Grammar and Composition Review Lecture PPT

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					     Grammar and
Composition Review
   Noun
   Pronoun
   Verb
   Adjectives
   Adverbs
   Prepositions
   Conjunctions
   Interjections

8 Parts of Speech
 A noun is the name of a person, place,
  thing, or idea.
 A proper noun, which names a specific
  person, place, or thing (Carlos, Queen
  Marguerite, Middle East, Jerusalem,
  Malaysia, Presbyterianism, God, Spanish,
  Buddhism, the Republican Party), is
  almost always capitalized.
 Common nouns name everything else,
  things that usually are not capitalized.

 A pronoun can replace a noun or another
 Pronouns should:
    ◦ Agree in number
      If the pronoun takes the place of a singular noun, you
       have to use a singular pronoun.
      Ex:If a student parks a car on campus, he or she has to
       buy a parking sticker. (Not they)
    ◦ Agree in person
      If you are writing in the "first person" ( I), don't confuse
       your reader by switching to the "second person" ( you) or
       "third person" (he, she, they, it, etc.). Similarly, if you are
       using the "second person," don't switch to "first" or
      Ex: When a person comes to class, he or she should have
       his or her homework ready. (Not you)

    ◦ Refer clearly to a noun
      Don't be vague or ambiguous.
      Ex: If you put this sheet in your notebook, you can
       refer to it. (What does "it" refer to, the sheet or your
   Pronouns can be used as 3 different cases:
    ◦ Subjective: pronouns used as subject.
    ◦ Objective: pronouns used as objects of verbs or
    ◦ Possessive: pronouns which express ownership.

Pronoun (cont.)
Pronouns as   Pronouns as    Pronouns that
Subjects      Objects        shows Possession
I             Me             My (mine)
You           You            Your (yours)
He, she, it   Him, her, it   His, her (hers), it
We            Us             Our (ours)
They          Them           Their (theirs)
Who           Whom           Whose

Pronoun (cont.)
   Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the
   There are six tenses of verbs.
    ◦   Simple Present: They walk
    ◦   Present Perfect: They have walked
    ◦   Simple Past: They walked
    ◦   Past Perfect: They had walked
    ◦   Future: They will walk
    ◦   Future Perfect: They will have walked
   Verbs can be written in active or passive

 A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and
  functions as a noun.
 Many English sentences contain a verb
  phrase. The verb that carries the main
  meaning is the main verb. The other
  words in the verb phrase are the helping
 There are four categories of helping

Verbs (cont.)
   Modals
    ◦ There are nine modal verbs: can, could, may, might,
      must, shall, should, will, and would.
    ◦ After a modal verb, use the base form of the verb.
    ◦ Ex: The system must meet all applicable codes.
   Forms of do
    ◦ Do, does, or did
    ◦ Ex: Do we need to include the figures for the recovery
   Forms of have plus the past participle
    ◦ To form one of the perfect tenses (past, present, or
      future), use a form of have as the helping verb plus the
      past participle of the verb (-ed)
       Past Perfect: had written
       Present Perfect: have written
       Future Perfect: will have written

Verbs (cont.)
   Forms of be
    ◦ To describe an action in progress, use a form of
      be (be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been) as
      the helping verb and the present participle (the
      –ing form of the verb)
      Ex: We are testing the new graphics tablet.

Verbs (cont.)
   Adjectives modify nouns. To modify means to
    change in some way.
    ◦ For example: "I ate a meal." Meal is a noun. We
      don't know what kind of meal; all we know is that
      someone ate a meal.
   Adjectives usually answer one of a few
    different questions: "What kind?" or "Which?"
    or "How many?”
    ◦ For example: "The tall girl is riding a new bike."
      Tall tells us which girl we're talking about. New tells
      us what kind of bike we're talking about.

 Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and
  other adverbs.
 The most common question that adverbs
  answer is how. They can also answer the
  questions when, where, and why.
 She sang beautifully." Beautifully is an
  adverb that modifies sang. It tells us how
  she sang.

 That woman is extremely nice." Nice is an
  adjective that modifies the noun woman.
  Extremely is an adverb that modifies nice;
  it tells us how nice she is. How nice is
  she? She's extremely nice.
 "It was a terribly hot afternoon." Hot is an
  adjective that modifies the noun
  afternoon. Terribly is an adverb that
  modifies the adjective hot. How hot is it?
  Terribly hot.

Adverbs (cont.)
 A preposition describes a relationship
  between other words in a sentence.
 Prepositions are nearly always combined
  with other words in structures called
  prepositional phrases
 A prepositional phrase consists of a
  preposition, a noun or pronoun that
  serves as the object of the preposition,
  and, more often than not, an adjective or
  two that modifies the object.

 A conjunction is a joiner, a word that
  connects(conjoins) parts of a sentence.
 Conjunctions: and, but, or, yet, for, nor,

   Interjections are words or phrases used to
    exclaim or protest or command.
   Wow!
   Oh!
   Hey!
   You There!