ATPM_whitepaper by niusheng11


									Review of the NSF Sponsored Animal Tracking and Physiological
Monitoring Workshop
Written and organized by Roland W. Kays and Martin Wikelski

RWK: New York State Museum, 3140 CEC, Albany NY 12230,
MW: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ,

Citation: Kays, R.W. and M. Wikelski 2007. Review of the NSF sponsored animal tracking and
physiological monitoring workshop. Report published online at

We held a workshop on Animal Tracking and Physiological Monitoring (ATPM) from 23-25
May 2007 at Princeton University. Presenters reviewed the current state of the art technology in
each field and discussed what areas need the most additional research to improve capabilities.
Talks and posters showed how monitoring animals with today's state of the art technology has
produced major scientific breakthroughs, but also noted that biologists are still severely limited
by the size, geographic range, and price of most available technologies. Many felt that these
technical challenges are being addressed by large corporations (e.g. cell phone and medical
industries) but remain inaccessible to academic professionals because our market is too small to
make it economically worthwhile for these companies to collaborate. Scaling-up global
monitoring of animals through increased study and collaboration between projects would add up
to more than the sum of its parts by providing opportunities such as cheaper tags through mass
production, improved technology for this larger market, and a new animal-tracking satellite
specifically designed for this purpose. In addition to scientific and conservation questions
familiar to biologists, these data would also relate to two issues broadly important to global
societies: spread of disease, bird-aircraft strikes. The spirit of community and collaboration was
very high amongst the approximately 100 participants. In addition to the many new partnerships
initiated at this workshop, a new online resource will form to facilitate continued sharing of ideas
and growth of the community.

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Table of Contents
               1      Abstract
               2      Introduction
               2      Acknowledgements
               3      Schedule of presentations and posters
               6      Abstracts of presentations
               28     Titles of posters
               30     List of presenters
               32     List of other participants
               33     Photos from the meeting.

The purpose of this workshop was to bring together technical and scientific experts to discuss the
most promising animal tracking systems, issues central to all animal monitoring programs, and
strategies for monitoring five physiological systems on free ranging animals. Many fields of
animal ecology and conservation are restricted in the questions they can ask by limitations on
their ability to track and monitor individual wild animals. Technology has the promise of
reducing these limitations and technical research is advancing along a number of different
tracking strategies. Despite the rapid pace of technology development, and rising need for
standardized tracking methods as part of ecological observatories, there had been no meeting of
experts in these fields since a forum in 1997, and many groups are now working on similar
projects in relative isolation.
        The workshop featured speakers on key topics with ample discussion afterwards between
all conference participants. There was also be an evening poster session for additional
presentations and show-&-tell. For each topic speakers reviewed present capabilities and also
forecasted developments they saw coming in the field the next 2 and 5+ years. For present
capabilities speakers emphasized what is actually working in the field today, not just what can be
done on the lab bench.

This workshop was held at the Friends center on the Engineering quad of Princeton University
and was funded by the National Science Foundation. First and foremost thanks to all the
presenters and other attendees who's energy and creative talks and interaction made this
workshop such a success. Thanks to Michael Smith and Pia Ellen at Princeton for extensive help
pulling everything together on site and to Donna Jornov and Panee Noipochana at the New York
State Museum for help preparing for the workshop. Patrick Jansen took the photos during the

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Schedule of Presentations

Day 1 - Wednesday 23 May - Core Tracking Methods
8:00    Coffee
8:20    Overview: history and future of animal telemetry                Swenson
8:45    Tracking with radio telemetry: from hand held to towers to      Kays, Wikelski
        satellites.                                                     and Kasdin
9:15    Discussion of overview and radio telemetry tracking
9:45    Presentation on GPS Tracking                                    Goodyear
10:15   GPS discussion
10:45                              Coffee break
11:15   Presentation on ARGOS                                           Henke
11:45   ARGOS discussion
12:15                              Lunch Break
13:30   An introduction to solar geolocation and archival tags.         Fox
13:45   Sunlight geolocation and on-board data storage
14:00   Tracking animals with cell phone networks                       Robinson

14:15   Radio telemetry and CDMA techniques: benefits and               Niezgoda
14:30   Discussion on tracking with cell phone infrastructure
15:00                              Coffee break
15:30   Integrated camera and sensor systems for wildlife monitoring:   He
        present and future applications.
15:50   Presentation on automated microphones                           Calupca
16:10   Discussion on automated cameras and microphones

17:00-19:00 Posters and social

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Day 2 - Thursday 24 May - Common Challenges to All
8:30     Coffee

9:00     Presentation on RFID Tracking                                    Reynolds

9:30     Discussion on RFID tracking

10:00    Presentation about on-animal packaging of electronics            Kuechle

10:30    Packaging discussion

11:00                              Coffee break

11:30    Presentation on Nanofabrication                                  Gadre

12:00    Nanofabrication discussion

12:30                              Lunch Break

13:30    Small-scale hybrid energy storage systems for animal tracking    Arnold


14:00                           Battery discussion

14:30    Deployment of wireless, networked, camera systems and sensors    Taggart

         for observation of avian and reptile behavior.

15:00    Communication network discussion

15:30                              Coffee break

16:00    Presentation on cyberinfrastructure                              Fountain

16:30    Cyberinfrastructure discussion

17:00    Review of first two days, discussion on publications             Kays and Wikelski

18:30 Group dinner in Friend Convention Room

20:00 After dinner presentation by Greg Marshal on National Geographic's Crittercam

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Day 3 - Friday 25 May - Physiological monitoring

8:30                                   Coffee

9:00    Heart rate monitoring of vertebrates and the estimation of field    Butler

        metabolic rate

9:30    heart rate discussion

10:00   Monitoring blood chemistry in diving emperor penguins.              Stockard

10:15   Presentation on monitoring blood chemistry in terrestrial           Wang


10:30   blood chemistry discussion

11:00                                Coffee Break

11:30   A lightweight telemetry system for recording neuronal activity in   Gahr

        freely behaving small animals.

12:00   Electro-physiology discussion

12:30                                Lunch Break

13:30   Presentation about remotely monitoring muscle activity              Hedrick

14:00   Muscle activity discussion

14:30   Tagging of Pacific Pelagics (TOPP): From the Bottom Up.             Weise

15:00   discussion on integrating components of animal monitoring


15:30                                Coffee Break

16:00   Concluding discussion of synergistic and large-scale projects       Kays, Swenson,
                                                                            and Wikelski
17:00 End of workshop

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Abstracts of Presentations
Overview: history and future of animal telemetry.
George W. Swenson, Jr., University of Illinois, Radio Wave Propagation Lab

         For all practical purposes, the era of radio tracking of wildlife began in Champaign
County, Illinois in the winter of 1959-60 with the instrumentation of a cotton-tail rabbit by
Cochran, Graber and Lord. The first publication of the era, in 1962, by Cochran and Lord, dealt
with the synchronization of the wing beats and the respiration of a flying mallard duck. The
technology addressed a long unfulfilled need, and rapidly proliferated through the wildlife
biology community. The methods developed then, largely facilitated by rapidly-evolving
transistor technology, with relatively minor improvements have become a mainstay of wildlife
         Currently, some major programs are under consideration to apply radio tracking on a
global scale to animals too small to carry the transmitter packages required by present-day
satellite-based tracking systems. One such system, well within the state of the art, would be an
extensive “fence” of automated radio receivers with associated communication network,
deployed across a geographical choke point on a major migration route. An example of such a
system is described.

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              Tracking with radio telemetry: from hand held towers to satellites
Roland W. Kays1, Martin Wikelski2, Jeremy Kasdin3
        New York State Museum
        Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University
        Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University

Radio telemetry was the first tracking method and remains the best solution for many animals,
especially smaller species. Radio-transmitters are relatively simple electronics and can be made
to weigh only slightly more than the smallest available batteries (~200mg). The radio signals
can also be used to transmit sensor data. Larger transmitters carrying larger batteries can have
longer lifespans and produce stronger signals that can be detected from further away. The
distance at which an animal can be detected is also strongly affected by intervening vegetation
and hills. One solution is to mount receivers on hilltop towers above the canopy, which
approximately doubles the range over terrestrial tracking, or on aircraft, which approximately
doubles the range over towers. The recent development of automated receivers for direction
finding has allowed the development of Automated Radio Telemetry Systems
(, greatly increasing the resolution of data
collected over traditional handheld tracking. However, the massive amounts of data collected by
automated systems require new tools for data management and analysis. The accuracy of radio
telemetry depends on the bearing error of the receivers and the distance between the receiver and
the target animal. Furthermore, systems with stationary receivers have at least 3 receivers in
range of target animals at all times to triangulate its location. The result is that automated
receivers available today must be used in fairly dense networks (<800m between receivers) to
obtain accurate locations of typical radio transmitters in typical natural situations. Locating small
radio transmitters from low-orbit satellites offers a promising future alternative for broad-scale
animal tracking. Several technical solutions are currently being proposed and evaluated by both
European and US universities (for detailed schemes, see Initial
contacts with both the European Space Agency and NASA have resulted in various preparatory
workshops and high interest at both agencies. Currently, the Icarus Initiative is soliciting input
for a White Paper featuring the internationally best project proposals that would use a small-
animal tracking satellite solution on a large (global) scale.

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Integrated GPS Systems and is GSM next?
Jeff Goodyear, president, H.A.B.I.T. Research, Ltd., Victoria, British Columbia

      Integrated GPS systems have become a valuable component within the biologist’s
telemetry “quiver” for studying detailed movements and locations of animals. A properly
selected and designed GPS system with high resolution and proper study design can achieve the
detail necessary to answer heretofore unanswerable critical ecological questions. For example,
specific foraging patches or even specific targeted plants in some studies can be identified.
However, inadequate system and study designs, short equipment ordering and shipment cycle
times, over-expectation of system functionality and performance, and user misunderstanding of
system operation can often lead to significant frustration of the researcher and the system
provider with ultimate compromise to the study results. GPS performance and functionality and
GPS’s incorporation into a data dissemination system e.g. using VHF, ARGOS satellite, data
logger, or another “vehicle” together create complexities requiring a greater understanding and
attention to the application of GPS technology in order to achieve the rewarding results we all
hope for and funding agencies often demand. It behooves the biologists, principal investigators,
and funding agencies to allow more lead time for project preparation and equipment selection
and ordering so that individuals and projects utilizing such technology can be properly prepared
to achieve satisfactory results.
      As both a technology provider and field biologist the utility of GPS remains strong and
promises further potential given appropriate preparation. For example, GPS acquisition times are
now fast enough to allow use in certain marine mammal and fish applications. Other approaches
e.g. NAVSYS technology can allow significant reduction in system power requirements and
physical size. Other approaches e.g. GSM-cellular and GSM/GPS integrated systems can provide
additional utility over GPS/VHF, GPS/ARGOS, or GPS/Logger systems. Each system has
advantages and disadvantages and where those technical, physical, performance, and cost
differences lie must be considered during the design phases of any studies hoping to benefit from
these technologies.

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Use of the Argos system for wildlife tracking and monitoring: past, present, and future.
Blake Henke, North Star Science and Technology, LLC

        The Argos system has been available to the biological research community since the late
1970’s. It was the first space-based system that could be used to track and monitor animals on a
global scale. In its earliest days, the French operated Argos system consisted of only 2 satellites,
and its transmitters (called Platform Transmitter Terminals, or PTTs) were considerably large
and bulky. Perhaps the first application of the Argos system to wildlife tracking was
accomplished by the Craighead brothers in the latter 1970’s and early 1980’s; they used the
system to track various species of bears.
        In the early 1980’s, an effort was launched at the Johns Hopkins University Applied
Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to miniaturize the PTT for application to birds. Some of the
funding for this effort came from the military, which had a strong interest in tracking people and
highly mobile assets using small PTTs. This effort at JHUAPL yielded a solar powered PTT that
was suitable for larger birds, such as eagles and swans. Two critical technological innovations
made this first birdborne PTT possible, (1) the invention of the temperature compensated crystal
oscillator, or TCXO, and (2) the existence of small solar panels. The very first birdborne PTT
weighed about 175 grams, was solar powered, and was about the size of a pack of cigarettes; it
transmitted 1 watt.
        In about 1990, one of the principal electrical engineers on the “Birdborne Project” at
JHUAPL, as it was called, left the lab to start a company to produce small bird PTTs, and thus
began Microwave Telemetry, Inc. Telonics, Inc. was already producing Argos collars at that
time, but nothing small enough to be used on a bird. Over the next 7 years, several things
occurred: (1) based on Microwave’s success, other companies formed to produce PTTs for
wildlife applications (e.g, Wildlife Computers, Sirtrak); (2) wildlife tracking and monitoring
became the fastest growing segment of Argos’ business; (3) the PTTs being produced became
smaller and smaller, and also more accurate, and (4) the military funded a series of
demonstration projects using this technology to help prove its utility for scientific exploration
and also as a means to solve real world wildlife management problems. One of these
demonstration projects contributed significantly to the identification and remediation of a major
problem affecting the Swainson’s Hawk in the western USA and Canada.
        From 1997 till now, the number of companies producing PTTs for wildlife has grown
several-fold, and in fact North Star Science and Technology, LLC (my company) was formed in
1998. Also, PTTs continue to get smaller and more capable, down to around 10 grams now for
bird applications. The first GPS PTT for birds was produced around 2002/2003. In this one
step, the accuracy of Argos-derived location estimates goes from 150 m (best case using Argos
Doppler data) to under 10 m most of the time (with the GPS data). At this time, there are at least
seven companies that produce PTTs in one form or another for wildlife applications. Some
companies specialize in collars, some in bird PTTs, and some in fish tags and seabird units. This
technology is being used to track and monitor marine mammals, fish, birds, sea turtles, terrestrial
mammals, and even reptiles. The variety of applications will be discussed.

        Right now, the Argos constellation consists of 6 polar orbiting satellites. There are plans
to enlarge the Argos constellation in the coming years, and also to add 2-way communication
with the satellites. These features will be discussed, as well as Argos’ advantages and
disadvantages as a telemetry and communication system for wildlife tracking and monitoring.

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An introduction to solar geolocation and archival tags
J. W. Fox, V. Afanasyev, British Antarctic Survey
         A miniature light level logger (geolocator) for tracking animal movements for long
periods has been designed and developed by engineers at the British Antarctic Survey.
Thousands of these instruments have been used by the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) and our
collaborators on a number of species. They have mainly been used for bird migration tracking
but other long distance movements could be tracked in the same way. They can be used for
tracking over long distances in any application where the logger usually has an un-obscured view
of natural sunlight levels at dawn and dusk. The loggers must be retrieved for data download.
         Because they do not use satellite or radio technology, light recording loggers can be made
much smaller and lighter. The newest Mk14 is now 1.4g and will record for two years. The
miniature, light weight archival tag records essential light level information which can be
processed to give location latitude and longitude. The device is small, has low weight and drag,
long lasting and cost effective. Although not as accurate as GPS or ARGOS, this method allows
a much cheaper and much smaller device to be constructed which records for a far longer time
(many years). For seabirds, logging of activity (wet/dry information and sea surface temperature)
can also be included. The wet/dry recording has been developed to measure the activity of the
birds, and the temperature information, when correlated with satellite data, can be used to
improve the location fix.
         The loggers work worldwide wherever there is dawn and dusk, and have been used so far
on a number of species including geese, albatross, penguins, shearwaters, gannets, skuas,
fulmars, ducks, shags and seals. Being so small, they can be attached on leg rings of larger birds,
thus avoiding problems associated with platform gluing and the dangers of harnesses. Accuracy
is in the region of +/-150km and uncertainty is caused mainly by cloud, shading, orientation,
interference (non direct sun and artificial light) and, for latitude, proximity to equinox.
         The talk will present a brief theory of light geolocation, including limitations and
interpretation of results. The electronics making up a simple miniature archival logger design
will also be discussed.

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Tracking migratory animals with cellular technology.
W. Douglas Robinson1, Terri Fiez2, Huaping Liu2, Kartikeya Mayaram2, Zhongfeng Wang2
         Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University
         School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University

        Many of the most important questions about migration can be answered when individual
organisms are tracked efficiently and accurately over long distances. The huge standing
infrastructure of towers forming the cellular network can be used to track individual animals.
We are developing a miniature, micropower cellular device that can be applied to migratory
birds or other moving organisms. The device will be used for several purposes. First, data
gathered from sensors or other tracking devices such as GPS can be communicated directly back
to researchers by cellular phone communications. Second, the device can be used to locate
individual organisms by identifying the geographic location of the tower with which
communications are made. Third, the device could be used to manipulate actions of other sensor
devices carried on animals. The advantages of cellular technology for studying migration are the
steadily increasing coverage of the network around the world, the probably low expense of
individual units so that large numbers can be deployed during migration studies, and the
continual advances in speed of data transfer through cellular networks. Disadvantages are the
technological challenges of reducing size so that migratory passerines can safely carry cellular
devices, the need for teams of engineers to manipulate software code when size of devices is
reduced, the challenge of reducing power consumption as battery technologies improve, and the
use of different cellular architectures in different countries. Nevertheless, use of cellular
technology has great promise for revolutionizing studies of migration, both in the short and long

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Radio telemetry and CDMA techniques: benefits and opportunities.
G.Niezgoda, Lotek Wireless Inc.

        Evolving application requirements from both the scientific and resource management
communities point toward ever-smaller transmitters, larger ID libraries, greater reception range
as well as expanding spatial and temporal scales of observation. Underlying the wildlife
telemetry application drivers for technology development is the formation of larger-scale
collaborative efforts taking the form of regional, continental and global scale observatories. To
meet some of these challenges technology developers have used custom ‘mixed signal’ silicon
solutions or application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) to miniaturize VHF radio transmitters.
Smart ‘software’ receivers, based on high-speed field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
technology have begun to emerge enabling complex signal processing operations to be
implemented in real time across arrays of antennas or frequency channels. Likewise, greater
emphasis is now being placed on remote access, data management and automated analysis tools
to support the collection and treatment of large quantities of data. A key technological ingredient
in expanding the scope and scale of radio telemetry will be innovations associated with
transmitter signal encoding.
        Code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques offer considerable promise with
respect to developing signal encoding strategies that yield significant performance improvements
over existing methods. Anticipated improvements include very large unique ID libraries that
allow for the use of short duration bandwidth efficient signaling, substantive improvement in
receiver sensitivity through coding gain and VHF radio-based sub-meter positioning of
instrument animals without the need for clock synchronization between the transmitter and

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Integrated camera and sensor system for wildlife monitoring: present and future applications.
Zhihai He1, Joshua Millspaugh2, Roland Kays3, Jeff Beringer4, Joel Sartwell4, Wenye Cheng1,
Jay Eggert1, Remington Moll2, and Xiwen Zhao1
          Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri
          Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri
          New York State Museum
          Missouri Department of Conservation, Conservation Research Center

        The use of automated cameras to photograph wildlife has a long history, with the earliest
deployments using string triggers and piles of flash powder. Scientific applications of remote
cameras have expanded as technological advances made the equipment more useful, and they are
now a favored technique for ecologists because they are non-invasive, work effectively on
elusive species, require little labor, and offer a permanent record of events. However, the
transition to digital cameras has been surprisingly slow because of issues of reliability, cost, and
trigger speed. Nonetheless, there is great promise to expand the biological questions addressed
through additional technological advancements in hardware miniaturization, embedded
computing, and sensor networks. We will discuss this potential by comparing what is used to
monitor wildlife now with the technology that is and will be available in the camera industry and
image transmission fields. As an example, we will introduce the design of our current animal-
mounted system for white-tailed deer and explore other applications of the technology. Our
system integrates video, audio, GPS, and accelerometer sensors with low-power video
compression and on-board storage to recreate the world of an animal, seeing what it sees and
hearing what it hears in the field while concurrently collecting animal location data. This system
also has exciting opportunities for passive wildlife monitoring efforts from fixed localities. For
example, unlike digital cameras with slow trigger times, our system could be integrated with a
pre-trigger image buffer which could save video a few seconds before the motion-sensor is
triggered. Thus, our system offers unique opportunities for detecting fast moving species
requiring instantaneous triggers (e.g., flying birds, bats). Finally, we recognize that large scale
remote camera/video studies will collect immense amounts of images that will quickly create
data management bottlenecks requiring automated analyses. We will review the capabilities of
available automated image processing software, and demonstrate their utility using remote
camera images from the field. Cameras were one of the first sensors used to monitor wildlife
and, we believe, one with great future potential. Thus it is critical for engineers and ecologists to
collaborate in future development to ensure systems are reliable, sturdy, and capable of
collecting data needed to address modern environmental challenges.

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Smart listening – real-time processing and reporting for field recorders.
Tom Calupa, Bioacoustics Research Program, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology

        When employing long-term unattended acoustic recorders for wildlife monitoring
applications, they are typically deployed in locations for weeks to months at a time, collecting
raw acoustic data to be analyzed in the lab after retrieval of the recorders. In many cases,
however, it is impractical or even impossible to satisfy the objectives of certain projects with
stale, potentially months-old data. We have developed hardware and software to allow field
recorders to perform significant signal processing (detection and classification, for instance) as
well as to enable transmission of regular status reports and notification of significant events to
project stakeholders on a near-real-time basis. Real-time detection and classification used on
their own can increase deployment lifetimes of various recorders by giving users the ability to
store only what data are significant or interesting in some sense; when coupled with a long-haul
communications link, projects with objectives requiring immediate access to actionable data
become possible using only unattended monitoring. As a real-world example of these
technologies, we discuss a near-real-time detection and reporting system for monitoring Northern
Right Whales.

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The present and future of animal tracking with RFID
Matt Reynolds, Senior Research Scientist, Georgia Tech

        In this talk I will present an overview of the RFID landscape, with a particular emphasis
on new developments in active (battery powered) RFID tags as well as long range passive
(battery free) RFID tags operating in the UHF and 2.4GHz bands. In contrast to the well known
"PIT tags", which provide read ranges up to about one meter using low frequency inductive
coupling, passive RFID tags operating in the UHF spectrum offer the possibility of 3-5m or more
read range along with a variety of additional capabilities such as field reprogrammability and
larger memory sizes. Active RFID tags operating in the UHF and 2.4GHz bands offer read
ranges on the order of 100m as well as the ability to integrate a wide variety of sensor
capabilities into the tag.
        The development of UHF and 2.4GHz RFID has been primarily driven by the
requirements of the logistics and supply chain management markets, but many of the tags and
readers that have been produced for those markets are adaptable for animal tracking. The costs of
tags and development systems have also dropped to the point where experimentation by the
research community is financially feasible. I will discuss some readily available COTS products
as well as provide an introduction to rolling your own semi-custom solutions using readily
available components. I will discuss the physical limits applicable to these technologies and
explain some of their advantages and disadvantages in the animal tracking context.

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On-animal packaging of electronics.
Peter Kuechle, President of Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc.

         The challenge in placing electronic instruments on animals is to strike a balance between
the life, power output, size and function of the device in order to provide the most meaningful
data to the researcher. As research budgets shrink it is also necessary to do so as cost effectively
as possible. A general overview of the main components of electronic instruments will be
provided along with a description of some of the manufacturing processes. The push to
miniaturize creates a number of manufacturing issues that will be discussed. Packaging options
and materials will be reviewed from a manufacturing and cost perspective. There is a fairly
exhaustive list of different attachment methods for use in applying instruments to various species
and a general overview will be covered along with a number of examples. Rigorous on-animal
testing of new products can be difficult to achieve, but several methods to include temperature
cycling and vibration testing can be used to help ensure product endurance. The future will bring
a continued push to reduce device size and allow for more automated data collection.

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Bio-integrable transdermal microsystems.
Anand Gadre, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY, Albany

   Bio-Integrable Transdermal Microsystem is an array-based platform for non-intrusive
transdermal sampling of interstitial fluids for general bimolecular detection using highly
selective enzymatic detection chemistries. The sensor patch is a multilayer multipolymeric-metal
laminate structure to be worn in contact with the skin. The components of this microsystem
include a patch-like sensor chip containing an addressable array of electrochemical sensing
elements specific to the biomolecule of interest, micro-heaters, micro-connectors, and
transmit/receive electronic nodes for remote sensing functionality. This technology developed at
GAEL Health Microsystems in Georgetown University, was primarily used for real-time glucose
and lactate monitoring, using glucose-oxidase (Gox) and lactate-oxidase (Lox) as the enzyme
prototypes immobilized within a polymer matrix layer. Currently, the sensor is being used in
animal models, where the measurement of both interstitial-glucose and -lactate biomolecules are
being correlated with an actual in vivo blood draws.

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Small-scale hybrid energy storage systems for animal tracking applications.
Craig B. Arnold, Princeton University, Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

         Current trends in fabrication and lithography of microelectronics and MEMS have
enabled the development increasingly smaller, more portable, and lower power consuming
micro-electronic devices. Although such devices provide compelling systems for animal
tracking applications, development in advanced energy storage technology has not kept pace
with microelectronics, leaving unanswered questions of how to power these devices over
extended periods without significantly increasing their size. In this talk, we review the state of
the art in small scale energy storage technologies to determine optimal systems for particular
applications. The main focus will be on electrochemical energy storage such as batteries and
ultracapacitors, but other mechanisms of storage will be discussed. One of the main challenges
of providing power for autonomous small scale devices for tracking applications is the uneven
power demands due to periodic data transmission. To this end, we develop ideas of hybrid
energy storage systems, those in which the necessary power demand is met by a combination of
sources including traditional energy storage, power generation, and energy harvesting
components. Details of different types of devices will be discussed along with advantages and
disadvantages for remote sensing applications. Finally, we discuss novel methods of directly
integrating small scale energy storage devices and hybrid systems on existing microdevices using
laser forward transfer techniques that enable further size and weight reduction.

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Deployment of wireless, networked, camera systems and sensors for observation of avian and
reptile behavior.
Michael Taggart1, Eric Graham2, Michael Hamilton1, Shawn Ahmadian2, Mohammad Rahimi2,
John Sharon, 2 Coe Hicks1, Jamie King1
          University of California Riverside and James Reserve
          Center for Embedded Networked Censors, University of California Los Angeles

        The Center for Embedded Networked Sensors (CENS) began installing nest box cameras
and wireless sensors at the James San Jacinto Mountains Reserve in late 2002. Due to
technological and environmental constraints, wireless cameras have only been in use for the past
year. One of our group members (Mohammad Rahimi) was able to develop a mote-based
camera system (Cyclops) using a cell phone camera. Images are collected and transmitted
wirelessly along with related, environmental sensor data. Once stored in the database, the
images are processed to provide data ranging from simple presence or absence to more
complicated observations like number of eggs in a nest or estimated nesting time. Reptile work
has been focused on pitfall trap and notifying researchers as to when an animal is present. This
allows for more efficient use of time, provides for a longer sample period and reduces the risk of
injury or death to animals due to predation or exposure.
        Future plans call for additional, automated processing of images and data to reduce the
manual steps now in place. We’ve begun to think of the images as sensor data rather than
pictures. Being able to recognize events like egg laying and automatically document start and
end times frees researchers from spending extensive time in remote areas and minimizes stress to
the animals under study thereby making experiments less invasive.
        In addition to answering biological questions, we have also overcome many technical
challenges associated with remote field deployments. The Reserve is a test bed for CENS and
typically represents the first field use of recently developed technologies. Located off the grid at
5,400’ in the mountains of the San Bernardino National Forest, it represents a challenging
environment for non-field-hardened equipment. Issues ranging from wireless connectivity do
dealing with power and nature’s attempts to thwart our experiments will be discussed.

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Scaling Up Observing Systems Cyberinfrastructure: RBNB DataTurbine Streaming Data Middleware
Tony Fountain SDSC, UCSD

Real-world, large-scale, sensor-based environmental observing systems stress the capabilities of current
cyberinfrastructure (CI). Scaling up from a pilot study of a few dozen sensors managed by grad students
to thousands of sensors in an operational environment requires new methods and new tools. An approach
based on file-oriented data acquisition and batch-oriented processing is inadequate to satisfy the
requirements of next-generation observing systems. I argue that a streaming data model is the best
perspective for designing cyberinfrastructure for environmental observing systems such as animal
tracking. However, managing a diversity of instruments and their data streams creates serious challenges,
including: reliable data capture and transport, integration across heterogeneous resources and systems,
persistent monitoring of numerous data channels, automated processing, event detection, analysis, and
real-time tasking and remote operations. To address these challenges, we have adopted an architectural
model and a technology instantiation based on data streams as first-class objects. Our technology choice
for this component of the cyberinfrastructure is the open-source RBNB DataTurbine. In this presentation
I introduce the RBNB DataTurbine streaming data middleware as our cyberinfrastructure for real-time
data stream management.
         RBNB DataTurbine was developed by Creare, Inc. and has a track record of performance in
several large-scale projects [NEES, GLEON, NASA-NAMMA, PRAGMA]. Recently, the RBNB
DataTurbine has been released open-source under the Apache 2.0 license in collaboration with our
research group at SDSC. DataTurbine satisfies a core set of critical infrastructure requirements that are
common across a number of observing systems initiatives, including reliable data transport, the promotion
of sensors and sensor streams to first-class objects, a framework for the integration of heterogeneous
instruments, and a comprehensive suite of services for data management, routing, synchronization,
monitoring, and geo-spatial data visualization. From the perspective of distributed systems, the RBNB
DataTurbine is a "black box" from which applications and devices send data and receive data. RBNB
accomplishes this through the innovative use of memory and file-based ring buffers combined with
flexible network objects to support seamless real-time data archiving and distribution over existing local
and wide area networks. RBNB DataTurbine supports a wide variety of network topologies needed
across different observing systems. It has a built-in support for in-network processing and time
synchronization. It also provides coupling between sensor data and modeling tools.
         In summary, environmental science and engineering communities are now actively engaged in
the early planning and development phases of the next generation of large-scale sensor-based observing
systems. In all of these systems, real-time streaming data from heterogeneous sensors places requirements
on CI middleware beyond file-based access and batch-oriented processing. Streaming data provides the
natural perspective for designing observing systems CI. The Open-Source RBNB DataTurbine streaming
data middleware has been demonstrated to fill an important niche in the cyberinfrastructure environment
for science.

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National Geographic’s Crittercam
Greg Marshall, Executive Producer/Director, Crittercam, National Geographic Remote Imaging

        Marshall is executive producer and director of National Geographic Remote Imaging
where he and his team develop and deploy imaging tools for scientific research. One such tool is
Crittercam, which Marshall invented to study wild, free-ranging animals using direct observation
from their perspective. Since 1986, Crittercam has been successfully used in studies of dozens
of marine species and more recently on select terrestrial animals. Collaborations with
researchers worldwide have explored the hidden lives of emperor penguins, sharks, seals,
whales, and turtles… as well as lions, and tigers, and bears. Contemporary Crittercams record
video, audio, depth, temperature, light level, accelerometry, magnetometry and velocity. These
data – particularly video – also serve a secondary outreach function. In conjunction with
research, the Crittercam Program endeavors to communicate the excitement and imperative of
field research to broad audiences through film and other media. The first Crittercam images
were broadcast in a National Geographic Explorer film in 1993. Since then more than 70
National Geographic films have used results from Crittercam research in films celebrating the
adventure of science and conservation.

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Heart rate monitoring from vertebrates and the estimation of field metabolic rate.
Pat Butler, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham

         The advent of implantable data loggers for recording variables such as heart rate,
temperature, pressure (depth or altitude), acceleration, has enabled comparative animal biologists
to obtain unprecedented detail of the behaviour, energetics and physiology of animals in their
natural environment over periods of a year or more. With larger devices, it is possible to transmit
data to satellites or even cell phones, but smaller devices not only have to be deployed, they also
have to be recovered in order to obtain the data. This has restricted their use in the field to those
species that do not wander far from one location or that return to a known area on a regular basis.
So far therefore, implantable data loggers have been used mainly with marine birds and to a
lesser extent, marine mammals, which return to the same area to breed each year. Their use with
terrestrial animals has not been so extensive, but there is no obvious reason why this is so. Also it
is easier to obtain a good quality electrocardiogram from birds than from mammals as birds do
not have a diaphragm so the recording electrodes can be located close to the heart.
         As well as providing physiological information, heart rate can also provide behavioural
information such as when a bird is flying and hence for how long a migratory bird flies non-stop.
More importantly perhaps, it can also provide an estimate of rate of oxygen consumption (VO 2 )  &
and thus of field metabolic rate (FMR). In order to achieve this, heart rate must be calibrated
against VO 2 under conditions which are as close as possible to those of the animals’ natural
environment and with the animals in different physiological states, e.g. moulting of birds.
Although it will only provide an average estimate of VO 2 for several (minimum about 6)
animals, the heart rate method enables estimates of FMR of different behaviours to be
determined throughout the annual cycle of the animals. Examples will be given of field data
obtained from different species of penguins, eider ducks, fur seals and barnacle geese.

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Monitoring blood chemistry in diving emperor penguins.
Torre K. Stockard and Paul J. Ponganis, Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine,
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego

        In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical basis of the exceptional
dive capacity of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), we have applied blood sampler and
PO2 recorder technology to birds diving at a corralled, isolated dive hole on the sea ice of
McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The experimental dive hole approach is ideal for the development
of such techniques in that it allows for observation of dive behavior, recovery and removal of
recorders/catheters/probes, and rapid analysis of samples (from the blood sampler).
        The typical experimental protocol consisted of anesthesia/catheterization, overnight
recovery, one to two days of data collection, and recovery/removal of the recorder under
anesthesia. A successful protocol in a given species will be dependent on an appropriate
anesthetic technique, knowledge of the vascular anatomy, and use of percutaneous or minimally
invasive catheterizations.
        The design of the blood sampler utilized the pressure difference between the ambient
pressure at depth and that inside the underwater housing (surface pressure) to fill the sample
syringe. The opening of solenoid valves and sample collection times were controlled by a
programmable microprocessor/recorder linked to a depth transducer (UFI, Morro Bay, CA).
Analyses performed on arterial and venous samples collected at depth included blood gases
(PO2, PCO2, pH), O2 content, hemoglobin concentration, lactate concentration, and PN2.
Limitations of this approach included sampler size, only one sample per deployment, and
maintenance of catheter function.
        The PO2 recorder consisted of a commercially available, intravascular, Clark-style PO2
electrode (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) and a microprocessor-based controller/recorder
(UFI, Morro Bay, CA). The advantages of this recorder, which was used successfully to record
PO2 profiles in the air sac, aorta, and vena cava of diving birds, included a smaller size, a high
sampling rate, and longer deployment times.
        Future directions in blood chemistry monitoring include application of telemetry
technology to such devices, use of these techniques in other species, and development of new
types of monitors/recorders. The latter include a multiple-sample blood sampler, pH and PCO2
recorders (fluorescence-quenching optodes), and lactate/glucose recorders (lactate oxidase- or
glucose oxidase-linked PO2 electrodes).

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Monitoring blood chemistry in terrestrial organisms.
Tobias Wang Department of Zoophysiology Aarhus University, Denmark


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A lightweight telemetry system for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving small animals.
M Gahr1,2,A. ter Maat1,2, DS Schregardus1, AW Pieneman1, RF Jansen1, TJF Brouwer1, H Sagunsky2
Department of Developmental and Behavioral Neurobiology, Institute for Neuroscience, Vrije
Universiteit Amsterdam
    Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Germany.

        A miniature lightweight radio telemetric device is described, which is suitable for
recording neuronal activity in freely behaving animals. Its size (12x5x8 mm) and weight (1.0-1.1
g with batteries, 0.4-0.5 g without) make the device particularly suitable for recording neuronal
units in small animals such as mice or small birds. The device combines a high impedance
preamplifier, RC-filters, and an FM-transmitter and is powered by two 1.4V 90mAh Zinc-Air
batteries. The transmitting range of the device is about 3 meters. Using the device we recorded
action potentials in a senorimotor brain area (RA: robust nucleus of the arcopallium) of freely
behaving zebra finches (a 12-17 g songbird) through chronically implanted tungsten electrodes.
RA is involved in the production of calls and songs of songbirds. In freely behaving birds we
observed RA-units that responded to auditory stimuli and RA-units with activity related to birds’
ongoing vocalizations for periods up to four weeks. We investigated the effect of the device on
singing and locomotor activity of zebra finches. Singing and locomotion were significantly
affected on the first day after surgery. Both anesthesia and the presence of the transmitter
contributed to the observed effect. After one day of recovery, singing activity returned to 99.6 %
and perch hopping activity to 55.3 % of the baseline levels. The latter was back to normal at the
2nd day after surgery. Further, birds carrying the transmitter were copulating and breeding. It is
concluded that the device is well suited for recording spike trains from small animals while they
behave freely and naturalistically.

DS. Schregardus, AW Pieneman, A ter Maat, RF Jansen, TJF Brouwer, M Gahr. A lightweight
telemetry system for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving small animals. (2006). J.
Neurosci. Method. 155: 62-71.

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Electromyograms unleashed!
Tyson Hedrick1, Jaideep Mavoori2, Andrew Biewener3
         University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2NeuroVista Corp., 3Harvard University

         Monitoring of muscle and neural activity in freely moving animals in their natural
environment offers a powerful tool for researchers seeking to understand not only overall animal
behavior but also specifics of animal locomotion, food processing and muscle use. However,
collection of these data has lagged many other types of animal tracking and sensing. This is due
in part to the need for delicate subcutaneous, often surgically implanted, electrodes, and also due
to some of the particular difficulties in acquiring and processing neuromuscular signals. Here we
describe these challenges as well as two variants of an animal-portable device (“neurochip”)
suitable for autonomous stimulus-response experiments and for recording and stimulating muscle
and neural activity in flying insects and untethered primates.
         The acquisition of nerve or muscle potentials from freely behaving animals exhibits many
of the problems typical to all remote sensing and tracking systems. However, these are
exacerbated by the high data rates required for many types of electrophysiological recording.
For example, vertebrate electromyograms (EMGs) are composed of potentials from many
different motor units in many different muscle fascicles and typically have peak signal power at
frequencies from 20 to 2000 Hz, depending on the species in question. Recording from even a
single vertebrate muscle with 8-bits of resolution at 1000 Hz generates a continuous data stream
of one kilobyte per second. Researchers may also require recordings from several muscles to
adequately reconstruct the animal’s behavior. Continuous radio frequency (RF) transmission of
these data streams to a computer for storage and analysis limits acquisition duration and requires
close proximity between the researcher and animal. Modern flash memories are large enough for
local storage of these data streams, although continuous writing to local memory places its own
demands on battery power.
         Other types of nerve or muscle potentials, such as those from insect flight muscles or
vertebrate neural implants are typically composed of signals from a single unit. These appear as
a sequence of “spikes” and may be characterized by the timing and amplitude of each spike.
Recognizing individual spikes requires a high sampling rate, often greater than 10 ksps, and on-
board processing of the signal, but leads to a lower overall data rate than continuous recording of
a muscle EMG.
         The neurochip implementations and the experimental results [Jackson et al., 2006;
Mavoori et al., 2005; Mavoori et al., 2004] we present here prove that free behavior experiments
beyond the lab bench are feasible. Both versions package recording and stimulation hardware,
contain microprocessor units to locally analyze and store digitized signals, and are field-

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Tagging of Pacific Pelagics (TOPP): from the bottom up.
Michael J. Weise and Daniel P. Costa, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
University of California Santa Cruz

        Tagging of Pacific Pelagics (TOPP) is a field project for the Census of Marine Life
(CoML) that uses biologging techniques to examine what determines the foraging, reproductive
migrations, distributions and localized abundance, as well as population structures of top
predators in the North Pacific. TOPP has had two phases (I:1999-2002; and II: 2003-2006), with
an organizational/development and implementation focus, respectively. TOPP has pioneered the
deployments of 8 unique types of electronic tags, including the development of 2 new tag types
(GPS and CTD tags) and many novel algorithms for sampling the environment (chlorophyll) or
for combining electronic tagging and satellite remote sensing data sets. A total of 23 predator
species have been tagged by 6 independent tagging teams (tunas, sharks, pinnipeds, cetaceans,
seabirds and sea turtles) totaling ~2400 deployments. Miniaturization of tags with a variety of
sophisticated sensors coupled with environmental data has generated a tremendous data stream,
which has required architecting a novel data management system. The TOPP data management
team is building the "oceanographic tool kit" to integrate vast data stores into a powerful suite of
processing and visualization schemes that allow researchers to find patterns, trends and
phenomena that cannot be observed through single discipline of animal research data sets. The
heart of the "tool kit" is the Live Action Server (LAS) that provides researchers with access to
the near real time data from animal tags as oceanographic satellites, as well as archival data from
the other TOPP tags. TOPP is currently moving into Phase III (2007-2009) that will focus on
elucidating trophic linkages and oceanographic processes within five foraging hot spots
identified in prior years. TOPP’s data management, ocean observation capacity, and data
delivery will become fully “operational” in the years 2007-2009. By 2010, a primary objective of
TOPP is to have the knowledge base and computing infrastructure to generate operational
forecasts of hotspots and regions of high human-animal interaction for pelagic predators and
their assemblages.

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Titles of Posters
1. Development and evaluation of acoustic recording systems for monitoring birds.
       Antonio Celis Murillo and Jill Deppe
2. Using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS) to track the extra-territorial movements
of songbirds
       Mike Ward, D. Enstrom, W. Cochran, L. Auvil, and A. Raim
3. The structure and function of bird song: and AM telemetry approach.
       Dave Enstrom, M. P. Ward, W. Cochran, A. Raim, and L. Auvil
4. Application of camera traps for wildlife studies in Bandipur Tiger Reserve: Status Report
       A Pittet, Surendra Varma, H.S. Jamadagni, M. Gopakumar
5. Heart rates of European bee-eaters migrating over Southern Israel
       Nir Sapir, Ran Nathan, Martin Wikelski
6. A 19g GPS-tag with wireless data download
       Wolfgang Heidrich and Franz Kummeth
7. DTUsat: Tracking small migrating birds with a Cubesat.
       Kasper Thorup and René Fléron
8. DTUsat: Tracking small birds from space.
       René Fléron and Kasper Thorup
9. A Magnetic compass in bats: the first known unknown.
       Richard Holland, Kasper Thorup, Maarten Vonhof, William Cochran and Martin
10. Highlighting the need for a satellite tracking system for understanding animal movements
within Australia
       Debbie Saunders (did not attend,
11. Use of automated telemetry, video, body temperature, and light intensity data to determine
gopher tortoise activity and disturbance response patters.
       Tom Radzio, Joseph Hacker, David Delaney, Tony Borries, Jaclyn Smolinsky, Nick
       Vandenbroek, Matt Hinterliter, Andrew Walde.
12. Tracking the dispersal and fate of seeds.
       Patrick Jansen, Roland Kays, and Martin Wikelski
13. Wireless rainforest camera network.

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       Daniel Obando and Alejandro Ortega
14. Accuracy of ARGOS collars for saiga monitoring in southern Russia
       Volker Radeloff
15. Large Area Remote Video Monitoring Using Multiple Wireless Motion Sensors
       William H. Powers, Jr. and Henry Lentz
16. Using tracking radar and GPS / satellite tags to record bird movements
       Johan Bäckman and Thomas Alerstam
17. Real-time, automatic RF animal tracking using spread spectrum TDOA
       MacCurdy, Gabrielson, Spauling, Purgue, Cortopassi, Fristrup
18. Localization and telemetry with small programmable wildlife tags: a progress report
       Alejandro P. Purgue, David W. Winkler, Kurt M. Fristrup
19. Home-field advantage: Using automated radio telemetry to determine the relative importance
of location and group-size in white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) inter-group competition.
       Meg Crofoot
19. Avian Alert – A European Space Agency Integrated Application Programme Initiative
       Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Willem Bouten, Amnon Ginati, Jan Dettmann and Giovanni
20. Integrating data and models to study the relationship between bird mobility and their
       J. Shamoun-Baranes, E. Baaij, W. Bouten, S. Davis, E. van Loon, J. van Belle, and H.
       van Gasteren
21. A software-based multi-channel geolocation system.
       L.L. Kanda, R.L. Kellogg, and M. Sullivan.

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List of presenters
Craig B. Arnold: Princeton University, Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Discussing battery technology

Pat Butler: School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham
Discussing heart rate monitoring

Tom Calupca: Bioacoustics Research Program, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology,
Discussing acoustic monitoring

Tony Fountain: San Diego Supercomputer Center,,
Discussing cyberinfrastructure

James Fox: British Antarctic Survey
Talking on sunlight geolocation and on-board data storage

Anand Gadre: College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Albany,
Discussing nanofabrication

Manfred Gahr: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology,,
Discussing electrophysiological monitoring

Jeff Goodyear: Habit Research,,
Discussing GPS Tracking

Henry Zhihai He: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri
Discussing monitoring animals with remote cameras

Tyson Hedrick: Department of Biology, University of North Carolina
Discussing monitoring muscle activity

Blake Henke: North Star Science and Technology,
Discussing ARGOS animal tracking

Jeremy Kasdin: Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, jkasdin@Princeton.EDU
Discussing tracking radio-tagged animals from satellites

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Roland Kays: New York State Museum,,
Workshop organizer and discussing radio-telemetry

Peter Kuechle: President, Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc.,
Discussing on-animal packaging of electronics

Greg Marshal: Executive Producer/Director, Crittercam, National Geographic Remote Imaging, gmarshal@NGS.ORG
Giving evening talk on the Crittercam project

George Niezgoda: Lotek Wireless,,
Discussing tracking animals with cell phone infrastructure

Matt Reynolds: School of Interactive Computer, Georgia Institute of Technology,
Discussing RFID tracking

Doug Robinson: Dept. Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University
Discussing tracking animals with cell phone infrastructure

Torre K. Stockard: Ponganis Diving Physiology Research Lab, Scripps Institution of Oceanography,
University of California, San Diego
Discussing monitoring blood chemistry in marine organisms

George Swenson: University of Illinois, Radio Wave Propagation Lab,
Introduction and Overview

Mike Taggart: Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS)
Discussing communication networks and camera sensors

Tobias Wang: Aarhus University, Denmark,
Discussing monitoring blood chemistry in terrestrial organisms

Mike Weise: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Marine Sciences,
University of California, Santa Cruz
Talking about integrating components of animal monitoring systems

Martin Wikelski: Dept. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University,
Workshop organizer and discussing radio-telemetry

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Contact list of other participants

Name                    Email                           Affiliation
Johan Backman      Migration Ecology Group Lund University
Luis Borda de Agua         University of Georgia
Tony Borries  
Melissa Bowlin
Alison Cameron
                                                        SGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Antonio Celis-Murillo              and Celis Wildlife Monitoring
                                                        Department of Anthropology Harvard
Meg Crofoot            University
                                                        Computational bio-and phisical
                                                        geography Institute for Biodiversity and
                                                        Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van
Scott Davis             Amsterdam
                                                        NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Oak
Jill Deppe         Ridge Associated Universities
                        stwphen.ellwood@zoology.oxfor   Wildlife Conservation Research Unit
Stephen Ellwood                         Department of Zoology
                                                        Assistant Professor of Wildlife Division of
                                                        Forestry, Natural Resources, and
Jorie M. Favreau         Recreation Paul Smith's College
                                                        Product Assurance Manager Danish
                                                        National Space Center Technical
Rene Fleron                 University of Denmark
                                                        Asst Prof. Environmental Science &
                                                        Policy University of South Florida 4202
Melissa Grigione            East Fowler Ave. NES 107
                                                        Program Manager Army Endangered
                        timothy.J.hayden@erdc.usace.a   Special Research Program Engineer
Timothy J. Hayden                         Research ans Development Center
Wolfgang Heidrich
Blake Henke   
Ben Hirsch    
Richard Holland
                                                        Professor CEDT, Indian Institute of
H. S. Jamadagni        Science
                                                        University of Groningen Community and
Patrick A. Jansen               Conservation Ecology group
L. Leann Kanda                Ithaca College & Flying Fox Tech.
Robert Kellogg                Flying Fox Technologies
Franz Kümmeth 
                                                        Director of Scientific Programs, Humane
Jennifer L. Lanier                 Society International
                                                        Marine Mammal Foraging Program
Charles Littnan        Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center
Henry Lentz                                             PixController
                                                        Section of Evolution and Ecology
Karen Mabry                University of California - Davis
A. Catherine                                            Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Markham                 Princeton University
Numi Mitchell           numi@theconservationagency.o    The Conservation Agency, Branch

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David Errol
Pattemore           PhD Student Princeton University
Virgina R. Pearson               701 West Gravers Lane
                                                    Chief Project Advisor CEDT, Indian
Andre Pittet     Institute of Science
Tom Radzio           USACE
William H. Powers
                 Pix Controller
Volker Radeloff              University of Wisconsin
David Routenberg
                                                    Dept.of Evolution Systematics & Ecology
Nir Sapir          The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
                                                    Dept. of Biology University of South
Ron Sarno               Florida
                                                    PhD Student Centre for Resource and
                                                    Environmental Studies (CRES) Fenner
Debbie Saunders     School of Environment and Society
                                                    Computational bio-and phisical
                                                    geography Institute for Biodiversity and
Judy Shamoun-                                       Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van
Baranes             Amsterdam
                                                    Charles & Marie Robertson Professor of
                                                    Public and International Affairs Princeton
Burton H. Singer           University
James A. Smith         NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
                                                    Head of Copenhagen Bird Ringing Centre
                                                    Zoological Museum University of
Kasper Thorup              Copenhagen
                                                    Staff Scientist University of California San
Sameer Tilak                Diego San Diego Supercomputer Center
                                                    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary
David Winkler               Biology, Cornell University
                                                    Department of Psychology University of
Nachum Ulanovsky        Maryland

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Photos from the Meeting

Photos by Patrick Jansen

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