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					               IMA Workshop
      (Minneapolis – 8-9 December 2006)

 “The Evolution of Mathematical Communication
         in the Age of Digital Libraries”

Panel on Digital Libraries of Today
           Moderator: Edward A. Fox

           •   Thierry Bouche
           •   Petr Sojka
           •   Philippe Tondeur
           •   Bernd Wegner                     1
             Thierry Bouche
• Université de Grenoble I (France)
• UFR de Mathématiques
• Research focused on the study of hermitian
  vector bundles over complex analytic manifolds,
  specifically their sections and cohomology.
• Another subject of interest is Arakelov theory
  such as developped by H. Gillet, Ch. Soulé or L.
  Szpiro: I have published with A. Abbes a new
  elementary and straightforward proof of the
  arithmetic Riemann-Roch theorem formerly due
  to Gillet and Soulé

                                                     2
                  Petr Sojka
• MSc. (informatics) and Ph.D. (computational
  linguistics) from Masaryk university in Brno,
  Czech Republic, now assoc. professor.
• Member of Czech Digital Mathematics Library
  (DML-CZ) team responsible for the IT
  technologies chosen for the project (math OCR,
  formats, information retrieval and search issues).

• For more try first hit of "Petr Sojka" on Google.

• DML-CZ: http://dml.muni.cz/documents.html

                                                      3
                        Philippe Tondeur
•   Retired 2002 as Director of Division of Mathematical Sciences at NSF. Previously, Chair of
    the Department of Mathematics at U. Illinois in Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Now, an
    Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at UIUC (since 1968).
•   Ph.D. degree in Mathematics from the U. Zurich in 1961. Then a Research Fellow and
    Lecturer at U. of Paris, Harvard, the U. of California at Berkeley and Wesleyan U.
•   Over 100 research articles and monographs, incl. 9 books, mainly on differential geometry,
    esp. geometry of foliations and geometric applications of partial differential equations.
    Approx. 200 invited lectures.
•   Current interests: mathematics and science research and education, library digitization,
    science policy, institutional governance and leadership development.
•   Has been Visiting Professor at the Universities of Buenos Aires, Auckland (New Zealand),
    Heidelberg, Rome, Santiago de Compostela (Spain), Leuven (Belgium), as well as at the
    Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule in Zurich, the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, the
    Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn, Keio U. in Tokyo and Tohoku U. in Sendai.
•   Served as Editor and Managing Editor of the Illinois Journal of Mathematics.
•   Recipient of UIUC Award of Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching, and a SIAM Public
    Service Award.
•   Recently served on and chaired the Board of Governors of the Institute for Mathematics and
    its Applications (IMA) at U. Minneapolis.
•   Served on the National Advisory Council of the Statistical and Applied Mathematical
    Sciences Institute (SAMSI) at the Research Triangle Park in North Carolina.
•   Member of the International Scientific Advisory Board of the Canadian Mathematics of
    Information Technology and Complex Systems (MITACS) Centre of Excellence, and a
    Trustee of the prospective Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzadas-MATH (IMDEA-
    MATH) in Madrid. Member of the U.S. National Committee on Mathematics of the National     4
    Research Council, and served as a member of the U.S. delegation to the ICM 2006.
    Member of the Science Policy Committee of SIAM, as well as of MAA.
                      Bernd Wegner
• Full Professor of Mathematics
• Editor-in-chief of Zentralblatt MATH, the most comprehensive info service
  in math, with Web access under EMIS (European Mathematical
  Information Service)
• Member of the advisory board for MATHDI, on education in mathematics
• Scientific Coordinator of EMIS, math portal with an electronic library
• Leader of the TU-group for the EULER-project, a prototype for an
  integrated access to Web-based mathematical documents, transitioning
  to a regular Web service
• Scientific Director of the LIMES-project (Large Infrastructures in
  Mathematics - Enhanced Services) to transform Zentralblatt MATH into
  European cooperation with Web-based input structures
• Director of the ERAM-project (Electronic Research Archive in
  Mathematics), to build up a digital archive of classical mathematics,
  capturing the Jahrbuch ueber die Fortschritte
• Chairman of the Electronic Publishing Committee of EMS (European
  Mathematical Society), member of the Database Committee of EMS
• Associated with project Euclid (Cornell), establishing a non-profit
  (electronic) publication facility for mathematics
• Member of the board of IWI (Institute for Scientific Info, Osnabrueck)
                                                                         5
• Exploitation Manager of the European IST Project MOWGLI
               Fox: Related Grants
• NSF Grant IRI-9116991: A User-Centered Database from the
  Computer Science Literature, 9/15/91 - 2/28/95, PIs: E. Fox, D.
  Hix L. Heath.
• NSF CISE Institutional Infrastructure (Education) Grant CDA-
  9312611: Interactive Learning with a Digital Library in Computer
  Science, 8/15/93 – 7/31/97, PIs: E. Fox, J. Lee, C. Shaffer, H.
  Hartson, D. Barnette.
• U.S. Dept. of Education, FIPSE Program P116B61190: Improving
  Graduate Education with a National Digital Library of Theses and
  Dissertations, 9/1/96-8/31/99, PIs: E. Fox, J. Eaton, G. McMillan.
  Cost sharing: SURA, Microsoft, Adobe
• NSF DUE-0121679: Computing and Information Technology
  Interactive Digital Educational Library (CITIDEL), 9/1/2001 -
  5/31/2005, PIs: Edward A. Fox. Co-PIs: JAN Lee, M. Perez-
  Quinones, L. Cassel (Villanova), C. Lee Giles (Penn State), J.
  Impagliazzo (Hofstra), D. Knox (College of NJ)
• NSF DUE-0532825: Personalization of Content: Bridging the gap
  between NSDL and its users through the course website, 9/1/2005
  - 8/31/2008, PIs: M. Perez-Quinones, E. Fox, L. Cassel, W. Fan 6
             Fox: Related URLs
• Fox: http://fox.cs.vt.edu/
• Digital Library Research Lab: www.dlib.vt.edu/
• Networked Digital Library of Theses and
  Dissertations: www.ndltd.org/
• National Science Digital Library: http://nsdl.org/
• PlanetMath: http://planetmath.org/
   http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-09022003-
     150851/ - Aaron Krowne 2003 thesis: An Architecture for
     Collaborative Math and Science Digital Libraries,
• CITIDEL (NSDL CS collection): www.citidel.org/
• NSF Education Innovation: http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~csei/
                                                           7
8
9
5S: A Formal Model for Digital Libraries
      (see ACM TOIS April 2004)
 Ss          Examples                    Objectives
 Streams     Text; video; audio; image   Describes properties of the DL content
                                         such as encoding and language for
                                         textual material or particular forms of
                                         multimedia data

 Structures Collection; catalog;         Specifies organizational aspects of the DL
                                         content
             hypertext; document;
             metadata
 Spaces      Measure; measurable,        Defines logical and presentational views
                                         of several DL components
             topological, vector,
             probabilistic
 Scenarios   Searching, browsing,        Details the behavior of DL services
             recommending
 Societies   Service managers,           Defines managers, responsible for
                                         running DL services; actors, that use
             learners, teachers, etc.    those services; and relationships among
                                         them                                10
Infrastructure Services                                         Information
                                                                Satisfaction
  Repository -Building                         Add                Services
     Creational        Preservational         Value
      Acquiring          Conserving          Annotating         Browsing
    Cataloging            Converting         Classifying        Collaborating
Crawling(focused)   Copying/Replicating       Clustering        Customizing
     Describing            Emulating          Evaluating        Filtering
       Digitizing          Renewing           Extracting        Providingaccess
    Federating      Translating(format)        Indexing         Recommending
    Harvesting                                Measuring         Requesting
    Purchasing                               Publicizing        Searching
     Submitting                                  Rating         Visualizing
                                          Reviewing(peer)
                                              Surveying
                                             Translating
                                                   (language)

                                                                                  11
            Information Life Cycle

                          Authoring
                          Modifying
                Using                    Organizing
               Creating                   Indexing
Retention
/ Mining
            Accessing                      Storing
            Filtering                     Retrieving


                          Distributing
                          Networking
                                                       12
                LOCKSS
•   Lots of copies keep stuff safe
•   Stanford (Vicky Reich)
•   Solves preservation replication problem
•   Initial content: journals
•   Emory (Martin Halbert, Aaron Krowne)
     – Help deploy and adapt
     – Help apply in other contexts
• NDLTD prototype for ETDs
  (electronic theses and dissertations)       13
 OAI - Open Archives Initiative

• Advocacy for interoperability
• Standard for transferring metadata among
  digital libraries
   – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (PMH)
      • Simplicity
      • Generality
      • Extensibility
• Support for PMH => Open Archive (OA) 14
The World According to OAI
              Service Providers
                   Current
  Discovery                       Preservation
                  Awareness




              Data Providers
                                                 15
         For DL Information
• Magazine: www.dlib.org
• Conferences
  – ECDL: www.ecdl2007.org
  – ICADL: www.icadl.org
  – JCDL: www.jcdl2007.org
• Associations
  – ASIS&T DL SIG: www.asis.org/SIG/sigdl/
  – IEEE TCDL: www.ieee-tcdl.org
  – ACM SIGIR: www.acm.org/sigs/sigir/
• NSF: www.dli2.nsf.gov
• Curriculum: http://curric.dlib.vt.edu/
                                         16
              DL Challenges
• Preservation - so people with trust DLs
• Scalability, sustainability, interoperability
• DL industry (in addition to Google, IBM, …)
  – critical mass, covering libraries, archives,
    museums, corporate info, govt info, personal
    info - “quality WWW” integrating IR, HT, MM, ...
• Math and DLs (some dates)
  – 1987: ETDs
  – 1991: ACM DL
  – 2001: CITIDEL
  – 2003: PlanetMath
                        Panel Intro
• Questions, questions, questions !!!
•   Please write notes and pass them to aisle and to front.
•   Please raise hand till I acknowledge you.
•   Please state name and affiliation, slowly.
•   Be brief as you ask a question.

• Theme: How does the state of the art in
    today's digital libraries compare with digital
    libraries in general?
• Challenge of supporting math content as
  we do: information retrieval, blogging,
  authoring, web display,…                                    18
    Initial Questions (Robert Miner) - 1
•   Relative to your initial expectations, what are the areas where the digital
    math library projects you are associated with have been most successful?
    Least successful? How would you compare the success of digital math
    libraries to digital library projects of similar scope in other areas? Do you
    think that digital math libraries are currently viewed as successes by their
    users? By the larger library institutions of which they are a part?

•   Do your users have expectations for digital libraries that you have a hard
    time meeting due to technological limitations in dealing with mathematical
    content? Conversely, are there areas where you are able to provide users
    with tools and services that take advantage of the mathematical nature of
    your content that aren't generally available in other digital libraries? Are the
    gaps in software support for mathematical content so severe that they limit
    the usefulness and popularity of digital math libraries, or is it mostly a
    question of mathematical content requiring extra time and effort in order to
    achieve adequate quality and ease-of-use for end users? Which software
    gaps are most serious for you, and how do you work around the problems
    now?


                                                                                    19
 Initial Questions (Robert Miner) - 2
• Do your users have expectations for digital libraries that
  you have a hard time meeting due to technological
  limitations in dealing with mathematical content?
  Conversely, are there areas where you are able to provide
  users with tools and services that take advantage of the
  mathematical nature of your content that aren't generally
  available in other digital libraries? Are the gaps in software
  support for mathematical content so severe that they limit
  the usefulness and popularity of digital math libraries, or is
  it mostly a question of mathematical content requiring extra
  time and effort in order to achieve adequate quality and
  ease-of-use for end users? Which software gaps are most
  serious for you, and how do you work around the problems
  now?
                                                            20
                  Outline
• Introduction           Searching   Browsing
• What we need in DLs    math        math
  for math content
• What would be a        Capturing   Preserving
  future version of      old math    math
  something like
  Google Scholar, that
  does math right        Detailed    Personal-
                         linking     ization
• Key challenges:

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