Thinking Visually

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					Thinking Visually

     Diagramming for change

• Change produces opportunities for organisations,
  but it can also provides numerous problems.
• When evaluating new ideas the “pros” and “cons”
  must be identified and considered thoroughly.
• Some diagrams which aid the evaluation are:
   – Force Field diagram
   – SWOT diagram

         Force Field Diagram
• The force field diagram has proved to be of
  enormous benefit to industries faced with major
• It can be very useful when making a decision
  about the introduction of a new product or service.
• Here the aim is to highlight valid reasons for the
  introduction and to be alerted to possible
  restraining forces, some of which if not taken into
  account could lead to the failure of a planned
  venture or innovation.
Force Field Diagram continued
• There are two types of forces affecting change:
  driving forces and restraining forces.
• Driving forces: People who are committed to a
  plan, and who see valid reasons for moving away
  from the established way of doing things.
• Restraining forces: People who question change,
  or who are totally opposed to it. They will give
  reasons for serious questioning or outright
Outline of Force – Field Diagram


     The proposed change or new idea (opportunity)


Outline of Force – Field Diagram
 • The arrows, showing forces, are drawn in different
   thickness to indicate perceived strength of force in
   each case.
 • The central box must contain a clear concise
   statement of what is being proposed.
 • If change of any kind is to be managed effectively,
   the first step is to state the change and reasons
   (driving forces) and gather responses from those
 • From these responses it is sometimes possible to
   add further to the number of driving forces but
   also include in the diagram any restraining forces,
   or “downside” of the proposal.                     6
Force field diagram of change
   to new print technology
  Increased      Increased       Reduced     Faster more
    colour      advertising    trade-union     flexible
   facilities     revenue         power      production

         Proposed change to new print technology

    Loss of       Increased     Threat to      Loss of
  traditional       fear of   trade-union    skilled jobs
     skills        change        power

 Force field diagram of change
    to new print technology
• The diagram clearly shows the dynamics of
  the proposed change.
• The same issue, such as the reduction in
  union power, can be both a driving and
  restraining force.

Business purposes of the Force-
        Field diagram
• The force-field diagram has a number of
  uses, but probably its widest application is
  in the area of change management.
• It has applications also in the development
  of new products, or for helping people
  decide upon important moves in their lives.

            SWOT Diagram
• SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses,
  opportunities, and threats.

• SWOT is a form of window diagram, which is
  often of the four-pane model.

• The SWOT diagram has a very wide variety of
  uses such as design decisions, analysis of new
  products and technology etc.

SWOT Diagram Layout
       Strengths       Weaknesses


       Opportunities    Threats

    SWOT Diagram continued
• The spaces within the box represent an area, and
  when a threat has been recognized alternatively as
  an opportunity it can be transferred into the
  opportunities box.
• Thus nothing is absolute and over time the
  diagram has to be reevaluated.
• The SWOT diagram is a very versatile tool
  because of the wide range of circumstances can be
  captured within the area of each window.
SWOT: sales team working remotely
              Strengths                       Weaknesses
     •Effective, reliable product lines   •Poor networking skills
     •Respect of customers                •Inadequate training
     •Relatively secure markets           •Competition between sales
     •Stable workforce                    areas leading to little sharing of
                                          •Too little personal contact

     •To decentralize more                •Lack of emergency cover when
     responsibility to gain quicker       isolated member absent
     customer response                    •Little obvious corporate image
     •To generate new markets by          •Garbled network information
     more sharing of ideas between        leads to lost sales
     •Build more on idea of virtual

         Opportunities                        Threats
        Organisation Chart
• Organisation charts are diagrams that show
  how people, operations, functions,
  equipment, and activities are organized,
  arranged, structured and/or interrelated.
• Charts generally progress from top to

    Organsation Chart Type 1
• This chart contains information on major
  organisational units.
• Charts with this type of information show the
  fundamental structure of an organisation.
• They are applicable to any type of organisation,
  whether a corporation, a government, a nonprofit
  organisation, or the military.

   Organisation Chart Type 2

• This chart contains information by title.
• This type of chart often is used to convey
  information about function as well as title and
  frequently is used in conjunction with the names
  of individuals holding the titles.
• When used to compare various organisations,
  charts with titles sometimes indicate more about
  personnel philosophies than about the structure of
  the organisation.
   Organisation Chart Type 3
• In some cases individuals report to two or
  more people for various aspects of their
• A widely accepted method to depict this on
  an organisation chart is to show the direct
  relationship with a solid line and the
  indirect relationship with a dotted line.

    Organisation Chart Type 4
• When a key topic is strategy, organisation charts
  can be used to condense a large amount of data
  into a concise, single-page format.
• Corporate strategies have many components that
  balance the competing interests of customers,
  employees, and shareholders.
• These components are held together by single
  vision or “driving force” that usually is articulated
  by the CEO and that might include strategies for
  finance, marketing, manufacturing, and research
  and development.                                     21
    Organisation Chart Type 4
• The strategic plan should articulate clear long-
  term objectives from which specific near-term
  goals are derived.
• The way to achieve these goals and objectives
  most effectively is by using an organisation chart.
• It helps to sort related ideas into groupings.
• The visual display of relationships helps ensure
  that the corporate vision together with the related
  objectives and strategies are in alignment.
• The organisation chart format ensures
  completeness, tests for reasonableness, and
  highlights interrelationships and dependencies
  among the elements of the strategic plan.             23