Psychology – Unit 5: Abnormal and Group Behavior Treating Disorders Paper cuts are pretty minor, but they sting like crazy. They often are so small that you can get away without a band-aid. If a paper cut draws a little blood, maybe a small band-aid will help. If the burning is too much, some antibiotic ointment with a numbing agent will help your skin heal faster and dull out the pain. Big gashes across the arm caused by an accident, such as falling on a rocky mountain trail, hurt really badly too. Wrapping the wound in some gauze and treating it with an ointment such as Neosporin® is a great way to heal fast. If the gash is deep enough, stitches may be required for proper healing. Another type of injury, such as breaking your leg by falling off the trampoline, is extremely painful and pretty serious. The bones need to be set into a cast for proper healing. There may be no blood, but your body would be bruised and extremely sore from such a severe injury. Notice that different types of wounds to the body require different types of care and attention. Something minor like a paper cut needs a little bit of attention. Gashes across the arm might need several weeks of attention and possibly stitches. Broken legs need immediate attention and vigilant care while the body heals itself. And so the same goes for mental disorders. Some are mild and some are severe. Some need a little bit of treatment, and some need a lot of supervision. Just as we have doctors, we have mental health specialists who can offer assistanc e to get a person back on the road to healthy mental recovery. This lesson will talk about many aspects of treating disorders. Objectives Identify the different types of therapies. Understand two different formats for having therapy. Discuss ways people can express sensitivity to mental illness. Vocabulary releasing emotions that have been held within catharsis a person who helps people through their problems counselor disturbance of normal behavioral and emotional functioning mental disorder specific care given to help a person get well treatment techniques for working through tough situations strategies Spelling Bee Vocabulocity Flash Cards People who have mental illness, either severe or mild, have hope and help waiting for them. While at times, they may feel isolated or misunderstood about their problems or at other times they may feel as though they are all alone, they are not. Surprisingly, there are enough other people with similar conditions that there is support and help. Remember that depression and anxiety are the two most common disorders that Americans experience. These are treatable. Today, we have access to so much more information and the skills that are needed to effectively treat problems and help a person to live a normal life. If you have a friend or family member who is struggling with a disorder, you can offer encouragement and support for her to talk to someone about her challenges. You and they will discover that mental heath professionals are extremely compassionate and understanding. There is nothing to be embarrassed about. This lesson will talk about the different types of treatment a person can seek to get help for a mental disorder. Changes in Therapy over a Century Therapy was once for the rich. Don't be mistaken: anyone was welcome to have therapy. But at the turn of the twentieth century, those who wanted counseling had to pay for it out of their own pockets. Insurance was not available to pay for sessions. This kept a lot of people from seeking help who truly needed it. Those who did have money to undergo therapy most likely received psychotherapy, Freud's method. That was the common and most accepted method of treatment for working through mental disorders. Specific standards about mental illness weren't in place, and a person had to trust that his therapist knew what to do and hope that an accurate diagnosis was given. Sometimes, that didn't happen. Did You Know? Therapy isn't cheap! Hour- long sessions with experienced professions can cost as much as $75 to $100 per hour. Sometimes even more! It's a different century now, with different options. Not only do you have more options other than psychotherapy, it is often possible for a person to obtain financial assistance from the insurance company, which pays for a portion of the therapy costs. This works for and against a person at times, such as those who need drug rehabilitation or other rehab services. Insurances don't always pay for inpatient rehab, or if they do, it's not for a long enough period of time to truly be effective. Pop stars, for example, who are receiviing inpatient rehabilitation are definitely paying through the nose for it. Luckily for them, most have wads of cash to pay for their rehab therapy. But this is unfortunately not the case for people who don't have thousands of dollars at their disposal and thus are unable to receive qua lity treatment from the best facilities. Many communities offer free or limited-priced therapy, guidance, and counseling. Students can turn to their school counselors for free. People can seek help from religious leaders who can offer advice and help at no cost. Not all these people are qualified to treat mental disorders, but they can get you started on a path to getting better and help you find a way to get the necessary treatment you do need. Reminder! Only psychiatrists are able to prescribe medication to treat mental disorders. Psychologists and therapists can't; they have to refer patients to a psychiatrist if they felt the patients need treatment for more serious conditions. A psychologist is not even allowed to tell a person what type of medicines he/she ought to take. Types of Therapy Let's look at the five possible types of therapy a person could receive. There are many more methods than just these main five. Just like finding a good pair of shoes or a jacket that fits just right, finding a therapist that fits and works for you is also key. A person seeking therapy may find that one method just isn't helping. At the same time, that very method may work wonders for another person. Likewise, when selecting a therapist, you may not know what type of method the therapist practices. You are welcome to ask, but some times this information is not given. Most people don't know to ask their counselor what type of method he or she practices. But you're more than welcome to! Type of What Occurs in Significant Date of Main Focus Therapy Therapy Psychologist Therapy's Associated with Origin this Method Clients: Talk about your feelings; attempts to help a person Try to understand recognize inner conflicts your unconscious; Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud 1870s that he/she might not be free association; aware of. Transfer negative feelings out of yourself. Strive for catharsis. Clients explore the reasons behind attempts to change the way fears and Cognitive a person thinks about problems. Aaron T. Beck 1960s Therapy troubles and challenges Clients become aware of how to change. Counselor uses Specific goals are defined, conditioning. Behavior and person works to meet Client learns how B.F. Skinner 1950s Therapy those goals by modifying to do new behavior. behaviors. Client sets goals for new desired behavior. attempts to help a person Client explores Cognitive overcome challenges by how to reach these Behavior setting goals and helping a Albert Ellis 1950s goals. Therapy person to mentally focus on Client becomes what is being changed aware of the impact of his actions. Counselor listens without any A therapist listens to a judgment. person's troubles with Client explore complete acceptance and Humanistic guilty and anxious helps individuals to Carl Rogers 1940s Therapy feelings. reconcile feelings about Client gains their real selves and their confidence about ideal selves. self by talking about problems. Different Formats for Types of Treatment People who go for therapy shouldn't worry that they'll be in therapy for the rest of their lives. Rest assured that the goal of therapy is to help you gain strategies that will help you function better in your personal life and help you sort through the problems you'd like to solve. Some people need just a few therapy visits. Some people might need a few weeks or even a few months with a therapist. Some people might need to periodically check in with a counselor to maintain healthy progress. Regardless, you won't be going in every single day for months on end. More than a hundred years ago, some psychoanalysts required their patients to do this. But that's not how it is today. Obviously people who are struggling with severe mental illness many need longer periods of time in therapy, but they too have the chance to live happy, healthy lives after receiving the right kind of treatment. Group therapy. Not all therapy is one-on-one with a counselor. Some therapy requires having you and others with similar struggles meet together in a group. As group members, you offer support to one another in that you understand what others are experiencing. You also may discover that some recovery strategies that others have used might help you too. Additionally, group therapy allows a counselor to discuss specific topics with several people present and then people can share their opinions or ask for suggestions from others. Group therapy is often collaborative, but it is always guided by a professional. Couples therapy. Husbands and wives who are having trouble in their marriage can attend couples therapy. In couples therapy, two people meet with a counselor, and the counselor helps them become more aware of how to work through differences. Then the therapist will teach the couple strategies for overcoming those differences. For example, a husband, Pete, might be told that his long nights at work make his wife, Amelia, feel alone and isolated. Perhaps he can change his work schedule or make more of an effort to spend some time with Amelia. And Amelia, in turn, might be told that her silent treatment toward Pete when he comes home late eliminates the opportunity for him to attempt to talk with her. For her part, Amelia can work on setting her upset feelings aside and pleasantly welcoming her husband home. Being Sensitive to Mental Illness Many people, even the ones you think are the healthiest, have been or are currently in therapy. More than 9.5 percent of the American population suffers from depression. That's almost 19 million people. Nearly 40 million Americans suffer from anxiety. These two illnesses alone cover a broad spectrum of people. Six percent of Americans have social anxiety disorder. One percent have obsessive compulsive disorder. Eight percent have specific phobias. What does this mean for you? Two things: First, be sensitive to the fact that people may have a mental illness that you don't know of. Be careful about the words you use to joke with your friends. Words like "retard" and "schizo" are inappropriate names to call someone, just as it's insensitive to joke around that someone must be bipolar because of their perhaps temporary behavior. Second, be aware that you or someone very close to you could be suffering from anxiety or depression (the two most common disorders in America) or some other mental struggle. It's possible that later down the road you yourself might develop a mental illness, or you may have to give support to someone who is sick. It's not a sign of weakness to get help. Sadly, 54 percent of people polled think that depression is a personal weakness. Remember that asking for help is never bad. People who make the effort to get help are strong. Everyone deserves the chance to live a healthy, well-adjusted life. Let's Review! Before going on to the practice problems, make sure that you understand the main points of this lesson. People who have mental illness, either severe or mild, have hope and help waiting for them. Although at times they may feel isolated or misunderstood, or it may seem as though they are all alone, they are not. Mental heath professionals are extremely compassionate and understanding. There is nothing to be embarrassed about. Therapy was once for the rich. Because all costs were paid by the individual seeking therapy, only the wealthy could afford these services. Today, many communities o ffer free or limited-priced therapy, guidance, and counseling. Students can turn to their school counselors for free. However, private individual counseling still does have a cost affixed to it. There are five main types of therapy methods: psychoanalytica l, behavioral, cognitive, cognitive behavioral, and humanistic. Counseling can be for individuals or couples or can be done in groups. Many Americans suffer from anxiety and depression. Many others suffer from other disorders. Being sensitive to these illnesses is helpful since you never know who might have a mental illness.