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Phenols - PowerPoint

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									What is a phenol?


 The term phenol is used for the class of
  compounds that have a hydroxyl group
  attached to an aromatic ring.
 The parent compound is also called phenol,
  C6 H5 OH
Naming Phenols

 Many phenols are named as derivatives of the
  parent compound, via the general methods of
  naming aromatic compounds.


   OH                OH                   OH
                                   NO2          NO2

                          Br
                                          NO2
  phenol        M- bromophenol
                                  2,4,6- trinitrophenol
  Common Phenols

   Here are examples of common phenols



        OH                   OH                   OH
                 OH

                                   OH
                                                  OH
      catechol            resorcinol
                                              hydroquinone
O- dihydroxybenzene   M- dihydroxybenzene   P- dihydroxybenzene
 Other examples: Vanillin
                       OH
                             OCH3




                     H–C=O

                vanillin


 Odorous component of vanilla bean, usually
  used as flavorings and masking odors, like of
  paints
 Eugenol
                    OH
                             OCH3




                     CH2 CH = CH2

                      eugenol
 Essence of oil of cloves
 Used in making synthetic vanillin
 Thymol
                        CH3




                                 OH
                        CH

                  CH3     CH3

                        thymol


 Widely used flavoring and pharmaceutical.
 2,6 di- t- butyl-4-methyl phenol

                           OH
             C(CH3 ) 3             C(CH3 ) 3




                            CH3

                 2,6 di- t- butyl-4-methyl phenol


 Small amounts of it is used as antioxidant
  preservative for food, synthetic rubber,
  vegetable oil, soap and some plastics.
 Urushiols

                       OH
                                 OH




                        C15 H 25-31

                     urushiols


 Irritants in poison ivy and poison oak.
 Tetrahydrocannabinol
                 CH3



                           OH




           CH3         O        N- C5 H11
                 CH3

 Principal active component of marijuana with
  physiological effects
 Adrenalin
                   OH
                               OH




               HO - CHCH2 NHCH3

               Adrenalin(epinephrine)


 Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in
  respond to fear, joy and other sudden
  emotions.
 In pure state, phenol is a colorless
  crystalline solid with a melting point
  of 410C and a characteristic odor.
 It is highly poisonous and can cause
  nausea, vomiting, circulatory collapse
  and death due to respiratory failure.
 It is a weak acid; acidic than alcohols
  and water but less acidic than acetic
  acid and carbonic acids.
 They are toxic to microorganisms, as
  they are widely used as antiseptics.
 Phenols react to sodium hydroxide to form a
  salt, but not with sodium hydrogen carbonate


             OH                    O- Na +
                  +   NaOH                       H2 O
                                             +

   phenol                    sodium
                             phenoxide




   alcohol        +   NaOH    no reaction
 Phenol is primarily obtained from coal tar, but
  can also be produced synthetically.
                                                        CH3
            +    CH3 CH = CH2   H2 SO4             CH
                                                        CH3
benzene

                                          cumene




                   CH3
                                           OH
O2              CH O O      H                            CH3 CCH3
                                 H2 SO4            +
                 CH3
                                 dilute                       O
     cumene                               phenol
     hydroperoxide

								
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