Docstoc

Slide 1 wps ablongman com

Document Sample
Slide 1 wps ablongman com Powered By Docstoc
					                                   Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914


                   Chapter Outline
I. The Vienna Settlement
II. 1848: The Revolutionary Year
III. Prussia and Austria
IV. France: Second Empire and Third Republic
V. Italy to 1914
VI. The United Kingdom
VII. The United States
VIII. Russia in Reform and Revolution
IX. The “Eastern Question”




                                        Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present
                                  Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

I. The Vienna Settlement

   A. The Congress of Vienna
      Lord Castlereagh, Great Britain
      Count von Hardenberg, Prussia
      Prince Klemens von Metternich, Austria
      Tsar Alexander I, Russia
      Prince Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand,
          France

   B. The Congress System
      Holy Alliance, 1815
         Tsar Alexander I
         All but Britain, Sultan, Pope

      Quadruple Alliance, 1815
        Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain
        > Quintuple Alliance, 1818
           France




                       Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                     Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

I. The Vienna Settlement

   C. Return of the Bourbons
      Louis XVIII (1815-24)
      Charles X (1824-30)
      Louis Philippe (1830-48)

   D. The French Influence in Belgium and Poland
      1831, Belgian National Assembly
         elects Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-
             Gotha
      1839, Belgium recognized
         “perpetually neutral”

   E. German and Italian Nationalism
      Burschenschaften, “liberal societies”
         Carlsbad Decrees, 1819
             repressive

      Giuseppe Mazzini
         Young Italy




                         Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                   Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

II. 1848: The Revolutionary Year

   A. France and the Second Republic
      1846-47 Depression

      Second Republic (1848-51)
         Louis Blanc (1811-82)

   B. Germany and
      the Frankfurt Assembly

      Frederick William IV

      Frankfurt Assembly
         Declaration of the Rights
         of the German People




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                 Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

II. 1848: The Revolutionary Year

   C. Italy
       Uprisings, Sicily, Venice, Milan

      King Charles Albert of Sardinia
         new constitution

      Pope Pius IX
        1848, opposition

   D. Hapsburg Monarchy
      Lajos Kossuth (1802-94)
         opposition

      Ferdinand I abdicates
         Franz Joseph succeeds

      Hungarians defeated
        1849, Kossuth flees




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                               Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

III. Prussia and Austria

   A. Bismarck as Prime Minister
      Otto von Bismarck (1815-98)
         1862, prime minister

      Realpolitik

   B. The Danish and Austrian Wars
      1864, war over Schleswig and Holstein
         Holstein to Austria
         Schleswig to Prussia

      Seven Weeks War
         against Austria

   C. The War with France
      1870, France declares war
         > 1871, Treat of Frankfurt
            Alsace, part of Lorraine to Germany




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

III. Prussia and Austria

   D. The Second German Reich
      1871, William I becomes Kaiser
         Bundesrat
         Reichstag

      Bismarck as Chancellor
         Kulturkampf
            anti-Catholic policies

      Social Democrats
         Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-64)

      Kaiser William II, 1888

   E. The Decline of Austria
      The Dual Monarchy
         1867, Ausgleich (“compromise”)
         creation of Austria-Hungary




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                              Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

IV. France: Second Empire and Third Republic

   A. The Second Empire
   1848, Louis Napoleon elected president
   1852, declares himself Napoleon III
      Second Empire, 1852-70


   B. The Third Republic
      1871, Paris Commune
         Communards

   C. Boulanger and Dreyfus
      General Georges Boulanger (1837-91)
         calls for vengeance against Germany

      Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)
         Major Esterhazy

         Émile Zola (1840-1902)
            J'accuse
         > reaction against church

         1906, Dreyfus found innocent




                    Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                  Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

VI. Italy to 1914
   A. Italian Unification
       Victor Emmanuel II, king of Sardinia

      Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (1810-61)
        1852, Prime Minister of Sardinia

      Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-92)
         Red Shirts

      1861, Kingdom of Italy
         papal opposition

      1870, Rome taken
         1871, capital of Italy

   B. The New Italian State
      1871, Law of Papal Guarantees

      1914, General Strike
         Benito Mussolini




                     Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                               Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

VII. The United Kingdom                             C. The Irish Dilemma
                                                       1845, Irish Potato Famine
  A. Tory Dominance
     1819, Peterloo Massacre                           1829, Catholic Emancipation Act
        Manchester
                                                    D. Victorian Reforms
     Whigs
       Robert Peel (1788-1850)                         Lord Palmerston
       George Canning (1770-1827)                         Prime Minster, 1855-65


     Lord Charles Grey (1764-1845)                  E. Gladstone and Disraeli
        becomes prime minister
                                                       1867-1880, prime ministers
  B. Self-Interested Reform
     Abolition, 1833                                      William Ewart Gladstone (1809-98)

     Chartism                                             Benjamin Disraeli (1804-81)
       universal manhood suffrage
       secret ballot                                      Charles Stewart Parnell (1946-91)
       payment for members of Parliament
       no property qualifications for MPs
           annual elections
       equal districts




                   Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                             Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

VII. The United Kingdom                           G. The Dominions
                                                     South Africa
  F. The New Liberals                                   1906, 1908, self-governance
     Gladstone and Home Rule                            Louis Botha, first prime minister
        > Conservative rule

                                                     Australia
     Labour Party
        1900, Ramsay Macdonald and                     1788, first convicts transported
           Keir Hardie                                 by 1850, liberal government
                                                       1901, Commonwealth of Australia
     Liberal Party
        Prime Minister Herbert Asquith               New Zealand
        Lloyd George
        Winston Churchill                            Canada
                                                       1763, English control
     Parliament Bill of 1911                           1774, Quebec Act
        Lords loses absolute veto
                                                       1867, union

     Women’s Social and Political Union
       Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)
       1918, women over 30 get the vote




                   Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

VIII. The United States

   A. Free Land and Unfree People

   B. Democratic Advances
      Democracy
        1791, Vermont, manhood suffrage
        1792, Kentucky

      1828, Andrew Jackson elected president

      Louisiana Territory
        1803, from France
        “manifest destiny”

      1846, boundary with Canada determined
         Oregon Territory settled

      1846, war with Mexico
         1848, California, Texas to U.S.




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                               Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

VIII. The United States                             E. The United States and the World
                                                          1844, Treaty with China
   C. The Civil War and Its Results
                                                          1853, Commodore Matthew Perry
      1861, Fort Sumter                                      to Japan
         > 1865, defeat of Confederacy                       forces opening of harbors

      Reconstruction, 1865-1877                           1867, purchases Alaska from Russia

   D. Industrialization, Abuse, and Reform

      William”"Boss” Tweed

      Theodore Roosevelt, 1901-09

      Woodrow Wilson, elected, 1913
        “New Freedom”
        Federal Reserve Act, 1913
        Clayton Antitrust Act, 1914
        Federal Trade Commission, 1914




                     Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                 Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

IX. Russia in Reform and Revolution                 D. The Great Reforms
                                                          Alexander II (1855-81)
   A. The Failed Heritage of Catherine II
      Alexander I (1801-25)                               1861, Emancipation Proclamation
                                                             32 million state peasants
      Nicholas II (1825-55)                                  20 million serfs
   B. Enlightenment Dreams
                                                          1864, Zemstvo (local boards) Law
      Napoleonic Wars
                                                             local self-government
         consume resources
                                                          Revolutionaries
      1825, death of Alexander
                                                             go to peasants
         succession question
                                                             = narodnik
         > Decembrist Revolt

   C. Nicholas I and Russian Reaction
      Alexander Herzen (1812-70)
         Kolokol, newspaper, founded 1857

      Michael Bakunin (1814-76)




                     Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                                Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

IX. Russia in Reform and Revolution                   F. Lenin and the Bolsheviks
                                                             Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov (1870-1924)
   E. Revolution and Response                                   = Lenin
      Sergei Nechaev (1847-82)                                  Nadezhda Krupskaia, wife
                                                                help found Iskra (“spark”)
      Alexander assassinated, 1881
                                                            1903, Social Democrats meet
      Reaction                                                 divide:
         Alexander III (1881-94)                                  Bolsheviks
            reactionary                                           Mensheviks
            chief advisor, Constantine
               Pobedonostsev                             G. The Revolution of 1905 and
               censorship, etc.                                 Its Aftermath
                                                            Soviets, councils of workers
         Nicholas (1894-1917)
                                                            October Manifesto of 1905
      Liberal Party                                           Nicholas attempts to repress
      Social Revolutionaries




                      Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                              Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

X. The “Eastern Question”

   A. An Empire in Decline
      “Eastern Question”
         weakened Ottoman Empire

   B. The Balkans Awaken
      1799, Montenegro independent

      1774, Treaty of Küchük Kaynarca
         Russia free to enter Mediterranean

      1829, Treaty of Adrianople
         towards Greek independence

      1832, Mehmet Ali
         governor of Egypt
         attacks sultan
         Nicholas protects Istanbul




                    Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                             Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

X. The “Eastern Question”

   C. The Crimean War, 1853-56
      1856, Treaty of Paris
         attempt to maintain Ottomans

   D. The Unanswered Question
      Bulgarians independent

      Romanians, 1861

      Russian-Ottoman War, 1877-78
        Treaty of San Stefano, 1878
            independence of Serbia, Romania
            quasi-independent Bulgaria

      1899 — Hague Conference




                   Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins
                               Chapter 26: Politics and Diplomacy in the West, 1815-1914

X. The “Eastern Question”

   E. The End of Bismarck’s System
      1873 — Three Emperor’s League
         Prussia, Austria, Russia

      1878, Congress of Berlin
         > Dual Alliance with Austria
         1882, Italy > Triple Alliance

   F. Britain Ends Its Isolation
      1904 — Entente Cordiale
          with France

   G. North African Crises
      1905 — Morocco
         meeting at Algeciras, 1906

      1911 — Second Morocco Crisis
         Germans send in gunboats
         war avoided




                     Brummett, et al, Civilization, Past & Present, Part One; Classical Origins

				
DOCUMENT INFO