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					The French Revolution
    Kelsey Fitzgibbons
       Krislyn Chan
     Kristysha Chan
 • Ancien Régime undermined by precepts advocated by apostles
   of the Enlightenment
   - Diderot attacked social tradition
   - Voltaire attacked church + absolutism
   - Rousseau advocated popular sovereignty
   - Physiocrats try to promote econ reform

 • American Revolution
   - success defined the ability of the people to overthrow an
     oppressive government.
   - American independence fired the imagination of aristocrats who
were unsure of their status, but it gave the promise of ever greater
equality to the common man. The Enlightenment preached the
steady and inevitable progress of man's moral and intellectual
nature. The American example served as a great lesson - tyranny
could be challenged. Man did have inalienable rights. New
governments could be constructed.
• Countries intellectual and economic development not matched by
  their political and social change.
• The "fixed" order of the ancien régime limited bourgeois ability to
  exercise political and social influence
• France governed by privileged groups - nobility and clergy.
• Lower classes taxed heavily to pay for foreign wars, court
  extravagance, and the national debt
• Backward agricultural methods + internal tariff barriers + rural
  overpopulation = food shortages
• French participation in American Revolution incurred huge national
  debt > Director General of Finances Charles Alexandre de Calonne
  called the Assembly of Notables (1787) to attempt to avert the
  financial crisis > asked the privileged classes to share in the
  financial burden, but the nobles refused in order to protect their own
  assets and preserve their privileges
Political Background
 • French society was divided into 3
   - First Estate: clergy
   - Second Estate: nobility
   - Third Estate: peasantry
 • Clergy existed as a "state within a
   state"; it operated with utmost
   authority, and owned 10-15% of
   the land in France (tax-free).
 • Nobility were exempt from taxes +
   held highest positions in church,
   army, and government
 • Third Estate consisted of ~25
   million. Burdened with heavy
The Revolution: Overview

• The Revolution was under way by 1787; it was spurred by a
  depressed economy and falling tax receipts.
• The Assembly of Notables demanded that control over all
  government spending be given to the provincial assemblies.
• In the face of imminent bankruptcy, Louis XVI dismissed the
  notables' concerns and established new taxes by decree but
  the Parlement of Paris declared the royal initiatives null and
• By 1788 Louis XVI conceded and agreed to call the Estates
  General where the question of the assembly's voting
  structure immediately surfaced.
  In 1787, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, the minister of
finances, convened an Assembly of Notables to deal with
                  the financial situation.
In December Louis XVI promised to call the Estates
 General in 5 years. By that time Calonne had been
    succeeded by Brienne as finance minister.
Brienne then was succeeded by Jacques Necker who was
 sympathetic to the Third Estate. In August of 1788 Louis
 XVI finally agree to call the Estates General on 5 May of
The Revolution: Necker underlined the
nobles' opposition to the inevitable
• Necker, hoping to avoid conflict, convened a second
  assembly of notables on 6 November 1788.
• Louis XVI agreed to double the number of representatives to
  the Third Estate, which meant little since voting would still be
  cast by each estate as a unit and not as individuals.
• By calling the assembly, Necker had merely underlined the
  nobles' opposition to the inevitable policy.
Assemblée des notables le 22 fevrier 1787 Mes chers administrés, je vous ai rassemblés pour savoir à quelle
 sauce vous voulez être mangés. Réponse : Mais nous ne voulons pas être mangés Mais vous sortez de la
The Revolution: Preparations

• The Estates General of 1614 had sat as 3 separate houses.
  Any action had required the agreement of at least 2
  branches, which had virtually guaranteed control by the
  nobility and the clergy.
• When the Parlement of Paris ruled that that Estates General
  should again sit separately, the intellectuals of
  the bourgeoisie demanded a single assembly dominated by
  the Third Estate to ensure fundamental reforms.
The Revolution: Political Competition and Growing
Hostility toward Aristocratic Aspirations

                                       What Is the Third Estate?
                                       • What is the Third Estate?
                                          o Everything
                                       • What has it been in the
                                         political order up to the
                                          o Nothing
                                       • What does it ask?
                                          o To become something.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès liberal 1789
pamphlet What Is the Third Estate?
became the manifesto of the
Revolution that helped transform the
Estate General into the National
Assembly in June of 1789.
The Revolution: Cahiers de Doléances
• The Cahiers of the First Estate reflected the interests of the
  parish clergy. They called for an end to bishops holding
  more than one diocese, and demanded those who were not
  noble be able to become bishops.
• The Cahiers of the Second Estate were quite surprising.
  89% of them voted to give up their financial privileges and
  accepted that academic merit rather than birth right should
  be the requirements to hold certain offices.
• The Cahiers of the Third Estate spoke out mainly against
  the financial privileges held by the two other Estates. They
  were both exempt from most taxes such as the
  church tithe and the taille (the main direct tax). They also
  wanted to have a fair voting system in the Estates-General.
The Revolution: Cahiers de Doléances

     Doléances de la paroisse de Saint Lumine Dejoutais.
     Diocèse de Mantes en Bretagne. Deux cahiers en datte
     Des 25 janvier et 2 avril 1789
The Revolution: Similarities in the Grievance Petitions
The Revolution: National Assembly
• May 5 1789 - 1st day of the meeting of the Estates General
• Louis XVI angered the Third Estate by keeping them waiting
  for hours as he formally received the credentials of
  members of the first two estate.
• Delegates of the Third Estate refused to submit their
  credentials until the king ordered the clergy and nobility to sit
  with them in a single body.
• On June 17, the Third Estate declared that it would not meet
  as a medieval estate based on social status but instead
  would only assemble before the king as a National
  Assembly representing the political will of the entire French
The Revolution: The Oath of the Tennis
• The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 out of the 577 members from
  the Third Estate during a meeting of the Estates-General on 20
  June 1789 in a tennis court.
• The parish priests who belonged to the First Estate began to find
  themselves having more in common with the Third Estate and they
  voted to join them and meet as a national assembly.
• Rumours began to swirl that the king was preparing to take action
  against leading members of the Third Estate, and they also found
  that their meeting hall was closed off.
• Members of the Third Estate gathered at the tennis court on the
  grounds of Versailles.
• In the Tennis Court Oath, they promised to continue to meet "until
  the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated
  upon solid foundations."
The Revolution
• While the educated delegates of the Third Estate were
  engaged in symbolic equality with the clergy and nobility at
  Versailles, the common people of France griped with
  economic hardship and food shortages.
• A bad harvest in 1788 caused the price of bread to soar
  which led to an economic depression.
• Since the people believed that economic distress had
  human causes, they feared that the dismissal of the king's
  finance minister would put them at the mercy of aristocratic
  landowners and grain speculators.
• An air of panic set in as the populace believed the rumours
  that the king was disinterested in the National Assembly and
  was instead organising troops to disperse the National
  Assembly and reestablish royal absolutism.
The Revolution: Storming the Bastille

• Stricken with panic, the people searched for weaponry to
  defend themselves against the troops and gathered around
  the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
• Gunfire broke out when the governor of the prison refused to
  hand over the gun powder and ordered his men to fire thus
  killing 98 people.
• However, the 80,000 people were determined to confiscate
  the arms they believed were inside and they successfully
  forced the prison to surrender.
• The crowd cut off the head of the governor of the prison and
  marched around the city with his head on a pike.
The Revolution: Marquis de Lafayette

                    • Louis XVI agreed to the
                      formation of a National
                      guard under the leadership
                      of the Marquis de
                      Lafayette, who was
                      already known as a
                      champion of liberty
                      because of his
                      involvement in the
                      American Revolution.
The Revolution: Commune of Paris
 • The Paris Commune was the government of Paris from
   1789 until 1795.
 • Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of
   the Bastille, the Commune became insurrectionary in the
   summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from
   the central French government.
The Great Fear

• A general panic set in known as the Great Fear, which
  consisted of rumours that nobility were using the
  increasingly anarchical situation both at Versailles and in
  Paris to organize groups of thugs to steal from the
• Peasants began to attack some of the great noble estates,
  carefully burning documents that verified some of their old
  manorial obligations.
• The Great Fear led to an emotional scene where all
  aristocrats renounced the rights that made them a separate
  caste in French society. As of August 4, all the people of
  France were subject to the same laws and obligations to
A Constitutional Monarchy

 •  August 27 1789, the National Assembly
issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man,
which stated, "Men are born and remain free
and equal in rights."
 • The language of liberty tugged at women's
sense of independence and by 1791, Olympe de Gouges wrote
The Rights of Women, in which she argued that women should
enjoy such fundamental rights as the right to be educated, to
control their own property and to initiate divorce.
 • A shortage of bread in Paris inspired the angry women to
   march to Versailles to air their grievances to the royal family.
The Constitutional Monarchy
• The next day the royal family were marched out of Versailles and
  into Paris where the populace could keep an eye on them.
• The National Assembly abolished th French nobility as a legal order
  and created a constitutional monarchy which Louis XVI reluctantly
  accepted in July 1790.
• The king remained the head of state but all lawmaking power was
  placed in the hands of the National Assembly, elected by the
  economic upper half of French males.
• The Civil Constitution of the Church made the church a department
  of the state. Bishops were chosen by assemblies of parish priests,
  who themselves were to be elected by their parishioners.
• Clergy were now civil servants with salaries to be paid by the state.
• Clergy had to swear an oath of loyalty to the French state and to
  uphold the Civil Constitution of the Church.
The Constitutional Monarchy:
Reformations by the National Assembly
                    •   France was divided into 83
                        departments, each with the same
                        laws, customs, weights and
                    •   In 1793, the metric system replaced a
                        hodge-podge of measurement units
                        and is the basis of the modern
                        Système International d'Unités,
                        abbreviated as SI.
                    •   Monopolies, guilds and workers
                        combinations were prohibited,
                        and internal tariffs were also
                        abolished in France, getting rid of
                        pockets of inequality.
                    •   Thus the National Assembly applied
                        the critical spirit of the Enlightenment
                        to reform France's laws and
                        institutions completely.
  The assignats were issued after the confiscation of church properties in 1790
because the government was bankrupt. The government thought that the financial
problems could be solved by printing certificates representing the value of church
  properties. These church lands became known as biens nationaux. Assignats
 were used to successfully retire a significant portion of the national debt as they
  were accepted as legitimate payment by domestic and international creditors.
On 21 June 1791, Louis attempted to flee secretly with his family from Paris to the royalist
fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France in the hope of forcing a
      more moderate swing in the Revolution than was deemed possible in radical
  Paris. However, flaws in the escape plan caused sufficient delays to enable the royal
refugees to be recognized and captured along the way at Varennes. The king was exiled
                               and escorted back to Paris
The Second Revolution

• The fall of the monarchy
  marked a rapid
  radicalisation of the
• After the September
  Massacres which followed
  Louis XVI's imprisonment,
  the new, popularly elected
  National Convention
  proclaimed France a
  republic on September 21,
  The Convention sentenced Louis XVI to death. He was guillotined
 aged 38, on 21 January 1793, at the Place de la Révolution, in Paris.
 As soon as the blood flowed, furious wretches dipped their pikes and
handkerchiefs in it, then dispersed throughout Paris, shouting; "Vive la
                       Republique! Vive la Nation!".
The Second Revolution

• Girondins                      • Montagnards/Jacobins
  o Named for the Gironde          o Robespierre + Georges
     department north of             Jacques Danton
     Paris where many in the       o Members of La
     faction came from               Montagne sat on the
  o Favoured starting a              uppermost lef-hand
     revolutionary war to free       benches of the
     from tyranny those              assembly hall
     people living in              o Eventually evolved
     absolutist states (i.e.         from a minority to the
     Austria, Prussia)               Jacobins under
                                     Robespierre's direction.
The Second Revolution
• Both the Girondins and La Montagne were determined to
  continue the "war against tyranny."
• However, they were locked in a life-and-death political
  struggle since the Girondins feared a bloody dictatorship by
  La Montagne and La Montagne believed that the Girondins
  would turn to conservatives and royalists to retain power.
• Adding to the political tension, the labouring poor known as
  the sans-culottes became keenly interested in politics by the
  spring of 1793.
• The Girondins were fearful of the political influence of the
  sans-culottes and favoured the continuation of voting rights
  based on property ownership, while the Montagnards found
  increasing support among the sans-cullotes for opposing
  any such restrictions on the franchise.
  La Montagne joined the sans-culottes activists in the city
 government to engineer a popular uprising, which forced the
Convention to arrest 31 Girondin deputies for treason on June
            2. All power passed to La Montagne.
The Reign of Terror

• After the fall of the monarchy Robespierre became a central
  figure in the Jacobin Club, and his faction in the National
  Convention, assembled in the fall of 1792, became known
  as Jacobins.
• The spring of 1793 marked the beginning of what became
  known as the "Reign of Terror."
• It was inspired by the counter-revolutionary revolt that began
  in March in Vendée.
• The Convention created two committees, the Committee of
  General Security and the Committee of Public Safety.
   o It assumed virtually dictatorial power over France
     throughout the following year.
The Reign of Terror: Committee of Public
• Robespierre established a planned economy with egalitarian social
  overtones. Rather than let supply and demand determine prices, the
  government set maximum allowable prices for key products.
• The government told craftsmen what to produce, nationalised many
  small workshops, and requisitioned raw materials and grain from
• Special revolutionary courts responsible only to the Committee tried
  rebels and "enemies of the nation" for political crimes.
• With a common language and a common tradition newly reinforced
  by the ideas of popular sovereignty and democracy, large numbers
  of French people were stirred by a common loyalty.
• This was total war, a life-and-death struggle between good and evil;
  everyone had to participate in the national effort.
The Jacobins worked to create what they considered
to be a Republic of Virtue. They felt that they had to
 obliterate all traces of the old monarchical regime.
The Reign of Terror: Cult of the
Supreme Being
• There was also an attack on Christianity and the churches,
  and those in power forced the removal of religious symbols
  from public buildings.
• To move people away from what he thought was the
  corrupting influence of the church, Robespierre established
  a Cult of Supreme Being, turning the Cathedral of Notre
  Dame into a Temple of Reason.
• Most of these steps proved to be quite unpopular and
  eventually led to a political backlash against the Committee
  of Public Safety.
Le jour de la fête célébrée en l‟honneur de l‟Être Suprême le
    Decadi 20 Prairial l‟an 2e de la République Française
                                       Vendémiaire, the month of vintage, mid-September
                                       through mid- October
                                       Brumaire, the month of fog, mid-October through mid-
                                       Frimaire, the month of frost, mid-November through
                                       mid- December
                                       Nivôse, the month of snow, mid-December through mid-
                                       Pluviôse, the month of rain, mid-January through mid-
                                       Ventôse, the month of wind, mid-February through mid-
                                       Germinal, the month of budding, mid-March through
                                       Floréal, the month of flowers, mid-April through mid-May
                                       Prairial, the month of meadows, mid-May through mid-
                                       Messidor, the month of harvest, mid-June through mid-
                                       Thermidor, the month of heat, mid-July through mid-
                                       Fructidor, the month of fruit, mid-August through mid-

The Jacobins sought to create a new popular culture fashioning symbols that broke with
 the past and glorified new order. It adopted a brand-new revolutionary calender which
eliminated saints' days and renamed the days and months after the seasons of the year.
The Reign of Terror: Levée en masse

• In August 1793, Lazare Carnot, the head of the military,
  called for a levée en masse, drafting the entire population for
  military service.
• The armies proved to be surprisingly successful against the
  well-trained but unmotivated soldiers of Austria and Prussia.
The Thermidorian Reaction

• Eventually the Terror began to turn on those who had first set it in
• The success of the French armies led Robespierre and the
  Committee of Public Safety to relax the emergency economic
  controls but they extended the political Reign of Terror.
• In March 1794, Robespierre's Terror wiped out those who had been
  criticising him, the Hébertists. The Hébertists were anti-Christian
  and wanted to see the government implement further economic
• Danton and his followers were executed for arguing that it was time
  to bring the Terror to a close.
• On 8 Thermidor (July 26, 1794), Robespierre spoke before the
  Convention about the need for one more purge but he did not have
  any supporters.
 The following day, Robespierre and his leading supporters
were arrested by the Thermidorians and after a quick trial the
       same day, they were escorted to the guillotine.
       The Directory: 1795-1799
• The National Convention shifted control back to the
  more conservative middle-class and bourgeoise

• Constitution of 1795- indirect elections of 2-house
  legislature + 5-man executive
   o Council of Ancients
   o Council of Five Hundred

• War continued in order to maintain national unity and
  resolve the unemployment crisis
   o reinstated draft
               The Directory Cont.
• The collapse of Robespierre's economic controls hit the
  working poor hard

• Peasants of Paris revolted & were immediately suppressed
  o end of political influence until 1830

• Urban peasantry returned to Catholicism and pacifism

• Victory against invasion from Prussia and Austria

• Napoleon gained fame for his military victories/defeat in
  Italy and Egypt
                Fall of the Directory
• Widespread disgust with war and starvation

• Election of 1795- return of conservatives and monarchists in
  legislative assembly

• The Directory annulled the elections and began ruling as a

• Public anger + draft + growing inflation > faith in govt

• Napoleon allowed his army to share his military booty
  o army loyal to him, not to gvt
                 The Coup of 1799
• 1799: Abbe Sieyes elected to
  the Directory

• Sieyes enlisted Napoleon to
  aid in a military coup

• Occurred on Nov 9, 1799

• Napoleon then dissolved the
  legislature and instituted
  himself as first consul

• Military dictatorship
                                 Abbe Sieyes

Napoleon Bonaparte
consecrated as
Emperor of France
in 1804
• Napoleon created a new imperial nobility
• the Concordat of 1801: the Pope gave French Catholics the right to
  practice their religion freely, and Napoleon responsible for naming
  bishops + clergy
• Treaty of Amiens (1802) ended conflict with Britain
• Civic Code of 1804: equality of all male citizens before the law +
  security of wealth and private property > peasants gained land and
• Napoleonic Code
   o women demoted to dependents on their fathers/husbands
   o family monarchy reinstated
• Joseph Fouche's ruthlessly efficient spy system cont.
• free speech/press suppressed: only 4 newspapers left by 1811
Foreign Perspectives
• liberals and radicals in England saw the Revolution as a triumph
  of liberty over despotism & hoped to use the French as an
  example to reorder their own aristocratic Parliament
• Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution (1790)
• Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Man
• the monarchs of Austria + Prussia issued the Declaration of
  Pillnitz > France declared war on Hasburg's Francis II
• Prussia + Austria + Netherlands teamed up and crushed Fr.
• Tom Paine became figurehead of anti-revolutionary feeling
• influenced British reformers to attempt to organize a National
  Convention > gvt arrest for "treason"
• nationalism in Irish radicals > Irish insurrection in 1798
• infl. the creation of the Society of Constitutional Information in
  England + rising debate regarding socialism/legislative
• predominant artistic style in France
• emphasis on archaeological exactitude, heroism
• embodiment of Enlightenment thought, reflecting Diderot,
  Voltaire, and Rousseau
• celebrated ideas of basic human rights, rationalism, and
  moral rectitude

                                      Oath of the Horatii -
                                      Jacques-Louis David

                                      Used Roman & Greek
                                      elements to extol
                                      French Revolution's
                                      virtues (state before
Assassination of radical
journalist Jean-Paul
Marat, who was killed by
Charlotte Corday. She
blamed Marat for the
September Massacres.
Fearing a civil war, she
claimed: "I killed one
man to save 100,000."

     La Mort de Marat - Jacques-Louis David
•   revolt against aristocratic social and political norms
•   steered away from the Enlightenment
•   reaction against scientific rationalization of nature
•   emphasis on emotions such as horror, awe, and terror
                                          Raft of the Medusa -
                                          Theodore Gericault

                                          147 people were set adrift on
                                          the raft, all but 15 survived
                                          after enduring dehydration,
                                          starvation, and cannibalism.

                                          Highlighted incompetence of
                                          French captain operating
                                          under direct orders of French
                                          monarchy (subtle attack at the
La Liberté guidant le peuple (Liberty Leading the People) - Delacroix
              in commemoration of the July Revolution of 1830
Timeline: First phase - Harvests have failed and starvation stalks
France, the peasantry are in open and continuing revolt across the
June-July 1788: Insurrection at Grenoble.
8th August 1788: Louis XVI convokes État-général on suggestion of former finance minister Jacques
Necker, to hear grievances.
5th May 1789: Opening of the État-général at Versailles.
17th June 1789: Representatives of the tiers état form a National Assembly swearing not to leave until a
new constitution is established.
23rd June 1789: King rejects Resolutions of the tiers etat.
9th July 1789: National Assembly declares itself Constituent Assembly.
12th July 1789: Necker is dismissed. 50,000 citizens arm themselves with pikes and form National
14th July 1789:Armed citizens storm and capture the Bastille.
15th July 1789: Lafayette appointed Commander of National Guard.
17th July 1789:„ Great Fear‟ begins as peasants revolt across France.
5-11 August 1789: National Assembly decrees abolition of feudalism.
26th August 1789: National Assembly decrees Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
5th October 1789: Women lead delegation to King in Versaille demanding bread. After scuffles, they are
fobbed off by the King.
6th October 1789: King returns to Paris.
2nd November 1789: Constituent Assembly decrees expropriation of Church property.
16th December 1789: National Assembly legislates for departments, etc.
28th January 1790: Removal of civil disabilities against Jews.
13th February 1790: Suppression of religious orders and vows.
19th June 1790: Abolition of nobility and titles.
 First phase (cont'd)
14th July 1790: Civil Constitution, subordinating the Church to the civil govt, inaugurated by Louis XVI.
18th August 1790: First counter-revolutionary assembly at Jalès.
30th January 1791: Mirabeau elected President of the French Assembly.
2nd March 1791: Abolition of Royal guilds and monopolies.
15th May 1791: Black citizens of French colonies granted equal rights.
21st June 1791: Louis XVI attempts to flee to Varennes but is recognised and forcibly returned to Paris.
15th July 1791: Assembly declares King inviolable and restores his prerogatives.
17th July 1791: National Guard fires on crowd protesting against restoration of the King.
13th September 1791:King formally accepts Constitution.
30th September 1791:Constituent Assembly dissolves.
1st October 1791:Legislative Assembly commences.
9th November 1791:Civil marriage and divorce instituted. Assembly orders all émigrés to return under pain
of death.
11th November 1791:King vetoes Assembly‟s ruling on émigrés.
January-March 1791:Food riots across Paris.
9th February 1791:Property of émigrés forfeited.
20th April 1792:France declares war on Austria, but French army flees at sight of the enemy.
20th June 1792:Jacobin Insurrection, again thwarted by gestures by the King, but Jacobins continue to defy
the Assembly.
25th July 1792:Duke of Brunswick publishes call for allied attack on France.
10th August 1792:Jacobin masses storm the Tuileries Palace, massacring the Swiss Guard, and the King
19th August 1792:Lafayette flees to Austria.
22nd August 1792:Royalist riots in the Vendée, Britanny; armies suffer setbacks at Langwy and Verdun.
Timeline Second phase - Henceforth the struggle is between
bourgeois and proletariat, rather than nobility and bourgeoisie.
1st September 1792: General mobilisation, citizens sent to the front.
2nd September 1792: Danton instigates the massacre of about 1,200 Royalists held in Parisian prisons.
20th September 1792: French forces defeat the invading force at Valmy. Henceforth the Revolution would
enjoy victory in its military conflicts.
21st September 1792:The Convention elected by the Legislative Assembly commences, abolishes
monarchy; day one of the Republican Calendar.
19th November 1792: “Edict of Fraternity” offers aid to “subject peoples.”
11th December 1792: Trial of the king begins.
21st January 1793:Louis XVI executed.
1st February 1793: France declares war on Britain and Holland.
25th February 1793: Food riots in Paris.
6th April 1793: Committee of Public Safety established.
24th April 1793: Marat put on trial for complicity in September massacre but is acquitted.
4th May 1793: Maximum price of bread imposed.
27th May 1793: Uprising of Paris Commune against the Convention
2nd June 1793:Expulsion of the Girondists (the party of compromise) from all offices. The Commune of
Paris becomes the centre of power.
24th June 1793: Jacobin Constitution accepted by the Convention.
13th July 1793: Marat, “the people‟s friend,” murdered by Charlotte Corday.
17th July 1793: Corday executed amid popular outrage.
Second phase (cont'd)

1st August 1793: Metric system of measures adopted.
23rd August 1793: Levée en masse (conscription) decreed.
4-5th September 1793: Popular riots in Paris.
17th September 1793: “Law of Suspects” initiates the Terror.
14th October 1793: Marie-Antoinette tried and executed.
23rd October 1793: Republican Calendar decreed.
24th October 1793: 22 Girondists tried and executed.
10th November 1793: Festival of Liberty and Reason.
24th March 1794: Robespierre, the Committee of Public Safety and Jacobin Club denounce the Hébertists
and Dantonists on framed-up charges and execute all the popular leaders. Robespierre becomes virtually
the dictator.
10th June 1794: (22 Prairial) procedures for mass trial and execution implemented. Victims will go to the
guillotine now in batches of 50 or 60 at a time. An estimated 2,750 are executed of whom the great majority
are poor.
18th May 1794: Robespierre decreed the new religion of the Supreme Being.
8th June 1794:The day of inauguration of the Supreme Being.
27th July 1794:(9th Thermidor) Convention calls for arrest of Robespierre. Robespierre attempts
insurrection which flops, is arrested and executed. After about 150 of his supporters are done away with,
the Terror is over.
Timeline: Third phase - The reaction. Limit on price of bread
removed. Reactionary gangs beat up revolutionists in the
12th November 1794: Jacobin Club is suppressed by the Convention.
1st January 1795: The Churches re-open for Christian worship.
May-June 1795: White Terror instituted in the South.
8th June 1795: The Dauphin dies in prison, Comte de Provence assumes title of Louis XVIII.
22nd August 1795: Constitution of Year III approved, establishing Directory.
5th October 1795: Royalists attempt a coup and Napoleon Bonaparte makes his name suppressing the
move with grapeshot. The popular party gains strength, Gracchus Babeuf is its spokesperson, holding
running meetings at the Pantheon.
26th October 1795: The Convention dissolves itself in favour of a dictatorship of the Directorate.
2nd February 1796: Napoleon assumes command of French army in Italy.
26th February 1796: Directorate bans popular meetings at the Panetheon.
10th May 1796: Leaders of Babeuf‟s “Conspiracy of Equals” arrested.
7th September 1796: 100s of supporters of Babeuf attack palace of the Directorate but are routed.
27th May 1797: Babeuf and his supporters are convicted but take their own lives.
May 1797: Elections produce a Royalist majority. Elections in 1798 and 1799 produce a more radical result
and are annulled by the Directorate.
18th June 1799: Directorate resigns.
9th November 1799: (18th Brumaire) Napoleon Bonaparte named “First Consul,” now the effective dictator.
2nd December 1804: Napoleon consecrated as Emperor.
Political   Economic    Social   Religious   Intellectual/   Artistic

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