau SO t c là trư c SO ph i là ñ ng t (tr ng t b nghĩa
cho ñ ng t )

- HE SPEAKS ENGLISH SO WELL THAT I THOUGHT HE WAS A NATIVE SPEAKER.(anh y
nói ti ng Anh hay ñ n n i tôi ñã tư ng anh y là ngư i b n x )

- I LOVE YOU SO MUCH THAT I CAN DIE FOR YOU (anh yêu em nhi u ñ n m c anh có th
ch t vì em) (MUCH có th v a là tính t v a là tr ng t )

2. ..too.. to..
T a như c u trúc ...SO ...THAT ..., c u trúc này cũng có nghĩa là "quá ...ñ n n i" nhưng mà là
"...quá không th ...ñư c" ho c "...quá ....ñ ...". Thư ng thì c u trúc ...TOO...TO mang nghĩa
tiêu c c, có n i dung không ñư c ngư i nói tán thành. C t lõi c a c u trúc này là t TOO, n m
trong c u trúc này có nghĩa là QUÁ. ("quá" theo ki u "thái quá", mà phàm nh ng gì thái quá
ñ u không t t).



* CÔNG TH C:
  S + V1 + too + adj/adv + (for sb) to + V2 + O2

……………quá……………..(nên ai) không th làm gì

* VÍ D :

+ Tính t :

- HE IS TOO YOUNG TO GET MARRIED. (anh y quá tr ñ k t hôn)

- THIS COFFEE IS TOO HOT TO DRINK. (ly cà phê này quá nóng không th u ng ñư c)

+ Tr ng t : Khi sau TOO là tr ng t thì ngư i ta thư ng không c n TO... cũng ñ nghĩa.

- YOU WORK TOO HARD (anh làm vi c quá v t v --mà như v y là không t t...)

* Lưu ý: ngay c khi sau TOO là tính t , ngư i ta cũng không nh t thi t ph i có TO...

- THIS HOUSE IS TOO EXPENSIVE (căn nhà này quá ñ t ti n).

- WHEN A QUESTION SEEMS TOO EASY, IT MAY BE A TRAP. (khi câu h i có v quá d thì
nó có th là m t cái b y).




3. Enough
adj/adv + enough (for sb) to inf

enough + N (for sb ) to inf
V n ñ 12: Câu h i ñuôi (tag question)
Câu h i ñuôi là m t d ng câu h i r t thông d ng trong ti ng Anh. M c dù câu tr l i cho câu h i
ñuôi cũng gi ng như câu tr l i cho câu h i YES-NO, nhưng câu h i ñuôi có s c thái ý nghĩa
riêng bi t.

Câu h i ñuôi ñư c thành l p sau m t câu nói kh ng ñ nh ho c ph ñ nh, ñư c ngăn cách b ng
d u ph y (,) vì v y ngư i ñ t câu h i ñã có thông tin v câu tr l i. Tuy nhiên, thư ng thì ngư i
h i không ch c ch n l m v thông tin này. N u ngư i h i ch c ch n, t tin r ng mình ñã có
thông tin v câu tr l i nhưng v n h i thì khi ch m d t câu h i ñuôi, ngư i h i s lên gi ng.

Sau ñây là cách thành l p câu h i ñuôi cho các t t c các thì ta ñã h c:

* Nguyên t c chung khi l p câu h i ñuôi:

- N u câu nói trư c d u ph y là câu kh ng ñ nh, câu h i ñuôi ph i     th ph ñ nh.

- N u câu nói trư c d u ph y là câu ph ñ nh, câu h i ñuôi ph i      th kh ng ñ nh

* C u t o c a câu h i ñuôi:

- Câu h i ñuôi g m m t tr ñ ng t tương ng v i thì ñư c dùng trong câu nói trư c d u ph y,
có NOT ho c không có NOT và m t ñ i t nhân xưng tương ng v i ch ng c a câu nói
trư c d u ph y.

* Thí d :

- YOU ARE AFRAID, AREN'T YOU? (Anh ñang s , ñúng không?)

- YOU DIDN'T DO YOUR HOMEWORK, DID YOU? (B n ñã không làm bài t p nhà, ñúng
không?)

* Cách thành l p câu h i ñuôi cho các t t c các thì ta ñã h c:

1. Hi n t i ñơn v i TO BE:

- HE IS HANDSOME, ISN'T HE? = Anh y ñ p trai, ñúng không?

- YOU ARE WORRIED, AREN'T YOU? = B n ñang lo l ng, ph i không?

- Đ c bi t v i I AM..., câu h i ñuôi ph i là AREN'T I:

+ I AM RIGHT, AREN'T I?

- V i I AM NOT, câu h i ñuôi s là AM I như quy t c.

+ I AM NOT GUILTY, AM I?

2. Hi n t i ñơn ñ ng t thư ng: mư n tr ñ ng t DO ho c DOES tùy theo ch ng (xem l i
bài Thì hi n t i ñơn v i ñ ng t thư ng n u c n)

- THEY LIKE ME, DON'T THEY?

- SHE LOVES YOU, DOESN'T SHE?
3. Thì quá kh ñơn v i ñ ng t thư ng: mư n tr ñ ng t DID, quá kh ñơn v i TO BE: WAS
ho c WERE:

- YOU LIED TO ME, DIDN'T YOU?

- HE DIDN'T COME HERE, DID HE?

- HE WAS FRIENDLY, WASN'T HE?

4. Thì hi n t i hoàn thành ho c hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n: mư n tr ñ ng t HAVE ho c
HAS

- THEY HAVE LEFT, HAVEN'T THEY?

- THE RAIN HAS STOPPED, HASN'T IT?

5. Thì quá kh hoàn thành ho c quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n: mư n tr ñ ng t HAD:

- HE HADN'T MET YOU BEFORE, HAD HE?

6. Thì tương lai ñơn:

- IT WILL RAIN, WON'T IT?

- YOUR GIRLFRIEND WILL COME TO THE PARTY, WON'T SHE?

* Nh ng trư ng h p ñ c bi t c n lưu ý:

** USED TO: t ng (di n t thói quen, hành ñ ng thư ng l p ñi l p l i trong quá kh )

- Trư ng h p này, ta c vi c xem USED TO là m t ñ ng t chia       thì quá kh . Do ñó, câu h i
ñuôi tương ng ch c n mư n tr ñ ng t DID

- Thí d :

+ SHE USED TO LIVE HERE, DIDN'T SHE?

** HAD BETTER:

- HAD BETTER thư ng ñư c vi t ng n g n thành 'D BETTER, nên d khi n ta lúng túng khi
ph i l p câu h i ñuôi tương ng. Khi th y 'D BETTER, ch c n mư n tr ñ ng t HAD ñ l p
câu h i ñuôi.

- Thí d :

+ HE'D BETTER STAY, HADN'T HE?

** WOULD RATHER:

- WOULD RATHER thư ng ñư c vi t g n là 'D RATHER nên cũng d gây lúng túng cho b n.
Ch c n mư n tr ñ ng t WOULD cho trư ng h p này ñ l p câu h i ñuôi.

- Thí d :

+ YOU'D RATHER GO, WOULDN'T YOU?
V n ñ 13: Cách s d ng: In spite of,
despite and although
Nguyên t c chung c n nh là :

Although/ though + m nh ñ
Despite / in spite of + c m t
Các công th c bi n ñ i t m nh ñ sang c m t như sau:
1) N u ch t 2 m nh ñ gi ng nhau thì B ch t ,ñ ng t thêm ING .
Although Tom got up late, he got to school on time.
=> Despite / in spite of getting up late, Tom got to school on time.

2) N u ch t là danh t + be + tính t . Đem tính t ñ t tr oc danh t ,b to be
Although the rain is heavy,.......
=> Despite / in spite of the heavy rain, ......

3) N u ch t là ñ i t + be + tính t Đ i ñ i t thành s h u ,ñ i tính t thành danh t ,b be:
Although He was sick,........
=> Despite / in spite of his sickness,.......

4) N u ch t là ñ i t + ñ ng t + tr ng t . Đ i ñ i t thành s h u, ñ ng t thành danh t
,tr ng t thành tính t ñ t trư c danh t
Although He behaved impolitely,.....
=> Despite / in spite of his impolite behavior ,.........

5) N u câu có d ng : there be + danh t . Thì b there be
Although there was an accident ,.....
=> Despite / in spite of an accident,......

6) N u câu có d ng : It (be) + tính t v th i ti t.Đ i tính t thành danh t thêm the phía trư c.
Although it was rainy, .....
=> Despite / in spite of the rain, ……….

Các tính t và danh t thư ng g p trong m u này là:

Foggy => fog ( sương mùWink

Snowy => snow (tuy t)

Rainy => rain (mưa)

Stormy => storm ( bão)

7) N u câu có d ng: Danh t + (be) + p.p ( câu b ñ ng).Đ i p.p thành danh t , thêm the phía
trư c và of phía sau, danh t câu trên ñem xu ng ñ sau of
Although television was invented, .....
=> Despite / in spite of the invention of television, ……….

Phương pháp cu i cùng cũng là phương pháp d nh t : thêm the fact that trư c m nh ñ .
Phương pháp này áp d ng ñư c cho m i câu mà khôgn c n phân tích xem nó thu c m u này,
tuy nhiên phương pháp này không ñư c khuy n khích s d ng vì suy cho cùng nh ng bi n ñ i
trên ñây là rèn luy n cho các em cách s d ng các c u trúc câu, do ñó n u câu nào cũng thêm
the fact that r i vi t l i h t thì các em s không nâng cao ñư c trình ñ . Phương pháp này ch
áp d ng khi g p câu quá ph c t p mà không có cách nào bi n ñ i. M t trư ng h p khác mà
các em có th s d ng n a là : trong lúc ñi thi g p câu khó mà mình quên cách bi n ñ i .
Although he behaved impolitely,.....
=> Despite / in spite of the fact that he behaved impolitely,.....

Các công th c trên ñây cũng áp d ng cho bi n ñ i t BECAUSE -> BECAUSE OF


Bài t p:
1. ___________ the weather was bad, we enjoyed our trip.

2. The children slept well ____________ the noise.

3. ________________ earning a low salary, Linda gave money to her parents.

4. John rarely sees Paul ___________ they live in the same town.

5. Julie failed the exam ____________ of working very hard.

6. ____________ it was cold, she didn't put on her coat.

7. Tom went to work ___________ not feeling very well.

8. Anna never learned the language ___________ she lived there for two years.

9. ____________ of the difficulty, they managed to climb to the top of the mountain.

10. I couldn't eat _____________ I was very hungry.
V n ñ 14: Cách dùng Because và Because
Of
because + reason (b i vì, do, nguyên nhân)

because + clause

Ex:
we cancelled our flight because the weather was bad.

because of + noun/noun phrase

Ex:
we cancelled our flight because of the bad weather.


Sau because là 1 m nh ñ , câu còn sau because of thì m nh ñ ñó ñã ñư c rút g n ch còn 1
danh t hay 1 c m danh t .

VD :
He crashed his car because he was driving too fast

He can't drive because of his illness

Bài t p:

1.We stopped playing tennis ....... the rain
2.It was all ........ her that we got into trouble
3.We had to hurry indoors ...... it was raining
4.I am late ....... the traffic
5.We didn't arrive until seven o'clock ........ the traffic was terrible
6.She found the exam easy ........ she had worked hard during the course
7.He can't drive ........ his illness
8.The restaurant closed down ........ the recession
9.He found working in Japan very difficult ......... the language problem
10.He's very difficult to understand ......... his accent
11.They moved to Liverpool ......... her job
12.There have been a lot of problems in Britain ........ mad cow disease
13.They came to London ........ he got a job there
14.He crashed his car ........ he was driving too fast
15.He lost his driving licence ......... he was convicted of drinking and driving
16.She could only eat a salad in the restaurant ...... she is a vegetarian
17.The newspaper was prosecuted ........ an article about the Government
V n ñ 15: Gi i t (Prepositions)
1. Đ nh nghĩa: Gi i t là t lo i ch s liên quan gi a các t lo i trong c m t , trong câu. Nh ng
t thư ng ñi sau gi i t là tân ng (Object), Verb + ing, C m danh t ...

Ví d :

a. I went into the room.

b. I was sitting in the room at that time.

Ta th y rõ, ví d a., "the room" là tân ng c a gi i t "into".         ví d b., "the room" là tân ng
c a gi i t "in".

Chú ý: Các b n ph i luôn phân bi t tr ng t và gi i t , vì thư ng khi m t t có hai ch c năng
ñó (v a là tr ng t và gi i t ). Đi u khác nhau cơ b n là Tr ng t thì không có tân ng theo
sau. Hãy xét các câu sau ñây:

Ví d :

1. Please, come in. It's raining. (Tr ng t )

We are in the small room. (Gi i t ); vì tân ng c a "In" là "The room"

2. He ran down quickly. (Tr ng t ) - vì "quickly" không ph i là tân ng        c a "down"; nó ch là
tr ng t ch cách th c mà thôi.

3. My dictionary is on the desk. (Gi i t ) - vì nó liên k t v i tân ng : (the desk).

2. Cách s d ng gi i t trong ti ng Anh:

Có th nói vi c dùng các gi i t không ph i d , vì m i nư c có cách dùng gi i t ñ c bi t; v y
ta ph i r t chú ý ñ n nó ngay t lúc m i h c môn ngo i ng ñó nói chung và ti ng Anh nói
riêng.

Trong ti ng Anh, ngư i ta không th ñ t ra các quy lu t v các phép dùng gi i t mang tính c
ñ nh cho m i gi i t ñó - cùng m t gi i t , khi ñi v i t lo i khác nhau thì t o ra nghĩa khác
nhau. V y chúng ta nên h c thu c m i khi g p ph i và h c ngay t lúc ban ñ u.

Ví d :

depend on              wait for

independent of         think of

look after             make up

look for               look up

look up to             live on

....................   ................

3. Các lo i gi i t trong ti ng Anh
3.1. Gi i t ch Th i gian.

after     during       since

at        for          throughout

before    from         foreward

behind    in           until

by        on           within

3.2. Gi i t ch Đ a ñi m/Nơi ch n.

about     beneath           over

above     beside            through

across    beyond            to

at        by                toward

before    in                under

behind    off               within

below     on                without

3.3. Gi i t ch Lý do, nguyên nhân.

at                   on

for                  over

from                 through

of                   with

3.4. Gi i t ch M c ñích.

after                 on

at                    to

for

3.5. Gi i t thư ng:

after           by               on

against         for              to

among           from             with

between         of
4. V trí gi i t

Thông thư ng, gi i t ti ng Anh ñư c ñ t như ti ng Vi t; tuy nhiên, nó có th ñ t ngay trư c
T nghi v n hay Đ i t .

Ví d : What is this medal made of?

Of what is this medal made?

hay

The man whom we listened to is our new teacher.

The man to whom we listened is our new teacher.

5. Cách ñ t t ng có gi i t : V trí c a gi i t trong câu có th làm thay ñ i nghĩa c a câu ñó.

Ví d :

1- A letter was read from his friend in the class room.

A letter from his friend was read in the class room.

             (Hai câu trên có nghĩa khác nhau b i vì gi i t "from" có v trí khác nhau)

2- With his gun towards the forest he started in the morning.

With his gun, he started towards the forest in the morning.

             (Hai câu trên có nghĩa khác nhau b i vì gi i t "from" có v trí khác nhau)




Chú ý: M t s gi i t thư ng g p s gi i thi u        quy n sau ^^
Bài t p:
BÀI T P 1 :
1) Puma are large cat-like animals which are found ____ America.

2) The hunt _____ the puma began in a small village where a woman picking blackberries saw it
first.

3) Several complained ___ cat-like noises at night

4) Armed ____ a torch, the vicar went up into the clock tower to see what was going on.

5) In the torch light, he caught sight ____ a figure whom he immediately recognized as Bill, our
local grocer.

6) The city was even equipped _____ a drainage system.

7) The goddess turned _____n to be a very modern- looking woman.

8) The body of one statue was found among remains dating ____ the fifteenth century

9) People who work in offices are frequently referred ____ as " white collar workers"

10) He then changed ___ overalls and spent the next eight hours as a dustman.

BÀI T P 2:

1.The baby cried........ more sweets.
2. The two young actresses were nervously waiting...... the wings....... their turn to go .........out
the stage.
3. Together with the increasing of salary, the prices of many kinds........ goods also go........
4. The police were going .....a robber when I passed........ the crossroad yesterday.
5. My younger sister wishes she would get........... the next examination.
6. - ' Could I speak ......... Mr, Long , please?'
- ' hold......., I'll call him .......... once.
7. You remember this telephone number............ case......... emmergency.
8. last night, I stayed ............ home alone. I heard a terrible soud, so I only stayed.......... bed
because I was frightened ........... ghost.
9. LAst sunday, I came ............ Lan .......Tran Phu St.
10. It is stupid....... him to give ........his job.
11. We are bored.......... watching the same thing everyday.
12. He was shock.......... this news. he didn't get...... the university because he didn't get ...... the
exam.
13. after one hour, the house which were....... fire has been gone...... .......... the fire brigade.
14. He was put......... prison because he was .......... debt and he didn't have any opportunity to
pay.
15. We are fed ..... ........ washing....... everyday.
16. Don't let a good chance go ........
17. don't jump............ conclusions, we don't yet know all the relevant facts.
18. don't cross.......... any parked cars.
19. When sone mony went missing, everyone in the bank was ............. suspicion.
20. Playing tennis once a week is one way of letting.............. steam.
BÀI T P 3:

Đi n gi i t thích h p : (n u ko c n thì ko ñi n ^^)
1. He usually phone me ____ Tuesday morning___10 o'clock.
2. We shouldn't play football___the street.
3. What does Tom have ___breakfast?
4. Lan isn't ___home now. She's___work .
5. He is good ___Math.
6. He often goes to work ___motorbike , but __bad weather he goes __ his companyxar.
7. He works hard __ Monday __ Friday so he sleeps ______ the weekend.
                                      (Sưu t m ñư c ^^)




Ex 1:

201. The man ____________daughter is a star is a farmer.
A. who B. whom C. whose D. that
202. ____________you study harder, you won’t pass the exam.
A. If B. Unless C. If only D. Whether
203. It is ___________ a difficult question that I can answer well.
A. So B. too C. Such D. how
204. He spends an hour _________his homework.
A. do B. does C. to do D. doing
205. - I’m sorry about that!
-___________!
A. That’s right B. Of course C. You’re welcome D. It’s OK
206. _____________being tired, he was absent from class yesterday.
A. Because of B. Because C. Although D. Though
207. “how nice to see you” _ “___________”
A. It’s so kind of you B. Nice to see you, too. C. So do I D. Thanks
208. If I ____________you, I couldn’t talk with him.
A. was B. were C. Who D. where
209. I want to come back to the village ___________ I was born.
A. which B. when C. Who D. where
210. Your hair is too long. It needs_________.
A. to cut B. cut C. cutting D. being cut
211. She tries to be serious, but she can’t help ____________.
A. laughing B. to laugh C. laugh D. laughs
212. I wish I _________ richer now.
A. can be B. could be C. had been D. were
213. Neither John’s parents nor I ___________ satisfied with his progress.
A. are B. am C. have D. has
214. The moon _________ around the earth.
A. move B. has moved C. moves D. is moving
215. I _________ ride a bicycle when I was only 6 years old.
A. could B. might C. would D. should
Ex 2:

1.Water ______ at 100 degrees Celsius.
a) boiling b)boils c)is boiling d)boil
2. Bettina usually ______ television in the evening.
a)watches b)watching c)watch d) has watched
3.Rosemary ______ to agree with us now.
a)is appearing b)appear c)appeared d)appears
4.Look! That man ______ your bike!
a) is stealing b)steals c)stealing d)stolen
5.I’m sorry I ______ to do my homework yesterday.
a)am forgetting b)have forgotten c)forgot d)forget
6.We ______ any interesting films lately.
a)didn’t see b)haven’t seen c)saw d)have seen
7.Eric _____ a flat yet, so he’s still living with his parents.
a)found b)didn’t find c)is finding d)hasn’t found
8. They _____ running their own company in 1980.
a)started b)have started c)are starting d)start
9.She’s a law student and she ______ for four years now.
a)studied b)is studing c)has been studing d)did study
10. I think I _____ my door key. I can’t find it any where.
a)lost b)have lost c)am losing d)will lose
11.The film _____ when we arrived at the cinema.
a)has bedun b)begun c)had begun d)begins
12.I wasn’t thirsty because I _____ some milk.
a)drunk b)have just drunk c)just drank d)had just drunk
13. When the match was over , the spectator ______ home.
a)went b)had gone c)were going d)have gone
14.After having a bath, he _____ his supper.
a)had eaten b)ate c)has eaten d)was eating
15.The phone _____ suddenly while Joanne was doing the housework.
a)rang b)was ringing c)had rung d)is ringing
16.It _____ as we drove slowly along the road.
a)had snowed b)had snowed c)was snowing d)is snowing
17.Mrs Edwards _____ history for 35 years, and is retiring soon.
a)teaches b)is teaching c)taught d)has been teaching
18.Did you see John yesterday? He _____ a very old pair of jeans.
a)wears b)didn’t wear c)was wearing d)wore
19. Victoria _____ for half an hour when the doctor finally arrived.
a)has been waiting b)had been waiting c)was waiting d)has waited
20.Anita _____ very hard at the moment.
a)is studing b)studies c)studied d)has studied
Ex 3:

*Add quetison Tags to the following statements:
1. You take sugar in tea,...?
2. The lift isn't working today,...?
3. It never work very well,...?
4. Everybody realized the danger,...?
5. There was a lot of noise,...?
6. Nobody complained,...?
7. Mary hardly ever cooks,...?
8. They don't allow pet dogs in this shop,...?
9. Nothing went wrong,...?
10. He never takes advice,...?
11. There used to be trees here,...?
12. I am too impatient,...?
13. You wouldn't tell anyone,...?
14. Don't deop that vase,...?
15, Let's go out tonight,...?
16. Open the door,...?
17. Sue doesn't know Ann,...?
18. There is an exam tomorrow,...?
19. We've seen that movie,...?
20. He'd never met her before,...?
Cu i sách, mình xin t ng thêm cho các b n nh ng l i khuyên t các chuyên gia cho vi c h c
Ti ng Anh (r t b ích và nên áp d ng ^^)

                          10 l i khuyên ñ h c ti ng Anh hi u qu


1. B n nên bi t rõ lý do t i sao b n c n h c ti ng Anh. H c ñ làm vi c, ñ xin vi c, cho vi c
h c t p hay nói chuy n v i ngư i dùng ti ng Anh.

2. Bi t rõ kĩ năng nào c a b n b h n ch : nói, nghe, ñ c hay vi t? B n mu n c i thi n kĩ năng
nào?

3. C g ng nghe ho c tư ng tư ng nh ng th b n th y ñ có th hi u chúng

4. B n nên ñăng kí m t khóa h c ti ng Anh. Hãy nghĩ b n ñang        trong môi trư ng ch dùng
ti ng Anh. Vì v y, b n s luôn luôn s d ng ti ng Anh

5. B n luôn luôn ph i tìm ki m cơ h i ñ h c và dùng ti ng Anh. Nói ti ng Anh b t c khi nào
có th . B n nên nghe chương trình ti ng Anh trên ñài và ñĩa CD, ñ c và vi t b ng ti ng Anh.
N u th c s mu n tìm ki m cơ h i, b n s tìm th y

6. Vi t t m i ra m t cu n s ghi chép là m t cách r t h u d ng. B n hãy luôn mang theo nó
bên mình và có th xem b t c khi nào r nh r i.

7. Luy n t p càng nhi u càng t t. Có 1 câu thành ng “ n u b n không mu n m t cái gì thì b n
nên dùng nó”. Câu thành ng này r t ñúng v i vi c h c ti ng Anh

8. Tìm m t ngư i có th giúp b n h c ti ng Anh, các b n mình ch ng h n. B n có th nói
chuy n ho c g i tin nh n b ng ti ng Anh cho ngư i ñó và ngư c l i.

9. Luôn luôn h c. Hãy t o thói quen h c 10 phút m i ngày. Đi u này còn t t hơn c vi c b n
dành th i gian 1 l n trong 1 tu n, cho dù kho ng th i gian y có dài hơn n a

10. Khi b t ñ u h c, hãy t h i chính mình “Hôm nay tôi mu n h c cái gì?” và ñ n cu i bu i
hãy t h i “Hôm nay tôi ñã h c ñư c cái gì?”

								
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