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Direct_Indirect Object Pronouns

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					Summary Sheet: Direct/Indirect Object Pronouns

Direct Object Pronouns
A "direct object " is a word that receives the action of a verb directly. (In the sentence
"Paco buys shoes" the action of buying goes directly from Paco to the shoes.) An "indirect
object" is a word that indirectly receives the action of a verb. (In the sentence "Paco
buys shoes for us" the action of buying goes directly from Paco to the shoes and then
indirectly to us, because we end up wearing them!) Right now we are concerned only with
direct objects.

A direct object answers the questions "Whom?" or "What?" as in "Whom do you see?" or
"What did you buy?" Nouns used as direct objects can be replaced by direct object
pronouns:


                 SINGULAR                                         PLURAL

                  me = me                                        us = nos

              you (fam.) = te                               you (fam. pl.) = os

  him, it, you (formal)(Masculine)= lo              them, you (pl) (Masculine ) = los

   her, it, you (formal) Feminine) = la             them, you (pl) (Feminine) = las


The direct object noun is placed after the conjugated verb, but a direct object pronoun is
placed before the conjugated verb OR after the infinitive if there is one: Yo compro la
blusa. Yo la compro. Yo la voy a comprar/Yo voy a comprarla.


Indirect Object Pronouns
A "direct object " is a word that receives the action of a verb directly. (In the sentence
"Paco buys shoes" the action of buying goes directly from Paco to the shoes.) An "indirect
object" is a word that indirectly receives the action of a verb. (In the sentence "Paco buys
shoes for us" the action of buying goes directly from Paco to t he shoes and then indirectly
to us, because we end up wearing them!) You have already learned about direct object
pronouns. In this unit you learn how to use indirect object pronouns.

An indirect object tells "to whom/what" or "for whom/w hat" an action is performed. Notice
that indirect object pronouns use the same words as direct object pronouns, except for le
and les.


         Indirect Object Pronouns
             (to/for) me = me                               (to/for) us = nos
         (to/for) you (fam.) = te                      (to/for) you (fam.pl. ) = os
   (to/for) him, her, you (formal) = le               (to/for) them, you (pl.) = les


An indirect object pronoun can replace or accompany an indirect object noun.


               Accompanies                                       Re places
  Rosa le compra una olla a su ma dre.                  Rosa le compra una olla.
       Rosa buys he r mothe r a pot.                       Rosa buys he r a pot.


Since the pronouns le and les can refer to different indirect objects (him, her, you) they are
often accompanied by a + name, noun, or pronoun in order to clarify the meaning:           Yo
le compro flores=I buy he r flowers. Yo le compro f lores a mi novia = I buy my girlfriend
flowers (and not that other girl-big trouble if the meaning is not clear!)

To add emphasis, you can add the phrase a + pronoun to a sentence that uses an indirect
object pronoun:  A mi me compro un carro rojo = I'm buying myself a red car.

The indirect object pronouns must always be used even if the indirect object is included in
the sentence. For example: Yo le voy a comprar a Juan un regalo. Le must be included in
this sentence – a Juan is optional and used only for clarif icatiion or emphasis..




Placement of Indirect Object Pronouns

How do you know where indirect object pronouns go in a sentence? They work just like
direct object pronouns.

The indirect object pronoun is placed before the conjugated verb OR after the infinitive if
there is one:   Yo me compro la blusa.       Yo voy a compra rme la blusa/Yo me voy a
comprar la blusa. If there are both an indirect and a direct object pronoun, the indirect
object pronoun goes first. Yo me la compro. Yo voy a comprá rmela/ Yo me la voy a
comprar.


Double Object Pronouns

Remember that an object pronoun appears either before the conjugated verb or after (and
attached to) the infinitive if there is one. What do you do when you have both a direct
object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun? The indirect object pronoun goes first,
followed by the direct object pronoun.

Me los vas a comprar.        OR       Vas a comprárme los

This is called R.I.D. Rule. When there are multiple pronouns, the order they go in is
Re flexive, Indirect, Direct.

When both of the pronouns are in the 3rd person, and start with the letter "L," you change
the indirect object pronoun to se. This is done for easier pronunciation, so that there are
not two "L" sounds back-to-back. It is called the "LA-LA Rule."

Le la doy    becomes    Se la doy

				
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