Glossary by xiangpeng

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									          Term                       Definiti on                                    Examples/Notes
active voice            when the subject performs the action         Whenever possible, use the active voice.
                        of the verb.                                    o I saw the bird.
                                                                        o I am hungry.
action verb             Verbs that show action                          o I went to the store
                                                                        o He hopes to see his mo m.
                                                                        o Joe kicked me.
                                                                        o The accountant resigned.
adjective               modifies (describes)                            o those bricks (which one)
                           o noun                                       o brown boots (what kind)
                           o pronoun.                                   o ten boxes (how many)

adverb                  modifies (describes)                         Answers the following ?s
                                                                     How? Elvis sang magni ficently
                            o    adjectives (really cute dog),       When? Elv is sang earlier
                            o    verbs (runs fast)                   Where? Elv is sang there
                            o    other adverbs (runs very fast)      How Often? Elv is sang frequently
                                                                     To what extent? Elv is sang very well.
                                                                     Under what circumstances? Elvis sang under
                                                                     stress
                                                                     “Not” is always an adverb
alliteration            repetition of identical sounds at the            o “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
                        beginning of two or more words                        peppers”
                        placed closely together (but not
                        necessarily right next to each other)            o    “Go instead sustained and soothed”

allusion                A reference found in literature to a              Calling a situation a “Catch-22” is an allusion
                        person, place, or thing that is fictional,        to Joseph Heller‟s novel Catch-22 which
                        biblical, historical, or real.                    describes a situation in which there is no easy
                                                                          answer.
analogy                 A form of figurative language (often              Dr. King used an analogy in his “I Have a
                        used in spoken language) that makes a             Dream” speech when he compared a bad
                        comparison between two things to                  check with the broken pro mises of the
                        make a po int.                                    Declaration of Independence.
antecedent              The word that a pronoun refers to or         Huck struggles with his conscience as he and Jim
                        takes the place of                           travel down the river. “Huck” is the antecedent.


                                                                     Several of the students typed their essays. “their”
                                                                     the antecedent.

appositive/appositive       o    An appositive is a noun or              o    My dog, Champ, is a pain.
Phrase                           pronoun that follows another            o    Champ, my dog, is a pain.
                                 noun or pronoun to identify
                                 or explain it.
                            o    An appositive phrase is made
                                 up of the appositive and its
                                 modifiers
assonance                   o    A type of rhyme                         o all /awfu l
                            o    Repetition of vowel sounds              o feet/sweep
                                                                         o lake/fate
ballad                      A narrative poem (often of folk              o “Good Bye Miss American Pie”
                            origin) that is meant to be sung             o “The Wreck of the Ed mund Fitzgerald.”
blank verse                 o Unrhymed iamb ic                       “Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
                                 pentameter.                         That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it”
                            o Iambic pentameter refers to            - “Mending Wall” - Frost
                                 the length of a line of poetry      The lines follow a pattern of stressed and
                                 that has meter (a pattern of        unstressed syllables but do not rhyme
                                 stressed and unstressed
                                 syllables.
clause                     A group of words CONTAINING a              Two types:
                           verb and its subject                       Independent (main) – can stand on its own as a
                                                                      complete sentence. He got a raise.
                                                                      Dependent (subordinate) – cannot stand on its own
                                                                      as a complete sentence because it doesn‟t express a
                                                                      complete though. Because he had a good work
                                                                      ethic.

                                                                      *see dependent clause and independent cl ause
                                                                      in the glossary for more examples
cognates                   Words that have the same root (orig in)         o “night” – English
                           and are related in some way to words            o “noche” – Spanish
                           in other languages                              o “notte” – Italian
                                                                           o “nuit” - French
coherence                  A term that refers to the fact that each
                           sentence in a paragraph should be
                           arranged in a logical order and clearly
                           connected with transitional wo rds
conceit                    An elaborate or extended metaphor              The “rivers” used throughout Langston
                           carried throughout a poem                      Hughes‟s poem “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”
                                                                          represent the length and depth of the black
                                                                          culture.
connotation                    o    The emotion imp lied by a             o cheap – negative
                                    word.                                 o frugal – positive
                               o    This is usually positive or
                                    negative.                             o    clever – positive
                                                                          o    sly - negative
consonance                     o    A type of rhyme:                      o    could /shed
                               o    Repetition of consonant               o    chitter /chatter
                                    sounds within or at the end of        o    meter/pattern
                                    words
coordinating conjunction   joins words, phrases, or clauses           For, and, nor, but, or, yet
                                                                      (FANBOY)
correlative conjunction    always used in pairs                            either….or, both . . . and, whether….o r,
                                                                           neither….nor, not only . . . but also
demonstrative pronoun      Used to point out a particular person           This is the best answer. (used as a
                           or thing. When it is prior to a noun,           demonstrative pronoun)
                           it is considered an adjective.                  I like this answer. (used as an adj)
denotation                 The actual dictionary defin ition of a
                           word
dependent (subordinate)          o A clause that cannot stand         Can act as a
clause                               alone because it does not            o noun: This is what he sai d.
                                     express a complete thought.          o adjective: Everyone cheered for the
                                 o It also acts a single part of               player who had the better serve.
                                     speech. (noun, adjective, or         o adverb: When you g o to New York, go
                                     adverb)                                   to Ground Zero.
descriptive writing        Uses language to describe a person,            o A travel brochure
                           place, thing, or idea.                         o A character sketch

diary                      A record of events that is meant to be     The Diary of Anne Frank”
                           private
direct characterizat ion   A straightforward description of a         He is mean
                           character                                  He is sad
                                                                      He is happy
direct object              Receives the action of the verb or             o Drought destroyed the crops.
                           shows the result of the action. It
                           answers the question “what?” or
                           “whom?”after an action verb.
elegy                 A lyric poem or a song that mourns            o  Elton John‟s “Candle in the Wind”
                      someone who has died                             mourns Marilyn Monroe
                                                                    o Whitman‟s “O Captain, My Captain”
                                                                       mourns Abraham Lincoln
end rhyme             Rhy mes that occur at the end of a line       “My dog was bad
                      of poetry.                                    Now I am mad”
epistolary novel      A novel written in the form of letters

expository writ ing       o     Provides factual info rmation       o    A lab report
                                on a topic.                         o    An instruction manual
                          o “exposes facts”                         o    A chronology
figurative language   Language used for descriptive effect in            o simile
                      order to convey ideas and emotion.                 o metaphor
                      Figurative language is not meant to be             o idio ms/cliches
                      taken literally                                    o symbols
                                                                         o metonymy/synedoche
                                                                         o imagery
                                                                         o hyperbole
fixed form poetry     poetry written with traditional rhy me
                      and usually in stanzas
flashback             An interruption in the chronological      In Death of a Salesman, Willy Lo man often has
                      sequence of a narrative to show an        flashbacks to the times when he enjoyed a close
                      event that happened earlier in t ime.     relationship with his boys.
foreshadowing         The use of clues by the author to hint    As a boy is packing for a camping trip, the author
                      at or prepare readers for events that     may describe a hunting knife in detail. The same
                      will happen later in the future           knife becomes significant later as the boy finds
                                                                himself alone in the wilderness.
formal language           o    Language that is                 found in
                               grammatically correct                 o reports
                          o free fro m slang,                        o business letters
                               colloquialis ms, or                   o proposals
                               regionalis ms.                        o policy manuals
frame narrative       A story told within another story

free form poetry      Poetry that follows no part icular
                      rhyme, meter, length, or organizat ion.
generalization        A statement that is as yet unproven or    Huck Finn is the most important book in A merican
                      unsupported with details, facts, or       Literature. (Why?)
                      examples
genre                 Category of a larger group                    Literature genres include
                                                                    novels, short stories, poetry, non-fiction,
                                                                    and drama

gerund                        a verbal                                  Reading is fun
                              ends in „ing‟                             I like shopping
                              looks like a verb                         Use this brush for painting.
                              acts as a noun                            She has always loved dancing.
                                                                         In cooking, use salt sparingly.
                                                                         Swi mming is excellent exercise.
                                                                         I have tried camping.
helping verb              o    “helps” the verb show action,    If a verb phrase has four verbs, the first three are
                               state of being, or make a        helping (and so on)
                               statement                              o We have been taking notes all day.
                          o generally used to indicate                o She will be co ld with out a jacket.
                               tense.
hyperbole             Figurative language that uses                 o    I‟m so hungry I could eat a horse.
                      exaggeration to express strong
                      emotion, to make a point, or to evoke
                      humor.
iambic pentameter     Refers to the length of a line of poetry    “Shall I co mpare thee to a summer's day?
                      that has meter (a pattern of stressed       Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
                      and unstressed syllables.                   Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May.
                                                                  And summer's lease hath all too short a date” –
                                                                  Shakespeare Sonnett XVIII
                                                                  The lines follow a pattern of stressed and
                                                                  unstressed syllables

idio m                    o  a common ly used-saying
                             made up of a group of words              o    He‟s a “piece of work”
                             that takes on special mean ing           o    I‟m lead ing a “hand-to-mouth existence.”
                             that is different fro m the              o    “Close but no cigar”
                             usual meaning of the wo rds
                             that make it up; a cliche
imagery               Language that presents an image             “Her eyes were blue with age. Her skin had a
                                                                  pattern all its own of numberless wrinkles and as
                                                                  though a whole little t ree stood on her forehead.” –
                                                                  “A Worn Path” (Welty)
in media res          occurs when a story begins with a
                      significant mo ment; the rest of the
                      story fills in the events leading to that
                      mo ment.
indefinite p ronoun        o refers generally, not                    all, another, any, anybody, anyone, both, each,
                                 specifically, to persons,            either, everybody, everyone, everything, few,
                                 places, or things                    many, mo re, most, much, neither, nobody,
                           o can be the subject of a                  non, no one., one, several, somebody,
                                 sentence                             someone
                           o can be singular or plural
independent (main)    A clause that can stand alone because           o    If you buy your ticket early, you won’t
    clause            it expresses a complete thought                      have to wai t in line.
                                                                      o    I hope that you will find happiness
                                                                      o    FDR, who was the only man elected four
                                                                           times, died in 1945.
                                                                      o    I have a terri ble headache.

indirect              When a character is revealed by his         “He is dressed quietly . . he unlocks the door,
characterizat ion     thoughts/ actions/words and/or how          comes into the kitchen, and thankfully lets his
                      other speak/react to him                    burden down.”
                                                                  This passage from Death of a Salesman lets us
                                                                  know that Willy is tired and depressed.
Indirect object       The indirect object of the verb                  The principal gave her the award.
                      precedes the direct object and usually
                      tells to who m or for who m the action
                      of the verb is done.
infinitive                   a verbal                                    I like to eat (n)
                             consists of “to” + the verb                 It is the best place to eat (adj)
                             looks like a verb                           I need to eat soon. (adv)
                             acts as a noun, adjective or                The boy began to do h is homework when
                                adverb                                     he went to class. (Note: to class is a
                                                                           prepositional phrase because it ends in a
                                                                           noun)
informal language     language that is casual and includes        found in
                      slang, colloquialisms, and                      o emails
                      regionalis ms.                                  o friendly letters

intensive pronoun     Adds emphasis to a noun or other                     o  Leigh herself gave the information to
                      pronoun.                                                the reporters.
                                                                           o They themselves don‟t think it will
                                                                              happen.
internal rhyme        rhyme that occurs within lines of               “I awoke to black flak”.
                      poetry
Interrogative pronoun   Used in questions                               who, who m, wh ich, what, whose
                                                                        Who is calling?
                                                                        What should we do?
irony                   A contrast between appearance and               Many many examp les are present in life,
                        reality                                         throughout history, and in literature.
irregular verbs         Verbs in which the past and past
                        participle verb forms are formed w/ an
                        irregular spelling
journal                 A record of events that is meant to be      Christopher Colu mbus‟s narrative of his journey to
                        public.                                     the new world;
                                                                    A travel journal
                                                                    A blog


lin king verb           A verb that expresses a state of                o    all “be” verbs (am, is, are, was, were,
                        being/existence or the senses.                       be, being, been)
                                                                        o     verb phrases ending in be, being, or been
                        These verbs “link” the subject with a                (have been, coul d have been, can be,
                        word that describes or renames it.                   shoul d be )
                                                                        o    also: appear, become, feel, grow, l ook,
                                                                             remain, seem, s mell, sound, stay, and
                                                                             taste

                                                                    He is funny.
                                                                    John was happy.
                                                                    You coul d have been nicer to me.

                                                                    The food tastes great.
                                                                    I have become an adult.
                                                                    He remains my friend.


literary period             o     also known as a literary          American Literary Periods
                                  movement                             o Nati ve American
                             o refers to a period of time              o Settlement/Colonial
                                  when the majority of writers         o Revoluti onary/Nationalism
                                  wrote about similar topics,          o Romanticism/Transcendentalism
                                  for similar purposes, and            o Realism
                                  addressed similar themes.            o Naturalism
                             o Somet imes, themes present in           o Modernism
                                  one literary period will             o Postmodernism
                                  appear in writ ings fro m other
                                  periods
local co lor                 o the portrayal of a reg ion‟s
                                  distinctive ways of talking or
                                  behaving.
                             o also known as Regionalism
lyric poem              A poem whose primary purpose is to
                        express emotion.
metaphor                     o a figure o f speech that             She is the rose of the family and I am the thorn.
                                  compares or equates two
                                  seemingly unlike things.
                             o does not use “like” o r “as”
meter                   A regular pattern of stressed and           Iambic pentameter (the length of the meter – the
                        unstressed syllables that gives a line of   pattern)
                        poetry its rhythm.
metonymy                Figurative language where the name o f      “The White House refused to comment on the
                        a thing is substituted for a word or        allegations.” White House refers to the presidency
                        term closely associated with it
Modernism                    o A literary period (1900-50)              o    Hemingway
                             o themes of alienation and                 o    Fit zgerald
                                  disillusionment                       o    Frost and others
narrative poem             A poem that tells a story

narrative writing          Uses language to tell a story              Fiction
                                                                      Biography/autobiography
Naturalism                     o     A literary period                Stephen Crane
                               o     Approx 1880-1940                 “An Episode of War”
                               o     An offshoot of Realis m
                               o     Depicts life accurately but
                                     features characters trapped in
                                     situations beyond their
                                     control and enduring with
                                     dignity
non-standard English       Language that is grammat ically                o Ain‟t
                           incorrect                                      o Them boys don‟t like me.
                                                                          o I seen Hailey‟s Co met.
                                                                          o I done seen Hailey‟s Co met.
                                                                          o Was you going to the store?
                                                                          o and more!!
noun                       Person, place, thing, or idea              Common nouns (general): band, president,
                                                                      honesty
                                                                      Proper nouns (part icular/capitalized)
                                                                      The Beatles, President Bush

                                   Answers the question „what‟
object                              or „who‟ after a verb or at the               Direct object: He threw the ball.
                                    end of a phrase.                              Indirect object: I gave hi m $20.
                                   If the object is a pronoun, you            Object of the prepostion: He climbed
                                    should use the objective case              up a tree.
                                    of the pronoun.

objective comp lement      Refers to the object as a noun or an       The named Mary secretary.
                           adjective                                  Everyone considered him foolish.
objective                  Writing that is free fro m opinion/bias
writing/objectivity
ode                        A lyric poem that praises something or
                           someone
onomatopoeia               The technique of forming words that        “splash, fizz, honk, whoosh, buzz”
                           imitate specific sounds
paradox                    A statement that at first seems            Less is mo re
                           contradictory but which, upon
                           reflection, expresses a truth
parallelism                The repetition of grammatical              “I came, I saw, I conquered”
                           structures (parts of speech, phrases,      “My four little children will one day be judged not
                           clauses, etc)                              by the col or of their skin but by the content of
                                                                      their character.” - King
parenthetical expression       o    an expression which is                 o He is, of course, my best friend.
                                    inserted into the flow of              o Being well-liked is, without a doubt, his
                                    thought                                    goal in life.
                               o    also called an interrupter
                               o    can be a word to provide
                                    transition
participial phrase             o    A phrase that contains a          Hopi ng ag ainst hope, the fans stayed until the
                                    participle and its objects        fourth quarter.
                               o    Used as an adjective              Traveling down the path, the runner sprained his
                               o    Set off with a co mma at the      ankle.
                                    beginning of the sentence         The runner gave up the race having no hope of
                                                                      finishing. (no comma since the phrase is at the end
                                                                      of the sentence)
participle                     a verbal                                 I have runni ng shoes.
                               ends in „ing‟ or „ed‟                    Frightened, I ran down the street.
                               looks like a verb                        Waiting patiently for the bus, I read a
                               acts as a adjective                       book.
passive voice          When the subject receives the action          o    Breakfast was eaten.
                       of the verb                                   o    He was seen.
past participle form        o One of the four principal
                                parts of a verb;
                            o used to form the present
                                perfect and past perfect
                                tenses
personal pronoun            o Refers to the first person,        1st person: I, we, me, us, my, ours
                                second person, or third          2nd person: you, your
                                person                           3rd person: he, she, it, me, him, her, them, his,
                            o No minative form (namer)           hers, its, theirs
                                acts as a subject or predicate
                                nominative. I, we, you, he,      John and I went to see the movie, and he agreed
                                she, it                          with me that, of all of Julia Roberts‟s films, it was
                            o Objective form (object) acts       her worst movie.
                                as a direct/indirect object,
                                object of preposition me, us
                                you, me, him, her, them
                            o Possessive form shows
                                ownership my, ours, your,
                                his, her, theirs, its
personification        Giv ing human characteristics to          “Nature has a voice of gladness and a smile” –
                       animals, objects, or ideas                Bryant, “Thanatopsis”
persuasive writ ing    Uses language to persuade or convince         o An editorial
                                                                     o A speech
                                                                     o A position paper
phrase                     A group of related words used as
                           a single part of speech and NOT
                           CONTAINING a verb and its
                           subject.
Postmodernism              o A literary period
                           o 1950-present day
                           o reflects the diversity present
                                in today‟s society
predicate adjective    An adjective complement that                  o    The sea is calm.
                       modifies the subject of a linking verb        o    The manuscripts are rare and valuable.
                       and follows the linking verb.
predicate nominative   The noun or pronoun complement that       Adela St. John was a famous writer.
                       renames the subject of the linking verb   The Twin Cit ies are St. Paul and Mi nneapolis.
                       and follows the linking verb.
preposition            A preposition lin ks nouns and to         I went to the game after the dance
                       other words in a sentence.
                                                                 Commonly Used Prepositions
                                                                 about ▪above ▪ across▪ after
                                                                 against ▪ along ▪ amid ▪among ▪ around ▪ as ▪ at
                                                                 ▪before ▪ behind ▪ below▪ beneath ▪ beside ▪
                                                                 besides ▪ between ▪ beyond ▪ but (except) by ▪
                                                                 despite ▪ down▪ during ▪ except ▪ for ▪ fro m ▪ in ▪
                                                                 inside into ▪ like ▪ near ▪ o f ▪off ▪ on
                                                                 onto ▪ opposite ▪ out ▪ outside
                                                                 over ▪ past ▪ since ▪ through ▪ throughout ▪ to▪
                                                                 toward ▪ under ▪ underneath ▪ until▪ unto ▪ up ▪
                                                                 upon ▪ with ▪ within ▪ without
                                                                 last
prepositional phrase       o   A group of words beginning          He was in the conference room, and he knew
                               with a preposition and ending       about the discussions which were held in May of
                               with a noun or a pronoun (the       this year.
                               object)
                            o Can act as an adjective or an
                               adverb
pronoun                Takes the place of or refers to another     Huck struggles with his conscience as he and Jim
                       noun or pronoun (the antecedent)            travel down the river
proper noun            see “noun”

pun                    A play on words that have similar           When you step on the scale and find that you have
                       mean ings                                   gained weight, it is time to scale back your eating.
Realis m                   o A literary period                     Mark Twain
                           o 1850-1900                             Civil War Writing
                           o depicts life accurately
refrain                    o A word, phrase, or series of          “Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle all the way.”
                               line that is repeated to add
                               emphasis to a poem or song.
                           o Can make a poems/songs
                               more dramatic, rhythmic, and
                               memo rable
Regionalisms               o Phrases associated with a             Southern regionalisms:
    also called                particular region                   “fixin ‟ to”
    colloquialsisms        o Informal but not non-standard          “ya‟ll”
                                                                   “ I reckon”
reflexive pronoun      Refers to a noun or another pronoun         Jenny hurt herself on the car door.
                       and indicates that the same person or       Peter bought himself a new car.
                       thing is involved                           They found themsel ves as the center of attention.
regular verbs          Verbs that form the past tense and the
                       past participle forms by adding “ed”
relative pronoun            o Starts a dependent clause            who, whom, whose, which, that, whoever,
                            o relates/refers to a noun or          whomever, whatever, whichever, whose
                                 pronoun in the independent
                                 clause                                              Mark Twain is the man who
                            o can act as the subject of a                             wrote Li fe on the Mississippi.
                                 dependant clause                                    The house that you saw is a
                                                                                      historical landmark.
                                                                                     The jewels, which are a part of
                                                                                      the queen‟s personal collection,
                                                                                      were stolen.
repetition             Refers to the repetition of specific
                       words or phrases though writ ing in
                       order to add emphasis
rhetoric               The art of using words                      Rhetorical devices can include parallelis m,
                                                                   repetition, and rhetorical questions. When people
                                                                   refer to a candidate‟s rhetoric, they are describing
                                                                   how the candidate uses words and how effective
                                                                   the words are.
Ro manticism               o     A literary period
                           o     1800-50
                           o     celebrates nature, beauty,
                                 emotion, and individualism
satire                 Literature that uses humor, irony, or       The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a satire of
                       sarcasm to expose the vices (bad            slavery and racism.
                       habits) or follies (foolish behaviors) of
                       a society
simile                 Co mpares two things using “like or         The ants trailed under the canopy of leaves like a
                       as”                                         train moving slowly into the station.
slant rhyme                 o aka near rhyme or half rhyme              o parable and shell
                            o The final consonant sounds                o green and gone
                                 are the same but the vowel             o bone and moon
                                 sounds are different
sonnet                    A fourteen line poem with a fixed
                          rhyme scheme
standard English          Language that is grammat ically
                          correct
stream of consciousness        o A characteristic of Modern
                                   literature
                               o The literary representation of
                                   a character‟s free flo wing
                                   memo ries, thoughts, and
                                   feelings.
subject                        Who or what is carrying out the                     One of the boys is hungry.
                               mean ing of the verb.                               We are going to sleep.
                                                                                   Hunting is my favorite activ ity.
                                        It corresponds to the verb                 To err is human; to forgi ve d ivine.
                                        (the word that shows                       Jane is my friend who lives in New
                                        action or being)                           Yo rk
                                        Must be a noun,                            Thousands of people joined the
                                        pronoun, gerund or                         march.
                                        infinitive                                 A long nap is what I need right now.
                                        Is never in a                              Tom and Mary led the group.
                                        prepositional phrase
                                        „Here‟ and „there‟ are
                                        never subjects.
subjective                Writing that contains opinion/bias
writing/subjectivity
subordinating             Introduces dependent clauses
conjunction                                                           Commonly Used
                                                                      Subordinating Conjunctions
                                                                      after ▪ because ▪ so that ▪ until
                                                                      although ▪ before▪ provided ▪
                                                                      than ▪ unless ▪ as ▪ how ▪ since
                                                                      that ▪ if ▪ where ▪ though ▪ when▪
                                                                      whenever ▪ wherever ▪ wh ile

                                                                      We didn‟t know the reason until we got there.
                                                                      After she took a nap, she felt much better.
                                                                      We arrived late because our train was delayed.

symbol                    Any object, person, place, or                   o   The white whale in Moby Dick represents
                          experience that exists on a literal level           the power of nature.
                          but also represents something else that        o The seeds in Death of a Salesman
                          is usually abstract (like an idea)                  represent Willy‟s hopes for the future
synecdoche                A part is used to represent the whole       “wheels” = car “threads” = clothes

The American Dream            o    A primary theme o f
                                   American Literature
                               o The idea that anyone,
                                   regardless of his or her
                                   background, can achieve
                                   success through hard work
                                   and determination.
theme                          o The central message of a             The primary themes in A merican Literature are:
                                   work of literature that readers        o American Indiv idualis m
                                   can apply to life                      o The American Dream
                               o An idea that is addressed one            o Cultural Diversity
                                   way or another through out             o Tolerance
                                   the work.
tone                      Describes the emotion created by an         One uses adjectives to describe the tone of a work.
                          author‟s use of language and/or             The tone could be playful, optimistic, pessimistic,
                          through a character‟s words and             angry, etc.
                          action.
Transcendentalism       o    A literary movement that was          o    Part of the New Eng land Renaissance –
                             an offshoot of Ro manticism                an effort to define a uniquely A merican
                         o 1800-50                                      literary style.
                         o saw nature and intuition as a           o Founded by Ralph Waldo Emerson.
                             vehicle to understanding the          o Set forth by Emerson in his essay
                             mean ing of life.                          “Nature”
understatement           o Opposite of hyperbole               Saying it‟s a litt le warm in August in Atlanta
                         o The statement minimalizes
                             the idea
unity               A term that refers to the fact that each
                    sentence in a paragraph should relate
                    to the main idea/topic sentence.
verb                Shows action, a state of being or helps    I am hungry
                    to make a statement.                       He is hopi ng.
                                                               She wrote a note
                                                               They laughed
verb phrase             o    A verb of more than one           He has spoken
                             word                              Joe shoul d have been there.
                        o    Made of main verb and one         I do not want to see my grade.
                             or more help ing verbs
verbals                 o    Words that look like verbs
                             but act as another part of
                             speech.
                        o    See participles, infin itives,
                             and gerunds

								
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