Docstoc

Eastport SoManor_Jan 13

Document Sample
Eastport SoManor_Jan 13 Powered By Docstoc
					Seeing Grammar with New Eyes



Amy Benjamin




   Eastport-South Manor Central School District
   January 13, 2011

   Please feel free to access any of today‟s visuals: www.amybenjamin.com
  Seeing Grammar with New Eyes

Amy Benjamin




   Eastport-South Manor Central School District
   January 13, 2011

   Please feel free to access any of today‟s visuals: www.amybenjamin.com
Seeing Grammar with New Eyes
Session I :
Introduction: Shifting the paradigm

• Alternatives to traditional instruction on the parts of sp
• Alternatives to traditional instruction on sentence completeness
• Understanding code-switching from informal to formal language
    register
• Quick fix on pronoun atrocities
• AVEM (a very effective metaphor)


 Session II Agenda:
  How we can teach students to achieve a better
   sentence style:
          Compound and complex sentences
          Adjective and adverb phrases and clauses
          Parallel structure
          Other grammatical embellishments, combinations, utilities
I                  teaching grammar.



       I never “really” learned it.
                                                   Shouldn’t they already
                                                   have had this in the
                                                    lower grades?

                    Do kids really have to learn
                    all these terms?


I loved it! I thought    There’s no interesting
diagramming sentences    way to teach grammar.
was fun!                 It’s just drill and workbook.

                                                                    M
    All languages leak!
    Some “leaks” of English:

• Various irregularities, exceptions, puzzlements
     •The irregular verbs are the most common
         •The most common verb is the most irregular: BE
                    (is, am, are, was, were, be, being, been)

       • Although –s signifies a plural noun, -s (sounded –z) signifies third person
            singular verb      Ex: dances, bears, leads, hands, heads, arms, etc.

• We use “they” as singular generic pronoun



• We use “do” to make questions (for no logical reason)
    •Saw you the king, my lord?
    •Think you to be my master?
    •Have you any fours?
Descriptivists   Prescriptivists
Students struggle with going from speech

to writing, and then from informal

to formal style.
Seeing Grammar With New
          Eyes
       Visuals
       Manipulatives
       Role-Play
       Problem-solving
       Wordplay
       Inquiry
       Respect for Language Change and Variation
       Inductive Reasoning

       High Level of Student Engagement
Basic information about parts of
speech and what we can do with
this information
8 Parts of Speech:

Noun : Person, place, or
        thing
Verb: Expresses action or
       state of being
Adjective: Modifies a noun
Adverb: Modifies a verb,
       adjective, or other
       adverb
Pronoun: replaces a noun
Preposition: Expresses the
       relationship between
       a noun or pronoun
       and another part of
       the sentence
Conjunction: joiner
Interjection: expresses strong
        emotion
More Accurate, Accessible Description of the English Language

  Form Class Words:            Structure Class Words:

  Noun                         Preposition

  Verb                         Pronoun

  Adjective                    Conjunction

  Adverb                       Interjection

                               Intensifier:(Answering: To what extent?)
                                          ex: too, very, really…

                               Determiner (Answering: Which one?)
                                        ex: a, an, the; these, that…

                               Quantifiers: (Answering: How many?)

                               Etc.
                           Parts of Speech: Fast and Furious


Part of Sp.:       Examples:            Quick Definition:    Hint:

                monkey, river,
   Noun                                  Person, place,
                America. prize                              The______
                                         thing

                eat, wish, is,                              He______ or
  Verb                                  Action or state
                find, cry                                   He is______ing.
                dangerous, big,                             The _______truck
   Adjective                            Describes a noun
                green, curly
                  usually, slowly,                           He joined the
                                        Describes a verb
   Adverb         clearly, eventually                        team______.
                  sometimes, now.

                                                            Somewhere _____
Preposition    in, on, at, for, with     Shows position
                                                            the rainbow
             Noun: Owner‟s Manual
Congratulations on your wise purchase of a NOUN. Your NOUN may be
   used to fit into the following frame:
                 The____________.
Your NOUN is used to name people, places, things, ideas, qualities, states of
   mind, and all kinds of other things that need naming.
Your NOUN may be easily converted into an adjective. All you have to do is put
   another NOUN after it and have it make sense. (COW pasture, for
   example).
Your NOUN may be the kind of NOUN that can be made plural. Only NOUNS
   may be made plural.
Your NOUN may be able to be made possessive by adding „s. Only NOUNS
   may be made possessive. When you make your NOUN possessive, it
   becomes an adjective.
You may add all kinds of modifiers before and after your NOUN. You may
   replace your NOUN along with its modifiers with a pronoun.
Feel free to use your NOUN as a subject, direct object, indirect object, object
   complement, object of a preposition, appositive, or predicate noun
Your noun may be called a nominal when we consider it together with its modifiers.
My Noun Palette
                      Proper Nouns:



    Concrete Nouns:




                           Abstract Nouns:



                           -tion,-sion,-ism,-ence, -ance,
                           -ness, -ment, -itude
       Adjective: Owner‟s Manual
Congratulations on your wise purchase of an ADJECTIVE. Your ADJECTIVE may
   be used to fit into the following frame:
             The______________truck. Or The truck was very_________.
Your ADJECTIVE likes to answer the question What kind?

If your ADJECTIVE doesn’t fit into either of these frames, maybe it is the kind of
    ADJECTIVE that answers the questions Which one? or How many?

Your ADJECTIVE may be capable of using the suffixes –er in the comparative form
   and –est in the superlative form. (If your ADJECTIVE doesn’t like these
   suffixes, just use more and most to accomplish comparison or superiority.)

Your ADJECTIVE reports to your NOUN, and your NOUN can easily become an
   ADJECTIVE to another NOUN.
Often, groups of words decide to get together and do ADJECTIVE-like work. We
   call such groups of words ADJECTIVALS, and they may be phrases or clauses
   that operate just like ADJECTIVES, answering those questions that
   ADJECTIVES answer.
             Verb: Owner‟s Manual
Congratulations on your wise purchase of a VERB. Your VERB may be used to fit into
   the following frame:
               To______________.
Your VERB is the part of the sentence that is capable of turning the sentence into a
   negative. It is also the part of the sentence that changes when you add yesterday or
   right now. (If your sentence does not change when you add yesterday to it, then your
   sentence is in the past tense. If your sentence does not change when you add right
   now to it, then it is in the present tense.)
Your VERB may be an action verb or a linking verb. Action verbs may take direct objects
   and are modified by adverbs. Linking verbs take predicate nouns and predicate
   adjectives. You can easily find a list of linking verbs.
Your VERB may take auxiliaries (forms of have, be) and modal auxiliaries (could, should,
   would, can, will, shall, may, might, must).
Your VERB sometimes uses a form of the word do to create a sentence, to emphasize,
   to negate, or to stand in for itself, as in: Do you think so? Yes, I do.
          Adverb: Owner‟s Manual
Congratulations on your wise purchase of an ADVERB. Your adverb may be
  used to tell where, when, or how.

•   Adverbs that tell where may be replaced by the word there: We drove south
    for two miles. (We drove there for two miles.)

•   Adverbs that tell when may be replaced by the word then: We ate lunch
    late.
    (We ate lunch then.)

Adverbs that tell how often end in –ly and may be replaced by the words like
   this: He joined the team eagerly. (He joined the team like this.)

You may move your adverbs around in the sentence. If you do, you‟ll want to
set them off with commas.

Often, groups of words decide to get together to do ADVERB-like work, and
   when they do, we call these groups of words ADVERBIALS. ADVERBIALS
   may be phrases or clauses that do the work that adverbs do.
                                 Morphology Chart
NOUNS:                           VERBS:                           ADJECTIVES:                      ADVERBS:
They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:   They will fit into this frame:
The_____.                        To____ or
                                 Can____or                        The ________truck                Do it ___________.
                                 Is____




             Nouns answer the question: What? or Who?
             Verbs answer the question: What is it doing, having, feeling, or being?
             Adjectives answer the question: What kind?       (They may also answer the questions Which one? and
                                                                How many? but those kinds of adjectives do not fit into
                                                                the frame of The______truck.

             Adverbs answer any of these questions: Where? When? Why? To what extent? How?
This “Morphology Kit”
is a great way to
expand vocabulary
                                  Morphology Kit
because most
of the words        Noun-Making     Verb-Making Suffixes Adjective-making
created by          Suffixes                             suffixes
these suffixes
express abstract
ideas.
               -ment                -ate                 -acious,icious
               -ness                -ify                 -y
               -ation, sion         -ize                 -ous, ious
               -ity                                      -ant
               -ism                                      -able, ible
               -hood                                     -er; est
               -itude                                     Adverb-making suffix:
               -ence                                      -ly
               -ance
               -ide                                                               5
                                                           The Language Tree
                             Adjective Branches:

Noun Branches:                          very___________
                                                                Verb Branches:
                              very___________
                    very___________
                                                          can___________
    the______________      very___________                            can___________
                                   very___________      can___________
        the______________

the______________                                         can___________
                                                                     can___________
     the______________
                                                            can___________
 the______________
        the______________                               Prepositional Phrase Branches:
                                                   in________________
                                                             on________________

                                                   at_______________
                                                            for________________
                                                   with________________
                    Topic: ______________________________
Prepositions
             Six Reasons for Teaching
                           Prepositions:
1. Prepositions add time and place detail to sentences


2. Students can vary their sentence structure and set the stage for
a sentence by beginning some sentences with prepositions.

 3. Students can add power to their writing by ending paragraphs with a
 prepositional phrase. (Conversely: Students can avoid ending sentences
 with prepositions so that their sentences are not weak or too informal.)

  4. Students can avoid subject-verb agreement errors by recognizing
  prepositional phrases that intervene between the subject and the verb, as in
  “A box of matches (is, are) on the kitchen table.”

  5. Students can create parallel structure by repeating prepositional phrases
  deliberately.

  6. Students can select the appropriate pronoun case as the object of
  a preposition. (between you and me; for Joe and me)
Writing Complete Sentences!!!
     Now Entering the Complete Sentence Zone:

     The “Guess What!” test

     How it works: Say “Guess What!” in front of
      a group of words. If the group of words
      tells you “guess what!” then
      you have a complete sentence!




Other tests:
         They believed that….

        Can you turn it into a yes/no question?
Phrase, Clause, Sentence
               A phrase is two or more words that go
               together (without being a sentence). There
               are noun phrases and verb phrases. Once
               we have both a noun and a verb, then
               we have a clause.

                 A clause is a group of words that
                 may or may not be a complete
                 sentence. If a clause can stand alone as
                 a sentence, then we call it
                 an independent clause. (If a clause
                 cannot stand alone as a sentence,
                 then we call it a subordinate clause.
                   Use worthwhile literature to practice finding phrases and clauses:

from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain

        Monday morning found Tom Sawyer miserable. Monday morning always

   found him so, because it began another week‟s slow suffering in school. He

   generally began that day with wishing he had no intervening holiday; it made

   the going into captivity and fetters again so much more odious.

        Tom lay thinking. Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick;

   then he could stay home from school. Here was a vague possibility. He

   canvassed his system. No ailment was found, and he investigated again. This

   time he thought he could detect colicky symptoms, and he began to encourage

   them with considerable hope. But they soon grew feeble and presently died

   wholly away. He reflected further. Suddenly he discovered something. One of

   his upper front teeth was loose. This was lucky.
            Using the appropriate
            language register



Informal tone        Formal tone
Informal   Formal
Handout: Page 11


            Informal and Formal


         backpack         briefcase

         flip-flops       dress shoes

         McDonald’s       sit-down restaurant

         frisbee on the   football on the team
           lawn

         snack            lunch
         zapping/nuking   cooking, baking, roasting
         Informal and Formal English




Set your dial to the level of
formality that is appropriate
for your audience and purpose.
Using the right pronoun!!!
                                    Objective
            Subjective Team          Team

                I         we     me           us
1st   Person:


2nd Person: you           you    you          you

             he,                 him,
3rd Person:               they                them
            she, it              her, it


                    who                    whom
                                        A Pronoun Poem

As Mom and I walked homewardly,
A puppy followed her and me.
Both she and I were quick to see
He had adopted Mom and me.

At home we showed him where to pee
And where the doggy bed would be.
Then Mom and I made lunch for three,
A feast for him and Mom and me.



from Woe is I Jr: The Younger Grammarphobe’s Guide to Better English in Plain English. by Patricia T. O’Connor and Tom Stiglich.
 subject       A Pronoun Poem, Analyzed

             As Mom and I walked homewardly,            Direct Object
             A puppy followed her and me.
             Both she and I were quick to see
             He had adopted Mom and me.
subjects
                                                           Object of
             At home we showed him where to pee            adopted
             And where the doggy bed would be.
             Then Mom and I made lunch for three,
             A feast for him and Mom and me.
   subject
                                                    Objects of
                                                    The preposition
                                                    for
Binary concepts: formal/informal     clause + clause
                 subject/predicate   preposition + object
                 adjective + noun    subjective case + objective case
                  adverb + verb
                     I.
                                                            II.
Cesar Chavez helped the farm workers.
                                          Cesar Chavez helped the farm workers,
He advocated for them. He did not
                                          and he advocated for them. He did not
encourage violence. He led a boycott
                                          encourage violence. He led a boycott
instead of violence. The boycott was an
                                          instead of violence, and the boycott
effective method of resistance. (30)
                                          was an effective method of resistance.
                                          (32)




              III.
                                          Cesar Chavez, advocate for farm
                                          workers, helped them not by
Cesar Chavez, advocate for farm           encouraging violence, but by leading
workers, helped them not by               a boycott, an effective
encouraging violence, but by leading      method of resistance. (22)
a boycott. The boycott was an effective
method of resistance. (25)


                                          Grammar is the most significant
                                          determiner of sophisticated style.
    GRAMMAR IN THE HEART OF THE WRITING PROCESS:
                              Sharpen your nouns
                              Minimize your modifiers
                              Replace BE verbs and weak verbs with strong
                                action verbs
                              Achieve parallel structure
                              Combine sentences: create complex sentences
                                                    use appositives
                                                    use absolutes
                              Expand and shrink noun phrases. Turn clauses
                              into modifying phrases. Decide where
                               to place modifiers for desired effect.
Pre-writing     Drafting         Revising                           Publication
                                                    Editing
experience:
(non-sentence
form)              Point of
                   intervention for
                                            Point of
                   substantial              intervention
                   language                 for surface
                   improvement              error correction
An all-purpose sentence-making kit
            The Sentence-Making Kit
Fold a 5 x 8 index card in half, width-wise:


                                  They
           Guess                  believed     Yes/no
           What!                  that…        question


    1.                               2.          3.
              The Sentence-Making Kit
On the inside of the card:


 AAAWWUBBIS:           If a sentence begins            These words, plus the comma, may join
 although, as, after   with any of these words,
 while, when                                      ,and two sentences. Writers sometimes begin
                       it must have two parts.
 until                                            ,but sentences with these words if they are
                       Place a comma between
 because, before                                  ,so  doing so for emphasis.
                       the two parts if one of
 if, since             these words begins
                       the sentence.


 These words will help you          Use as many                      Flip the switch into formal English:
 give detail in your sentences:     ACTION VERBS as possible.
 Try beginning some of your                                          a lot = a great many or a great deal
                                Use words and groups of words that   gonna= going to
 sentences with these words:
       IN      FOR              answer the ADVERB QUESTIONS:         wanna= want to
       ON WITH                                                       hafta= have to
       AT                       When? Where? Why? How?               get,got = become, became, receive
                                To what extent? How often?               received, obtain, obtained
                                                                     gotta: must
           The Sentence-Making Kit
On the back of the card:


           Substitutions for homophones and spelling problems:

           their = his            its = his
           there = here           it’s = it is; it has
           they’re = they are
                                I before E except after C
                                                                 woman = man
           your = his           Or when sounded as A             women = men
           you’re = you are     As in neighbor or sleigh
Joining ideas!!
                                Common Hitching Devices



Coordinating            Subordinating
                                                Conjunctive Adverbs      Relative Pronouns
Conjunctiions           Conjunctions
                        As, although, after      However                  That
And                     While, when              Moreover                 Which
                        Until                    Therefore                Who, whom
But
                                                                          What
So                      Because, before          Furthermore
                                                                          Where
Or/nor                  If                                                Why
                                                                          How
                        AAAWWUBBI                                         Whichever
                                                                          Whatever, etc.
Can join two           Can hitch up to an        Can move within         Can join clauses
independent            independent clause,       own clause;
clauses to make        creating a subordinate    Requires commas         Warning: Many
a compound             (dependent) clause,       on both sides           sentence fragments
sentence.              forming                                           begin with these
                                                                         words. Usually, you
Warning: You           complex sentence.         Warning: If you
                                                                         must hitch these
must use a comma       Can appear after          wish to use these       words and the clauses
with these when        main clause (no comma)    to join clauses, you    that they introduce to
they join              or before main clause     must use a semicolon.   your previous sentence.
independent clauses.   (needs a comma)

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:4
posted:4/10/2011
language:English
pages:45