Docstoc

Laurie Au

Document Sample
Laurie Au Powered By Docstoc
					                         (This paper received an A)
            The Use of Anonymous Sources in Hong Kong Media:
                    A Case Study of The South China Morning Post

Introduction
        The use of anonymous sources is certainly not unique to Hong Kong media. News
organizations all around the world use anonymous sources on a daily basis. However, there has
been growing controversy surrounding the media‟s usage of anonymous sources and an
increased emphasis on reducing unnamed sources. In the United States, most news organizations
have guidelines stipulating how reporters should handle anonymous sources. In Hong Kong,
anonymous sources are used frequently, sometimes without a clear explanation as to why that
source was necessary. The South China Morning Post, the top English-language newspaper in
Hong Kong, holds itself to high journalism standards in terms of its reporting and ethics.
However, even The SCMP is guilty of overusing unnamed sources and does not have a clear
newsroom policy when it comes to anonymous sourcing.
        This paper will examine the use of anonymous sources in The SCMP by analyzing its
coverage a month leading up to the Chief Executive Policy Address in 1992, 1997 and 2003. It
will compare the frequency of anonymous sourcing in these years and determine whether
reporting has changed over a decade‟s time and if the 1997 handover to the People‟s Republic of
China had any clear impact. Furthermore, it will compare The SCMP‟s policy of handling
unnamed sources with other news organizations. Lastly, this paper will attempt to answer
whether The SCMP has been responsible in its reporting practices when it comes to anonymous
sources.

Anonymous Sourcing: Its Supporters and Critics
        Anonymous sourcing was largely seen as essential for journalism, especially after
Watergate, where two Washington Post reporters uncovered the scandal behind the Nixon
Administration through unnamed sources. Since then, with controversial events like New York
Times journalist Judith Miller who refused initially to give up her source, some critics have said
that journalists are overusing anonymous sources.
        The use of anonymous sources reduces the credibility of that reporter, his or her
publication as well as journalism as an industry, some critics argue. Joe Davidson, an ethics
fellow at Poynter Institute, a journalism think tank based in Florida, urged reporters and editors
to reduce the misuse of anonymous sources. In a 2004 Poynter column, Davidson writes, “The
use of anonymous sources undermines the trustworthiness of an industry that already generates
too much mistrust.” Because readers have no way of identifying unnamed sources, they do not
feel compelled to trust the information given by that source.
        On the other hand, some newspapers allow the use of anonymous sources because editors
and reporters feel they cannot get that story any other way. An online article in the Associated
Press Managing Editors (APME) quoted The Philadelphia Inquirer‟s deputy managing editor,
Carl Lavin, saying that they discourage the use of anonymous sources. However, Lavin said “this
needs to be balanced with the need to present vital information to the reader that cannot be
obtained by other means” (Crary, 2005).


                                               Au 1
        Also in that article, the APME conducted a study of among 400 small- to mid-sized daily
newspapers in the U.S. that found one in four newspapers have banned the use of anonymous
sources (Crary, 2005). This reflects the growing trend in the United States to tighten the use of
unnamed sources or to get rid of the act completely. Some newspapers are implementing stricter
policies to deter their reporters and sources from using anonymous sources. This includes
requiring reporters to reveal their source to at least one editor, as practice by The Washington
Post, and divulging as much information about the source to the reader without giving that
person‟s identity away (The Washington Post‟s Policies, 2004) .
        In Hong Kong, however, there is no push to reduce the usage of anonymous sources. The
South China Morning Post does not have a clear policy on anonymous sourcing and does not
make it available to the public via its Web site. According to a presentation by The SCMP given
to the University of Hong Kong, its policy on anonymous sourcing is unclear. Its policies state:

         10. Journalists should protect their sources of information.
         10.1 To avoid misleading the public, journalists should strive not to use
         information provided by anonymous sources.
          10.2 In cases in which anonymity is necessary, extraordinary care must be
         exercised to ascertain the veracity of information so provided. (SCMP.
         Special presentation on ethics).

        While these policies show awareness by the South China Morning Post to not use
anonymous sources recklessly, they do not outline any type of uniform guidelines. It does not go
into detail – as compared with The Washington Post‟s policies, which gives comprehensive and
clear explanations – on what reporters should do when faced with confidential sources. For
example, The Post‟s policy states that they prefer two independent sources of information and
for reporters to give as much information on sources as possible instead of using the generic
terms, “informed sources” or “government officials” (The Washington Post‟s Policies, 2004).
        However, it is important to note the press differences between the United States and
Hong Kong to more fairly compare their anonymous sourcing policies. The United States‟
government is more transparent than the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Journalists
in the U.S. can also use the Freedom of Information Act to obtain public documents and its
sunshine laws – or open meetings act (Weisenhaus, 2005). In Hong Kong, however, journalists
have less access to government data and have to resort to anonymous sourcing more frequently.
In a survey of more than 400 Hong Kong journalists conducted by Doreen Weisenhaus, a
journalism professor at the University of Hong Kong, she found that 74 percent of them have
used anonymous sources before. She also found that most of the respondents used anonymous
sources at least one to five times in the previous month, one in 10 using more than 10 times in
the previous month and some using them more than 20 times (Weisenhaus, 2005). Weisenhaus
made a notable point on anonymous sourcing: “In the case of Hong Kong‟s media, the continued
use of confidential government documents and anonymous sources, many of whom are
government officials, are endemic to a system of secrecy” (Weisenhaus, 2005).

Anonymous Sources in The South China Morning Post
       For a decade, The SCMP‟s coverage of the Chief Executive‟s Policy Address has largely
remained unchanged. In the month leading up to the policy address in 1992, 1997 and 2003, the


                                              Au 2
newspaper has had roughly the same number of stories with the almost the same number of
stories that used anonymous sources. After analyzing news stories, this author has found the
following results:
                                            Table 1
                               1992 Policy Address Coverage

       Use of at least one anonymous source                                            2
       No attribution                                                                  3
       Use of at least one anonymous source and no attribution                         1
       No anonymous sources or lack of attribution used                               10
       TOTAL                                                                          16

                                           Table 2
                                1997 Policy Address Coverage

       Use of at least one anonymous source                                            3
       No attribution                                                                  0
       Use of at least one anonymous source and no attribution                         0
       No anonymous sources or lack of attribution used                                7
       TOTAL                                                                          10

                                           Table 3
                                2003 Policy Address Coverage

       Use of at least one anonymous source                                            4
       No attribution                                                                  2
       Use of at least one anonymous source and no attribution                         0
       No anonymous sources or lack of attribution used                               10
       TOTAL                                                                          16

        Most of the sources left unidentified were government sources, which falls in line with
Weisenhaus‟ study that found 47 percent of Hong Kong journalists who use anonymous sources
do so for local government news (Weisenhaus, 2005). When it came to environmental stories,
such as criticism surrounding Hong Kong‟s air pollution problem, there were few or no
anonymous sources needed. However, when it came to more sensitive issues, such as Beijing and
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region relations, more anonymous sources were used. For
example, in an article on Oct. 7, 1992 about Gov. Chris Patten‟s “understood” decision to create
electoral elections for the Legislative Council, most of the article‟s content is from anonymous
sources:

               Beijing, already informed of the broad features of Mr Patten's
           speech, is understood to be unhappy about the changes.
               The changing electoral arrangements of the functional constituencies
           polls are seen as de facto direct elections.



                                              Au 3
                "What is the difference between such arrangements and direct
           elections?" a source said.
                He said China would react "violently" to such a change and was
           prepared to criticise Mr Patten's political development plan once it was
           revealed.
                China might also organise another round of functional constituency
           elections in 1997 along the present rules of the game, according to the
           source.
                "If Mr Patten does not care about converging the political
           development with the Basic Law, why should China care about changing
           all those legislators who are not returned in conformity with the
           provisions of the Basic Law?" the source said (Lau, 1992).

       Also from the results, it does not seem that the 1997 handover to Chinese sovereignty has
had any effect on the number of news stories with anonymous sources. Overall, the results
showed that The SCMP published more stories without anonymous sources than those with them,
which is worthy to note.

Most Concerning Problems
        Of the stories with anonymous sources and/or no attribution, there were several common
problems that have become a trend for the paper over the decade. While these problems, again,
are not unique to The SCMP or to Hong Kong media, they raise several concerns among readers
and to the rest of the industry.

1.     Lack of identification of sources

        Reporters fail to establish credibility in their anonymous sources. Most of the time,
reporters simply use the generic term of “according to a source,” without giving further
information on that person. For example, in the Oct. 7, 1992 article mentioned above, the
reporters simply refer to their source as “a source” without telling readers who that source is,
why he or she has the legitimacy to make such comments and why that person is remaining
anonymous. As stated previously in this paper, many newspapers in the U.S. are making it a
policy to divulge as much information on anonymous sources to establish more credibility with
readers. The Washington Post‟s policy on anonymous sourcing states:

       We must strive to tell our readers as much as we can about why our unnamed
       sources deserve our confidence. Our obligation is to serve readers, not sources.
       This means avoiding attributions to “sources” or “informed sources.” Instead we
       should try to give the reader something more, such as “sources familiar with the
       thinking of defense lawyers in the case,” or “sources whose work brings them
       into contact with the county executive,” or “sources on the governor's staff who
       disagree with his policy” (“The Washington Post‟s Policies”).

        While it is not expected to see The SCMP adopt The Post‟s policy exactly, reporters and
editors should make more of an effort to tell readers more information on unnamed sources and


                                               Au 4
why they‟re allowing that person to remain anonymous. This way, readers will trust reporters‟
sources and therefore, will trust The SCMP. In the current SCMP policy on anonymous sources,
it does not provide any guidance in how much information reporters and editors should reveal.
Also, it does not have any language that shows awareness into making their readers trust them.
Instead, the language of the policy shows more concern for the anonymous source.

2.     No attribution

         No attribution is almost as serious a problem as not naming sources. In The SCMP, one of
the most common problems was not attributing information to sources or organizations. One
style that has become a trend in The SCMP is the use of the phrases, “It is understood that…” or
“It is believed that…” This is almost as concerning as anonymous sources because reporters
blatantly leave out the source, not even giving some identification to who the person is to
establish some credibility. Of the 15 articles included at the end of this paper that have
anonymous sources and/or no attribution in the three years of analysis, nine of them include the
phrases, “it is understood that” or “it is believed that.”

3.     Little necessity in using anonymous sources

         Many newspapers use anonymous sources as the last resort – if they absolutely cannot get
the story in another way or if it is seen as a vital part to the story. The Post‟s policy also states
that it will not use anonymous sources just to add flavor or an opinion to the article. In The
SCMP, however, reporters will use anonymous sources even if it is not vital to the story.
         In an article published on Jan. 8, 2003, reporter Chris Yeung (also the writer found to use
anonymous sources most frequently) quotes a source saying that there won‟t be much surprises
in then-Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa‟s upcoming policy address (Yeung, 2003). There is no
necessity in using this person‟s comment because it does not add a necessary piece of
information to the story.
         In 1997 and 2003, Yeung did a three-part series leading up to the policy address, hinting
at what the chief executive will talk about. While this series is beneficial to the people of Hong
Kong, Yeung should limit his writing to what is necessary for the Hong Kong people to know
rather than resorting to using anonymous sources to fill up space.

Methodological Note
        When analyzing news stories in the SCMP, this author searched for key words, including
“policy address,” “sources,” “it is understood” and the then-chief executive‟s name a month
before each year‟s address. This author selected 1997 as its center year to determine whether the
handover made any difference on coverage. From there, this author selected five years before
1997 and five years after to determine if there were any changes or trends within a 10-year span.
It is important to note that there was not a policy address in 2002 because Tung Chee-hwa
wanted more time for deliberation among his new ruling team.
        While there were more news articles written about the policy address than mentioned in
the study‟s results, this author used this criteria to distinguish which articles were used:

       1. Articles that talked about that current year‟s address.


                                                Au 5
       2. Articles longer than 60 words (longer than a brief).
       3. Any story that gives readers insight into this year‟s issues and feeling surrounding
          this year‟s address, even if they weren‟t about finding out what exactly was to be said
          in the address.
       4. Hard news stories – no soft political news, such as the plane ride preparing for the
          address.
       5. News stories – no editorials or guest opinion pieces.

Conclusion
        Anonymous sourcing has long been a part of journalism practices, however, there has
been a recent push among various news organizations to tighten or ban the use of unnamed
sources. The use of anonymous sources is said to be a vital part of journalism when dealing with
sensitive topics and issues vital to public interest. However, many say it is overused in
newspapers, which contribute to the growing public mistrust in the industry.
        While Hong Kong is not the only place guilty of overusing anonymous sources, it has not
changed its usage when it comes to covering governmental issues. Since 1992, The South China
Morning Post has used anonymous sources to cover local government issues very much the same
way reporters covers it now. The SCMP does not have a clear policy on handling sourcing or
attribution. It should make a newsroom policy clear to protect its anonymous sources as well as
keeping the trust and interest of its readers.
        The use of anonymous sources still remain necessary in covering the HKSAR, as it
chooses to remain less transparent, forcing reporters to obtain information in less desirable ways.
While it is understandable to use anonymous sources, reporters and editors of The SCMP should
practice better journalism ethics by using unnamed sources more responsibly and only if
necessary.




                                               Au 6
References
Crary, David. “Survey shows many newspapers never permit use of anonymous sources.”
     Associated Press Managing Editors. 8 June 2005. Date accessed: 10 Dec. 2006.
     <http://www.apme.com/news/2005/060805anonymous.shtml>.

Davidson, Joe. “Anonymous Sources.” Poynter Online. 12 Aug. 2004. Date accessed: 10 Dec.
     2006. <http://www.poynter.org/content/content_view.asp?id=69848>.

Lau, Jeremy and Fanny Wong. “Beijing „anger‟ likely; Beijing set to object over Patten reform.”
      The South China Morning Post. 7 October 1992.

“SCMP. Special presentation on ethics.” South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd.

“The Washington Post‟s Policies on Sources, Quotations, Attribution, and Datelines.” Poynter
     Online. 20 Feb. 2004. Date accessed: 10 Dec. 2006.
     <http://www.poynter.org/column.asp?id=53&aid=61244>.

Weisenhaus, Doreen. “Newsgathering Practices: Hong Kong Journalists‟ Views and Use of
    Controversial Techniques.” Global Media Journal 4.7 (2005).

Yeung, Chris. “Economic strategy tipped to top Tung‟s agenda; The chief executive will unveil
    the blueprint, but his ministers will flesh out the details.” The South China Morning Post. 8
    Jan. 2003.




                                              Au 7
1992 Policy Address                                                              Anonymous Sources


                                   Example #1
                        “UK warns Beijing over Patten speech”
              By DAVID HEALY in London and IAN WILLIAMS in New York
                             September 27, 1992, Page 1

BRITAIN yesterday warned Beijing of the constitutional changes Governor Mr Chris Patten
would unveil in his October 7 policy address, and urged China not to rush into an angry
denunciation of them.

Foreign Secretary Mr Douglas Hurd briefed his Chinese counterpart on the most sensitive parts
of the speech in a 2 1/2-hour tough-talking session in New York.

Chinese Foreign Minister Mr Qian Qichen responded as he left the meeting with a warning that
there could be no question of speeding up the pace of democratisation laid down in the Basic
Law.

Although Mr Hurd declined to answer questions on the issue, observers said the Chinese side's
comments indicated the foreign secretary had served notice Mr Patten intended to push for more
directly elected seats in 1995, something Beijing strongly opposes.

British officials said the aim had been to alert the Chinese Government to the importance of what
the Governor would announce, and urge it not to give an immediate, unconsidered response.

Mr Hurd appealed to the Chinese to wait until the Governor arrived in Beijing on October 21 to
spell out the precise meaning behind the details of his speech before responding, according to
official sources in London.

The foreign secretary confirmed he had briefed Mr Qian on Mr Patten's plans for reforms during
their meeting yesterday morning (Hongkong time), on the fringes of the United Nations General
Assembly.

"I took the opportunity to tell the Chinese foreign minister broadly what the Governor intends to
say on the constitutional side in his speech to Legco on October 7," he said.

However, British officials insisted Mr Hurd had not gone into the details of Mr Patten's address,
and that the briefing had been "neither a clearing operation nor a consultation exercise".

One later characterised the session as a "frank talking dialogue", and described the atmosphere as
"good".

The meeting - which began with an unscheduled British expression of concern over Friday's
armed incursion into Hongkong waters - also touched on the airport deadlock, although not in
detail.




                                               Au 8
1992 Policy Address                                                              Anonymous Sources


"We did discuss the airport and the need to reach agreement; (an) early and practical agreement,"
Mr Hurd said, denying accusations Mr Patten's comments on the issue last week were an
"outburst" directed against Beijing.

British sources said Mr Hurd complained progress was too slow, and said the ball was now in
China's court.

"We have done our very best to take account of Chinese problems over financing and we await a
formal reaction," one official said.

"All we have had so far is a critical press and critical editorials.

"We look forward to a constructive official response and more practical discussions."

Mr Qian is understood to have replied that Beijing wanted the airport to be built, but wanted the
financial details worked out first.

However, he also said the dispute could be on the agenda for the Governor's inaugural trip to
Beijing - in an apparent indication it is unlikely to be resolved before then.




                                                  Au 9
1992 Policy Address                                                                 Anonymous Sources


                                         Example #2
                      “Councillors want greater 'question time' freedom”
                                 September 29, 1992, Page 6

BOTH conservative and liberal Legislative Councillors have suggested they should be free to ask
any questions related to the Governor's policy address in Mr Patten's first "question time" on
October 8.

Mr Patten will host a press conference immediately after he has delivered his policy address on
the afternoon of October 7.

However, his first Legislative Council "question time" the following day will not be a formal
sitting.

"Mr Patten will attend the meeting as the Governor, but not as the President of the Legislative
Council," a source said.

It is also understood there will not be a formal chairman to lead the session. Legislators are
expected to be asked by Mr Patten to raise their hands if they want to ask questions.

Co-operative Resources Centre member Mr Henry Tang Ying-yen wanted the greatest degree of
freedom during the event.

"I prefer total freedom," Mr Tang said. "The policy address covers a wide range of topics. It's not
fair to limit the questions to only one or two aspects which someone considers important."

He suggested Mr Patten should have a regular question time session with the public and the
councillors, in addition to the present arrangements.

United Democrat Mr Lee Wing-tat said he also preferred a laissez-faire approach.

"I think all legislators should have a chance to ask the question they are interested in," he said.

He said Mr Patten should step down as the President of Legco and let Deputy President Mr John
Swaine chair the meeting.

Mr Lee said the session would be best supplemented by a series of briefings by various policy
secretaries to explain the changes triggered by Mr Patten's address in their respective fields.

Meeting Point legislator Mr Tik Chi-yuen said members would know how to develop their
questions even without a specific scope set beforehand.

"I don't think we need to circle the questions to some particular areas. Members will know how
to follow up on Mr Patten's answers," he said.




                                                Au 10
1992 Policy Address                                                            Anonymous Sources


Mr Frederick Fung Kin- kee of the Association for the Promotion of Democracy and People's
Livelihood agreed that Mr Patten should allow legislators the greatest degree of freedom during
question time.

He suggested members could follow up the implementation of the policy address at various
corresponding panels in the future.

However, the House Committee deputy convenor, Mr Andrew Wong Wang-fat, said he preferred
a format which would see Mr Patten deliver a brief statement and then elucidate on points raised
by legislators on the statement.

Mr Wong said such a method should be adopted at all forthcoming question times. He also
suggested Mr Patten should eventually step down as President of Legco.




                                             Au 11
1992 Policy Address                                                                    No Attribution


                                           Example #3
                          “Patten to visit Major over policy address”
                                      By FANNY WONG
                                 September 12, 1992, Page 1

BRITISH Prime Minister Mr John Major will put his personal stamp of approval on Governor
Mr Chris Patten's manifesto for running Hongkong over the next five years when the two meet in
London next Tuesday.

Mr Patten's unexpected one-day visit to Britain to secure Mr Major's endorsement of his October
7 policy address was announced yesterday to the surprise of legislators.

Constitutional matters, including the relationship between the Executive and Legislative councils
and the 1995 Legco elections, are expected to be the key areas which Mr Patten plans to discuss
with his old boss and good friend.

The issues to be raised are believed to be so sensitive that personal exchanges instead of telex
communication between Government House and 10 Downing Street are required.

It comes ahead of another meeting scheduled between British Foreign Secretary Mr Douglas
Hurd and the Chinese Foreign Minister Mr Qian Qichen in New York at the end of the month.

The discussions between Mr Patten and Mr Major will be crucial in defining the Governor's
"platform" for governing Hongkong in the remaining years of British rule.

Mr Patten said yesterday he had spoken to so many people in Hongkong that he thought it
sensible to talk to Mr Major and Mr Hurd before his address.

"The Prime Minister, as you know, is extremely interested in securing the stability and prosperity
of Hongkong," Mr Patten said.

"I want to go back before I finalise my speech and set out for him exactly what my views were."

Mr Patten said he would also touch on the latest Chinese proposals over financing of the airport
which remains deadlocked.

Pro-China legislator Mr Tam Yiu-chung believed discussions would focus on Sino-British
relations.

Fellow legislator, Mr Jimmy McGregor, believed the visit was meant to show Hongkong and
China that Mr Patten had direct access to the Prime Minister and his full support.

It is understood Mr Patten will be accompanied by his private secretary, Mr Richard Hoare, press
secretary, Mr Mike Hanson, and personal aide, Mr Edward Llewellyn.

Mr Patten will return on Wednesday.



                                               Au 12
1992 Policy Address                                                                      No Attribution


                                      Example #4
                               “New committee fight looms”
                         By DANNY GITTINGS and CANDY WONG
                                September 13, 1992, Page 2

LEGISLATORS are gearing up for another complete overhaul of their committee structure
immediately after Governor Mr Chris Patten's October 7 policy address, in a move that could
bring fresh controversy on an issue that sparked pitched battle between the political factions
earlier this year.

The councillors are preparing for the Governor's possible announcement of the separation of the
membership of the Executive and Legislative councils, which many believe could render much
of their internal structure obsolete - and even lead to the abolition of Omelco.

The debate is expected to start in earnest this week, as legislators reconvene for the first session
of their new house committee on Friday.

The meeting is expected to re-elect Mrs Elsie Tu and Mr Andrew Wong Wang-fat as chairman
and deputy chairman, after both confirmed they were ready to stand and gained the support of
the council's main political groups.

Another session, that will discuss constitutional changes, has been fixed for the morning of
October 7 - hours before Mr Patten's keynote speech.

And, in a major indication of the move towards fresh reforms, Co-operative Resources Centre
(CRC) convener Mr Allen Lee Peng-fei - whose group spearheaded the fight against liberal
attempts to introduce a standing committee system six months ago - has said he no longer
necessarily opposes them.

"It's entirely different now," he said. "There's no connection (with the past) because you are
looking at changing circumstances . . . the name of the committee is not important, it's their
function and powers that must be thought about."

In-house convener Mrs Tu said blueprints for possible changes - particularly to the so far
untouched Omelco panel system - were being discussed internally and a list of options drawn up.

"We have a lot of ideas but they could all be vastly changed if the Governor makes radical
changes," she said. "So far we are thinking not so much in terms of standing committees but
more of sub- committees of our house committee."

The head of Omelco, Lady Dunn, is expected to join the debate when she returns from holiday
later this week. She has indicated she could envisage the abolition of Omelco.

It is understood the options include several liberal models for more radical reforms voted down
by the CRC during the fierce debates earlier this year.




                                                Au 13
1992 Policy Address                                                                   No Attribution


"We're going to have to do some fundamental rethinking about our committee structure and it
could lead to standing committees," said Mr Wong. "So far we've simply delayed such a
thorough rethinking."

But some legislators are already signalling the major battles that may lie ahead with pro-Beijing
unionist Mr Tam Yiu-chung warning against any change to the Omelco panel system.

"I always believe that no change is necessary," he said, adding he did not expect the Governor to
touch on the issue in his policy address.

Beijing is concerned the councillors may again try to push through a new committee structure. A
series of harshly- worded commentaries in the local leftist press last week warned against such a
possibility.

Meanwhile, independent liberal legislator Mr Frederick Fung Kin-kee has put forward reform
proposals for discussion during the October 7 session, calling for a new standing working group
to ensure the administration obeys motions passed by the full council.

According to the Association for Democracy and Peoples' Livelihood chairman, the group
should function as a watchdog on implementation of policy.




                                              Au 14
1992 Policy Address                                                                    No Attribution


                                          Example #5
                                    “Trading funds on cards”
                                     October 4, 1992, Page 2

THE Governor, Mr Chris Patten, is to set out the framework for a more efficient government in
his maiden policy address on Wednesday.

High on the priority of reforms recommended is the trading fund - a half-way house to
privatisation which enables Government departments to provide services on a commercial basis.

It is understood the efficiency unit, which generates public sector reform initiatives, has been
preparing papers over the past two weeks to be incorporated into Mr Patten's blueprint.

Financial Secretary Mr Hamish Macleod said trading funds were more practical than large scale
privatisation because they did not require staff transfers.

They also gave the departments greater incentive and flexibility in controlling expenditure and
bringing revenue up to cover costs, he said.

The relevant legislation needed to set up the accounting framework is expected to go to the
Executive Council this month and to the Legislative Council in November.

The Company Registry and the Land Registry are among the first Government bodies earmarked
for experimenting with the funds.

Each fund draws its initial capital from a central fund and all payments are then made to the
trading fund.




                                               Au 15
1992 Policy Address                                                  Anonymous Sources, No Attribution


                                           Example #6
                “Beijing 'anger' likely; Beijing set to object over Patten reform”
                            By FANNY WONG and JEREMY LAU
                                     October 7, 1992, Page. 1

SWEEPING changes to Hongkong's electoral arrangements for the 1995 Legislative Council
elections to be unveiled today by the Governor, Mr Chris Patten, are certain to draw a fierce
response from China.

Although Mr Patten is unlikely to challenge Beijing by unilaterally increasing the number of
directly-elected seats, he is expected to announce changes affecting functional constituencies and
the grand electoral college which will return a total of 40 legislators to the 1995 assembly.

Huge spending plans in Mr Patten's 90-minute inaugural policy address to the Legislative
Council will raise some eyebrows in Beijing.

Commitments, such as greatly enhancing social welfare and services in the territory between
now and 1997, will eat into the kitty that might be left for the future Special Administrative
Region government and leave a much bigger annual bill after the handover.

The Foreign Secretary, Mr Douglas Hurd, last night praised Mr Patten's programme, saying that
its aim was to strengthen and extend democracy in the territory "in a way which lasts beyond
1997".

"Everyone knows the difficulties along this road . . . but Chris Patten's plans are skilful and far-
reaching," Mr Hurd said in London, adding that the ruling Conservative Party "wished him well
on his big day".

The change likely to irk China most is Mr Patten's plan to substantially broaden the electorate of
the functional constituency elections by allowing a one-man, one- vote system to the indirect
polls to the greatest possible extent.

Similarly, Mr Patten will democratise the grand electoral college elections by broadening the
representativeness of the Election Committee tasked to return the 10 legislators.

A high proportion of the membership of the Election Committee is expected to come from
directly elected members of the 19 district boards and the two municipal councils which will
have their appointment system abolished in the next term under Mr Patten's reform blueprint.

On the Executive Council composition, Mr Patten is ready to snub the United Democrats of
Hongkong (UDHK) by appointing non-party affiliated professionals and businessmen to his
cabinet.

But he is also understood to be prepared to appoint a new committee to be his own team of
advisers, which might include members of the liberal groups, including the UDHK.




                                                Au 16
1997 Policy Address                                                                Anonymous Sources


Beijing, already informed of the broad features of Mr Patten's speech, is understood to be
unhappy about the changes.

The changing electoral arrangements of the functional constituencies polls are seen as de facto
direct elections.

"What is the difference between such arrangements and direct elections?" a source said.

He said China would react "violently" to such a change and was prepared to criticise Mr Patten's
political development plan once it was revealed.

China might also organise another round of functional constituency elections in 1997 along the
present rules of the game, according to the source.

"If Mr Patten does not care about converging the political development with the Basic Law, why
should China care about changing all those legislators who are not returned in conformity with
the provisions of the Basic Law?" the source said.

The new committee would also be another target of China's criticism as it is seen as a super inner
cabinet which will undermine the role and influence of the Exco.

Under Mr Patten's reform package, he is expected to enfranchise the functional constituency
polls which in 1995 will return half of the 60 seats of the law-making assembly.

Instead of sticking to the old formula of allowing "corporate electors" who are members of
representative bodies such as labour federations or employer associations of the functional
constituencies, Mr Patten is likely to make the elections more democratic by introducing a one-
man, one-vote system to the 30 constituencies to the greatest possible extent.

Under such a model, individual staff of the constituencies rather than the corporate members,
would be entitled to vote.

This would substantially boost the total size of the electorate of the functional constituency polls
by hundreds of thousands of eligible voters.

The current formula of allowing corporate electors has been under fire since the functional
constituency elections were introduced in 1985 but repeated calls for change have remained
unheeded.

At present, there are 21 Legco functional constituency seats with eight being exclusively
represented by corporate electors while another three constituencies have both corporate and
individual electors.

The remaining 10 seats, including the medical, health care, teaching, legal, engineering,
architectural, surveying and planning, accountancy, urban council, regional council and Heung
Yee Kuk, have only individual electors.



                                               Au 17
1997 Policy Address                                                                 Anonymous Sources


                                        Example #7
                            “Tung promises to keep inflation down”
                                      By ANGELA LI
                                 September 18, 1997, Page 1

Tung Chee-hwa yesterday began a three-week consultation process on his maiden policy address
with a pledge to keep inflation in check.

During a meeting with provisional legislators, the Chief Executive said high inflation had hit
Hong Kong's competitiveness and must be kept down.

Although currently running at 5.8 per cent, he said that in many other countries it was no more
than two or three per cent.

"If inflation continues to stay at this level, it will be a big problem for Hong Kong," he warned.

Despite calls for the introduction of a capital gains tax to curb property prices - a key factor in
the battle against inflation - Mr Tung said he was reluctant to take that step.

Members said he was concerned that any measures to cool property prices could end up hurting
the economy and financial markets.

Provisional legislator Dominic Chan Choi-hi said: "He also questioned whether the public
utilities should be allowed to raise their charges every year according to inflation.

"I think he's considering de-linking their annual fare adjustment and the inflation rate."

Sources said Mr Tung told members that the way in which labour was imported was another
method of curbing inflation.

It is understood the head of the Central Policy Unit, Gordon Siu Kwing-chue, has finished the
first draft of the policy address, to be given on October 8.

Apart from giving priority to housing, education and welfare, Mr Tung told legislators during the
two-hour meeting, that he would also focus on medical and health care issues.

Legislator Dr Leong Che-hung said: "I am happy to hear that there will be a considerably larger
coverage on medical aspects in his speech."

On the SAR Land Fund, which is expected to total at least $ 190 billion, one source quoted Mr
Tung as saying that he might not be in a position to expound on its investments.

A formal announcement of the amount in the Land Fund is not due to be made until the end of
this month, after its accounts are audited.




                                                Au 18
1997 Policy Address                                                               Anonymous Sources


                                        Example #8
                             “The promises that Tung must keep”
                                      By Chris Yeung
                                  October 4, 1997, Page 15

Five years ago, the then governor, Chris Patten, set out his plans for Hong Kong's preparations
for the handover under the "one country, two systems" formula.

In his speech, Our Next Five Years: the Agenda for Hong Kong, Mr Patten declared his goal was
simply "to safeguard Hong Kong's way of life".

Although it was a modest goal, the changes outlined in his 43-page speech sparked friction
between the departing and the future sovereign power as well as social divisions within the
community.

On Wednesday, the first chief executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Tung
Chee-hwa, will take centre stage as the first Chinese leader to make the annual policy address in
the Legislative Council chamber.

One hundred days after colonial rule ended, Mr Tung is to set the agenda for his next five years
in office.

When he unveils his vision, he will have the luxury of being able to point to a seamless transition
that has confounded the doomsayers.

Hong Kong has emerged largely unscathed from the financial turmoil in neighbouring countries,
with total SAR reserves now ranked fifth in the world. Confidence has reached new heights.

Property prices, still high, have stabilised. Demonstrations have become more a welcome sign of
tolerance towards dissent in the SAR than a real threat to social harmony.

The Democratic Party, the territory's most popular political force, has shown great self-restraint
and conciliation towards the SAR authorities and the Chinese Government.

This is despite the fact its leading echelon, which won in the 1995 Legislative Council elections,
was replaced by a selected group of provisional legislators, some of whom were losers in those
polls.

While Mr Patten faced hostility from the Chinese Government throughout his five-year rule, Mr
Tung has been promised a free hand by the Chinese Government. Premier Li Peng gave a vote of
confidence to Mr Tung and his top aides while ordering locally based officials at Xinhua, the
Foreign Ministry and the People's Liberation Army - as well as the heads of mainland enterprises
- to abide strictly by the Basic Law.

The 60-year-old businessman may still wake up in the middle of the night asking himself why he
took the job, but there have been good reasons to feel relieved he did.



                                               Au 19
1997 Policy Address                                                                 Anonymous Sources




Not for long, though. If there is one single reason for the high levels of confidence, it is simply
because of the depth of anxiety and uncertainty in the lead-up to the changeover. Confidence
rebounded as soon as July 1 passed without any fundamental change.

The people of Hong Kong continue to give the benefit of the doubt to Mr Tung, who has
promised to tackle a range of immediate problems and lead the SAR with "macro-perspective,
clear goals and firm steps".

The people will be watching closely how the Chief Executive delivers on the lofty pledges and
goals of his maiden policy speech. Confidence in the future and support for the new government
will hinge on whether concrete and immediate solutions on specific issues such as housing,
welfare, and quality of life are provided.

In the medium and long-term, they will be looking forward to a comprehensive strategy for the
building of a "stable, equitable, free, democratic, compassionate society with a clear sense of
direction", which Mr Tung promised in his speech at the inauguration of the SAR on July 1.

But his top advisers have warned against extravagant hopes. One said: "He's just been in power
for three months and has to tackle some immediate problems. I think you'll only get a fuller
picture (of Tung's vision for Hong Kong) in next year's policy address".

The immediate problems are discernible enough. In his July 1 address, Mr Tung said: "We have
to resolve a series of social problems arising from a growing and ageing population, meet the
pressing demand for more and better housing, and deal with employment dislocation due to
restructuring of the economy."

Good government does not depend on its strength and ability to solve a problem; to identify an
impending problem before it becomes a real one is far more important and challenging.

Even more important is to bring leadership to build a society that truly is "stable, equitable, free,
democratic and compassionate".

Although this is a society stable and prosperous on the surface, it clearly has some disturbing
undercurrents.

Aides close to Mr Tung are aware of the threat of conflict between employers and employees in
the coming months and worried that the onset of campaigning for the first SAR elections will
only exacerbate the threat.

With inflation likely to rise, joint calls from the Federation of Employers and the Hong Kong
General Chamber of Commerce for curbs on wage increases are set to trigger fierce opposition
from unions. Unions and business groups are also poised for another battle over labour
importation.




                                                Au 20
1997 Policy Address                                                                Anonymous Sources


Mr Tung has clearly indicated he favours a relaxation of foreign labour imports. It is now just a
question of how that will be done to assuage the fears of local workers that their employment
will not be jeopardised and wages will not be dragged down.

A senior adviser to Mr Tung, who preferred anonymity, said unionists had been short-sighted
on labour importation, which he said would benefit the local workforce in the longer run,
especially in those sectors suffering shortages.

Accusations of short-sightedness sit equally well with the business sector. The shift by some
industrialists from investing in manufacturing to real estate reflects a desire to make quick profits
before it is too late.

Mr Tung needs to persuade the business sector and workers alike that the Government's
commitment to encourage restructuring will enhance local employment opportunities.

Businessmen and investors should be assured the Government will be eternally on its guard to
improve the investment environment for wealth creation, while employees should be induced to
believe their efforts will be reasonably paid.

Few would dispute an early statement made by Mr Tung in office that "our foremost task is to
enhance Hong Kong's economic vitality and sustain economic growth".

At the same time, he predicated his vision of a "stable, equitable and compassionate" society on
the entitlement of everyone to a reasonable share of economic success.

Since his selection to lead the SAR, Mr Tung has been reluctant to comment on the legacy of Mr
Patten's five-year rule. He has shown clear displeasure that society has become too "politicised".
And he is adamant the Basic Law has set the right pace for democracy for Hong Kong.

While views are divided over whether the pace for democratisation should be accelerated, there
is clear consensus it should not be wound back.

As the future course of greater democracy is clear, efforts should be made to make the present
electoral arrangements more open and democratic so long as they are within the parameters of
the Basic Law.

There is much room for more democracy in the practical arrangements of the geographical,
functional and election committee elections.

The SAR Government can be pardoned for criticising next year's election because it has to
conform with the Preparatory Committee's relevant decisions.

Now the Chinese Government has pledged not to interfere, the SAR Government should adopt a
more open-minded and liberal attitude towards democracy and human rights as it responds to
society's changing needs.




                                               Au 21
1997 Policy Address                                                               Anonymous Sources


                                        Example #9
           “Stock exchange sees changes on the way; Second board nears creation”
                                     By ENOCH YIU
                        October 7, 1997, BUSINESS POST, Page 3

Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa's first policy address, due tomorrow, is likely to feature the
introduction of a second board aimed at helping small companies raise funds to finance future
development, sources close to the Government said.

They said the development of a second board was part of a plan to encourage the growth of an
active high-technology sector in the SAR.

The new market will have less stringent listing requirements than the main board, along the lines
of the Nasdaq market in the United States.

A stock exchange working group set up to examine the issue has concluded its initial assessment,
and has found sufficient interest in the second board for further research to be conducted.

Exchange chairman Edgar Cheng Wai-kin yesterday said it was the exchange's duty to develop a
second board.

"The stock exchange has monopoly status over the operation of the exchange. It is our obligation
to develop a new market, otherwise no one else will do it," he said.

In addition to lower listing requirements, profit track record rules would be less onerous.

Mr Cheng said that the more relaxed rules did not mean the regulatory regime would be less
strict.

Stock exchange executive director Lawrence Fok Kwong-man said the exchange might reduce
the three-year profit requirement as well as the minimum size of companies permitted to list.




                                               Au 22
1997 Policy Address                                                               Anonymous Sources


                                         Example #10
                               “Tung's 'fair and vibrant' vision”
                            By CHRIS YEUNG and Sharon Cheung
                                   October 8, 1997, Page 1

Tung Chee-hwa says he will announce a blueprint today for a fair, democratic, affluent and
vibrant society into the next century.

He said his Policy Address would take a broad, long-term view, while addressing the issues the
community was most concerned about.

"It's a product of joint efforts of the people and the Government . . . I hope the Government and
the people will work with one heart to make good preparations for Hong Kong into the 21st
century," he said yesterday.

Yesterday afternoon, Mr Tung briefed officials on his address, which will be delivered in
Cantonese to the Provisional Legislative Council at 2.30 pm.

In addition to measures on welfare, education and housing, sources said Mr Tung would
emphasise co-operation with the mainland.

"The thoughts behind the Policy Address will be along the lines of his speech on July 1. But he
will elaborate on ways to boost relations with the mainland under the new era," one official said.

Mr Tung would also outline ways to meet his target of supplying 85,000 flats a year. A key part
of the plan would be an increase in land supply.

A source said there would be "major changes" in education policy to deal with the challenges of
the next century.

On welfare, there would be policies to improve the livelihood of the elderly, including an
increase in welfare payments.

As public expectations were high, the official said, money would be poured into an "impressive"
blueprint.

But the prudent fiscal policy would remain and the impression would not be given of a "massive
spending spree".

Approaching the 100th day since the handover, a University of Hong Kong research centre
survey released yesterday showed people were happy with the Government's performance.

About 49 per cent - the highest since July - said they were satisfied, 30 per cent chose "half-
half", and 13 per cent said they were not happy.

But there was a drop in Mr Tung's rating, to 65.8 out of 100. Last month's figure was 67.7.



                                               Au 23
1997 Policy Address                                                              Anonymous Sources




Last night, ousted Democrat legislator Tsang Kin-shing staged a sit-in outside the Legislative
Council chamber to petition against any increase in importing labour.

Executive Councillor Henry Tang Ying-yen was tight-lipped on whether a relaxation would be
announced today.

He said the Executive Council had not reached a consensus on the issue.

It is understood Mr Tung will touch on the principles of labour importation, but will not
announce a firm policy today.




                                              Au 24
1997 Policy Address                                                                   No Attribution


                                         Example #11
                                “Tung 'disappoints' Democrats”
                                     By NO KWAI-YAN
                                  September 21, 1997, Page 2

DEMOCRATS called on Tung Chee-hwa yesterday to commit to a full directly -elected
legislature and chief executive by 2007 in his forthcoming policy address.

But after a 1.75-hour meeting with Mr Tung, Democratic Party chairman Martin Lee Chu-ming
said he was disappointed the Chief Executive had failed to give them any commitment.

"Unfortunately, the response was not favourable," Mr Lee said, but refused to reveal any details.

"We are disappointed that whereas Mr Tung has been telling the whole world recently that there
would be full democratisation by 2007, he could not even give me assurance that he would give
us this commitment," he added.

The Basic Law says amendments to the method of determining the legislature and chief
executive after 2007 must be made with endorsement of a two-thirds majority of the Legislative
Council and the chief executive's consent.

Mr Lee also asked Mr Tung to help them get back their home visit permits.

"I also urged him that while defending China in the eyes of the world, he should actually defend
Hong Kong people's interests," he said.

Some Democrats are unable to go to China as Beijing has refused to renew their expired Home
Visit Permits.

On livelihood issues, Mr Tung reiterated his determination to meet the target of building 85,000
flats every year.

But the Democrats warned him that 9,000 flats planned to be completed by Housing Authority in
the next four years would be delayed.

They also suggested Mr Tung should keep down the prices of public housing estate flats to be
sold off.

Party member Fred Li Wah-ming, said they believed the Comprehensive Social Security
Assistance would be increased but Mr Tung refused to reveal the percentage.

They hoped for limits on elderly applicants' assets to be relaxed and the waiting time for places
in old people's homes to be shortened.

A high-level committee needed to be set up to formulate policy on information technology, they
added.



                                               Au 25
1997 Policy Address                                                               No Attribution


                                           Example #12
                                  “Profits tax cut still up in air”
                                     By POLITICAL DESK
                                     October 5, 1997, Page 2

THE Financial Secretary yesterday dismissed speculation Tung Chee-hwa had taken a decision
on whether to reduce profits tax in his Policy Address on Wednesday.

Sir Donald Tsang Yam-kuen said the first phase of consultation on the expenditure side of next
year's Budget had been completed.

The views gathered had been sent to government bureaus and departments and consolidated
recommendations passed on to the Chief Executive, he said.

"The Chief Executive has already considered these recommendations, and he will certainly
announce his own decisions on spending priorities in his address," he said.

It is understood that specific decisions will be announced on raising standards in education and
improving elderly welfare, including increases to payments under the Comprehensive Social
Security Assistance scheme.

Sir Donald was speaking after meeting a group of provisional legislators as part of his
consultations on the revenue side of the 1998-89 Budget.

Referring to reports that suggested he had hinted at a cut in profits tax following strong pressure
from the business sector at an earlier meeting, the Financial Secretary said: "At this stage
definitely I have no firm position nor any recommendations."

Sir Donald was quoted by Law Cheung-kwok of the Association for Democracy and People's
Livelihood yesterday as saying it would be difficult to resist the pressure from business for a
profits tax cut.

He said: "We always face pressure from all sides on taxation. There's nothing unusual this year.

"But . . . proposals or decisions on taxation are very serious matters, they are not matters for
speculation, so I was rather surprised when I read from newspapers today that I already have
some firm decision on profits tax.

"I can't recall . . . such a conversation yesterday, and those reports are certainly inaccurate," he
said.

Sir Donald said he hoped to complete the present round of consultations by October 18.




                                                Au 26
2003 Policy Address                                                                  Anonymous Sources


                                          Example #13
                          “Tung ready to focus on deficit and the delta”
                                        By Chris Yeung
                                   December 9, 2002, Page 1

Tung Chee-hwa is set to map out strategies aimed at solving the budget deficit and speeding up
integration with the flourishing Pearl River Delta region in one of his most important policy
addresses next month.

With the delivery of the blueprint on January 8 just a month away, officials say there is an
"emerging consensus" that the two issues should be a priority.

But officials have admitted privately that difficulties remain in reaching an agreement on ways to
reduce the deficit. And there are few signs of early breakthroughs on cross-border initiatives such
as the building of a Hong Kong -Macau-Zhuhai bridge.

Traditionally scheduled for the first or second Wednesday of October, Mr Tung's first policy
address for his second term has been deferred to allow more time for ministers to settle in. A
deferral will also improve co -ordination between the policy blueprint and the Budget in March.

Mr Tung and his ministers have discussed the broad strategy of the address over the past few
months, and in the past few weeks the chief executive has consulted major parties and groups.

Central Policy Unit head Lau Siu-kai said: "Everybody talked about the deficit and Pearl River
Delta region integration. We have begun to see an emerging consensus. The development so far
has been positive."

Professor Lau said Mr Tung's address would be like a political manifesto on core beliefs, broad
directions and key issues. "He will certainly respond to issues close to the heart of people . . . It
will be a confidence-building and inspiring speech," he said.

According to an Executive Council member, the chief executive is likely to adopt the approach of
America's state of the union speech in his address.

"He will only talk about major themes and grand visions. Policy secretaries will hold separate
press conferences to give an account of their own portfolios," said the Exco member.

He said Mr Tung would also talk about the need for greater social cohesiveness and the whole
community to share responsibility in tackling the budget deficit.

Another Exco member said Mr Tung needed only to give broad direction in his blueprint, leaving
details to his ministers.

"But since this will be his first speech in his second term, some suggested that Mr Tung should
still address some of his major policies," he said.




                                                 Au 27
2003 Policy Address                                                            Anonymous Sources


A senior official observed: "Mr Tung is always quite unpredictable. Things can change at the last
minute. But the issue of the budget deficit is definitely one that he has to talk about.

"As for the bridge, the Guangdong governor has indicated clear reservations. As for a 24-hour
crossing, the Shenzhen mayor apparently did not think there was any urgency."

He said the bridge project was the most likely mega plan that could bolster confidence, similar to
the Disney theme park project, but added it would take time to get support from Guangdong.

Outgoing Guangdong governor Lu Ruihua voiced concern over the impact of the cross-border
bridge during Mr Tung's visit to Guangzhou last week, and Shenzhen Mayor Yu Youjun has cast
doubt about the demand for a 24-hour border crossing.

Another senior official maintained they had not expected concrete progress on the bridge issue
during Mr Tung's visit.

"Everyone knows Mr Lu's position on the bridge, he will oppose it as long as he's in power. But
don't forget he's retiring soon," he said.

It was important for Mr Tung to say thanks to him, but more important for him to meet his
successor, Zhang Dejiang, he added.




                                               Au 28
2003 Policy Address                                                             Anonymous Sources


                                         Example #14
                              “Tung urged to sell' Delta union plan”
                                       By Chris Yeung
                                  December 11, 2002, Page 2

Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa is being urged to lay down a clear direction and comprehensive
action plan to boost economic integration with the Pearl River Delta region.

While seeking public support by explaining the merits of such a policy, academics and politicians
say Mr Tung should also strive to build up consensus with the Guangdong authorities on a joint
economic strategy.

Integration with the delta region is likely to figure prominently in Mr Tung's Policy Address on
January 8, the first of his second five-year term. It is understood the chief executive hopes to
announce the go-ahead for a bridge linking Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai in his blueprint.

Officials said there were reservations about the bridge in Guangdong because it would mean the
focus of economic activities would shift from the eastern part of the region westwards.

One said: "There are a lot of regional economic interests involved. Even with support from
Premier Zhu Rongji, you still need a lot of talking with Guangdong to get their buy-in."

Shiu Sin-por, executive director of the One Country, Two Systems Economic Research Centre,
said Mr Tung should fully explain the economic integration strategy and associated projects such
as the cross-border bridge. "He should explain why we can't put all our eggs into one nest. We
need, on the one hand, to maintain our international links, but on the other hand, to give full play
to our jumping-board function," he said.

"Therefore, it is vitally important for Hong Kong to improve the flow of goods and people across
the border. That doesn't mean we no longer need a borderline. But our border management should
be similar to those among European Union countries."

A newly elected National People's Congress deputy, Priscilla Lau Pui-king, said both the SAR and
Guangdong authorities needed to understand that the issue of integration was not about who
should become the centre of the region.

"I have told officials here not to keep saying we want to become the centre'. Guangdong leaders
have the same mentality. Everyone wants to position themselves at the centre, to which others
should converge.

"The most important thing is how we can do business most efficiently. There's still a lot of selfish
departmentalism in the region. Leaders need to have visionary strategic planning," said Professor
Lau, of Polytechnic University.

Another NPC deputy, Ma Lik, said both Hong Kong and Guangdong should abandon the concept
that they could do without the other.



                                                Au 29
2003 Policy Address                                                             Anonymous Sources


"Without the Pearl River Delta region, Hong Kong will be finished. Likewise, the region won't
have much further development without Hong Kong."

Mr Ma said government initiatives on integration such as border crossing had been piecemeal.
"Government should give a fuller picture of its strategy for everyone to know about the direction
of future development."

Cathy Chu Man-ling, spokeswoman for Chief Secretary Donald Tsang Yam-kuen, said Mr Tsang
was considering hosting a joint business promotion with major delta cities in Hong Kong.

"Mr Tsang thinks there's great potential to position us as the business hub of the region. Foreign
firms can use Hong Kong as a jumping board to do business in the region," she said.

"Hong Kong must continue to function as an international city. But on top of that, we can develop
an additional role because of our location in the region."

Executive Councillor James Tien Pei-chun said the rapid growth of the Yangtze River Delta region
should give a greater sense of urgency for Hong Kong and Guangdong to develop a Greater Pearl
River Delta region.

"Issues such as a 24-hour border crossing is no big deal. It's more important for us to get major
transport links such as the bridge, airport and port facilities right," he said.

Part 3 on Friday: economic policy and the deficit.




                                                Au 30
2003 Policy Address                                                              Anonymous Sources


                                         Example #15
                      “Economic strategy tipped to top Tung's agenda;
   The chief executive will unveil the blueprint, but his ministers will flesh out the details”
                                        By Chris Yeung
                                    January 8, 2003, Page 1

Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa is to outline strategies for boosting the economy and easing the
deficit in his policy address to be delivered to the Legislative Council this afternoon.

Traditionally scheduled for early October, the annual address was delayed to allow more time for
deliberation among the new ruling team and to tie it closer to the Budget in March.

In his first policy blueprint since being sworn in for a second term on July 1, Mr Tung is expected
to underline the importance of tapping the economic potential of the Pearl River Delta region as an
engine of growth while reaffirming Hong Kong's position as an international business hub in Asia.

But yesterday, a government source sought to play down expectations for new ideas to re-
invigorate the economy. Nor was it realistic to expect a lot of fresh initiatives regarding integration
and economic co-operation with the delta region.

Mr Tung is expected to reiterate the need for the whole community, particularly civil servants, to
share the burden in restoring a balanced budget.

Officials have vowed to first cut expenditure before raising taxes.

The source said: "Reducing annual recurrent government expenditure to $ 200 billion by 2006-07
as announced by Mr Tung last month is already the key measure. He will leave details to the
Financial Secretary." Antony Leung Kam -chung is scheduled to announce his next Budget in
March.

In spite of an original target of keeping the speech within 10,000 words, another source said the
final blueprint will be slightly longer. Mr Tung is expected to finish his speech in 80 minutes,
followed by a press conference.

Mr Leung, Chief Secretary Donald Tsang Yam-kuen and Director of the Chief Executive's Office
Lam Woon-kwong will attend separate radio phone-in programmes tomorrow to answer questions
relating to the policy blueprint.

From tomorrow, policy ministers in separate batches will hold press conferences to explain
relevant policies under their portfolios.




                                                Au 31
   The Use of Anonymous Sources
       in Hong Kong Media:
A case study of The South China Morning Post




                 Laurie Au
                2006932762
        JMSC0025 Journalism Traditions
                Final Paper
             December 11, 2006

				
DOCUMENT INFO