HIGH PRECISION BIOMETRY: Avoiding surprises in Cataract surgery Dr. Rajesh Kapoor, Dr. Ajay Dudani, Dr.Vinod Goyel This article, culled from various sources, provides a good summary of the current state of biometric techniques INTRODUCTION: there) and compare. If keratometry and Pre- operative biometry has a major influence on topography correlates then cylinder is due to the success or failure of IOL implantation proce- lenticular astigmatism, which will be taken dures. The field is evolving rapidly, driven by a new care once lens is removed; or else repeat understanding of the Anatomy of the eye and new Keratometry. hardware for measuring that Anatomy. Software · Using same keratometer produces a consis- tools derived from enhanced formulas are also tent error, and that error can be factored helping to improve accuracy in predicting outcomes when the ‘A’ constant is being personalized. with the growing number of IOLs in the market. An · Keratometry in post –RK / LASIK patient is increasing number of patients who had RK ten or discussed later. more years ago are now showing up for Cataract procedures, as are patients who have undergone MEASURING AXIAL LENGTH: PRK and LASIK. These patients pose a whole · 1-mm error in measurement of axial length new set of biometric challenges. This article produces an error of 3 D in IOL calculation. reviews these and related issues facing biometry · Which reading to choose: You have to look today. at the A Scan graphs. If the spike from retina is not followed by multiple small spikes that HOW TO DO PRECISE BIOMETRY : means you are hitting optic nerve, so delete From the patient perspective, the uncorrected that record. visual acuity is the main measure of the operation · If there is a reading where the anterior cham- success; of course excellent surgical technique is ber depth and actual length reduces, it indi- required for optimal visual out come; but accurate cates that in that particular reading you are eye measurement are important in preventing compressing the cornea. So delete that read- refractive surprises. ing. · Rest take account of all the other readings. Several values are required to calculate IOL Power · The most common mismeasurement occurs · Accurate Corneal power when measuring long eyes. Ultrasound mea- · Actual axial length sures to the deepest point of the posterior · Accurate prediction of estimated lens position pole, but the fovea in the long eye is rarely at (half a mm shift in lens position can have a that point. dramatic effect on final vision) In eyes more than 26 mm in size there is · Desired post op refraction posterior staphyloma. Ultrasound measures · A good understanding of the various IOL anatomical axial length rather than optical axial Power calculation formulas is also required. length to the fovea. The difference between · It is very important to discuss with patients the two can be of 3 mm and this can produce their postoperative refractive expectations. a refractive surprise of upto 9 D. · These errors can be minimized by doing KERATOMETRY: OPTICAL BIOMETRY with IOL Master (dis- · 1 D error in keratometric reading would lead cussed later), which is a recent development. to 0.9 D error in the calculation of IOL Power. · Gonioscopy and Tonometry before WHICH FORMULA TO CHOOSE: Keratometry should be avoided as it distorts In general: - the mires. 1. Every surgeon should personalize his A – · Putting Artificial tears before doing this is Constant. useful. 2. SRK-2 works well between axial length 21-26 · For measuring vertical and horizontal plane mm. go for ‘+ mire’ alignment instead of ‘- mire’ as 3. SRKT works well in axial length < 21 mm and it gives better result. > 26 mm. · Correlate keratometric reading with your refractive reading if you are able to refract Other Formulae: these patients · Holladay I In case there is a difference in cylinders · Hoffer II between your refraction and keratometry · Binkhorst II than go for corneal Topography (if facility is Jan - Mar 2002 27 Recent Developments: · Holladay –2 formula for IOL Calculation tackles WHICH ‘K’ IS OK POST – RK / POST – LASIK : severe myopia by using seven variables rather The methods suggested for doing this in a post RK than two or three . / Post LASIK eye involves using K values calculated · Holladay IOL consultant (HIC) program either by: uses Holladay 2 formula and performs complex · Clinical history power calculation for the surgeon. · Contact lens over correction It has various other new features, which are · Topography / computerized video keratography beyond the scope of the article. · Recently the New Haigis Formula, has become 1. THE CLINICAL HISTORY APPROACH: available, which when optimized for the axial It is considered the gold standard. To use this length dependency of the type of IOL to be method, surgeons need to have available to them used, can provide a high degree of accuracy the keratometric or CVK values and the manifest irrespective of axial length or lens type avail- refraction (MR) from before the refractive surgery able in commercial software program. as well as MR at appropriate intervals after the refractive procedure. The data is used to calculate Gaussian Optics Formula: That calculates the the change in MR from pre to post refractive power of a lens (in this case the cornea) account- surgery and that value is subtracted from the ing for the front and back curvatures will ultimately original keratometric value to obtain the “effective be the preferred technique for post- refractive IOL Keratometric Value” for use in IOL power calcula- power calculations. However we have to wait until tion. we have technology that can measure the posterior In this method the post-op MR value that corneal curvature accurately. should be used is the most recent one obtained before Cataract development as refraction is IOL CALCULATIONS AFTER REFRACTIVE SURGERY effected by the lens change. – A Complex Problem: For Example, if the patient had a mean · Warn your refractive surgery patients prerefractive surgery K of 42 D and refraction of needing Cataract surgery about the reduced 9.5 D, when you perform a vertex correction from accuracy of IOL calculation. spectacle plane to corneal plane the 9.5 D be- · RK procedures were performed through the comes 8.5 D. If in this case the post-op spherical 1980s and 1990s. As these patient age, more equivalent is +0.5 D, You have had a 9.0 D change and more of them are going to require Cataract in refraction. Subtracting 9 from 42, the presumed surgery and the same applies for LASIK pa- true corneal power at present would be 33D. tients. · Several factors affect the accuracy of 2. THE CONTACT LENS OVERREFRACTION Keratometry after refractive surgery; as the METHOD: latter changes corneal asphericity there is an This method requires that the increased range of powers within the central patient can be refracted to an accuracy of 20/70 or region measured by the Keratometer. 20/80. This excludes advanced Cataracts. So this · Theoretically this problem can be overcome method is good for clear lens extraction. by CVK (Computerized Video Keratography), but Refraction determined with a contact lens because both CVK and Keratometry calculate of known base curve and power is placed on the average corneal power using a standardised eye. and the K value, for the use in the IOL calcu- index of Refraction (SIR) value of 1.3375, they lation is determined by subtracting the current MR cannot be relied on in Post PRK and Post Lasik from the sum of the over- refraction value, the eyes since these ablative procedures reduces contact lens base curve and contact lens power. the SIR. Reliability depends on having a well fitting contact · Unlike Keratometers and CVK which lens. measure only the anterior corneal surface, the For Example: A 59-year-old patient had RK ORBSCAN determines average corneal power, done 5 yrs. Back, now for clear lens extraction but accuracy of posterior corneal power is less (Lensectomy) he has no previous records. and becomes unpredictable after LASIK treat- His present refraction is +5 D. Now if we over ment. refract with a contact lens of base curve of 36 with · IOL power determination in Post RK eyes is a power of –2. If his cornea was actually 36 his a real challenge because there is significant contact lens over refraction should be +7 D, in fact post – operative hyperopia requiring subse- it is +6 D. The difference of 1 D means that con- quent IOL exchange. tact lens must be 1 D steeper than the cornea. Therefore his true ‘K’ would be 36-1® 35 for IOL 28 Journal of the Bombay Ophthalmologists’ Association Vol. 12 No. 1 calculation. dence. 3. TOPOGRAPHIC (Computerized 2. OKULIX: A new biometric computer program videokeratography) CVK METHOD: to stimulate whole pseudophakic eye aims to This is not very accurate. This is used when Pre- reduce calculation error and ensure a more reliable op ‘K’ is not known in a dense cataract patient. A estimation of IOL strength. CVK derived mean anterior corneal curvature value The main difference between this approach calculated for a specific 3 mm central region of and others is that we clearly separate between cornea, modified based on the amount of surgically measuring and calculating errors. We can avoid induced refraction change, is used. measuring errors like axial length, corneal power But this is not as accurate as other techniques; and a good estimation of postoperative IOL posi- because ablative procedure changes SIR. tion. OKULIX will perform well only with exact measurements. TIPS: · To choose flattest ‘K’ by various approaches HOW TO CORRECT REFRACTIVE SURPRISES: mentioned above. In a recent study in Amsterdam “Incorrect IOL · To choose third or fourth generation IOL power is the most common reason for secondary calculation formula. IOL implantation and a secondary piggyback lens is · Aim for about –1.5 to 2 D the best means of correction.” · This will minimise hyperopic overcorrection in The first implant must be in the capsular bag in post RK eye’s undergoing IOL implantation. order to have sufficient room for the secondary IOL · Still there can be transient hyperopia, wait and the zonules must be intact so as to tolerate until the manifest refraction and topography value manipulation. stabilize. · If it persists discuss with patient, mention the POWER CALCULATION IN REFRACTIVE SUR- potential need for lens exchange or Piggyback lens. PRISES 1. Empirical rule of thumb: RECENT DEVELOPMENT: IOL power for a hyperopic error is calcu- lated by multiplying it by 1.5. 1. OPTICAL BIOMETRY : High precision Axial Myopic errors are corrected with an IOL length measurement power closest to the error. Optical biometry based on the use of non- The ratio of hyperopic power to expected contact partial coherence interferometry (IOL correction is 1.5: 1, while ratio of myopic power to master Zeiss Humphney systems) provides an expected correction -1 :-0.85. easier and more predictable way to measure the eye for IOL calculation than older ultrasound 2. By Biometry : As a routine procedure. techniques, because it measure true axial length along the line of sight since the patient actually Few Tips: fixates on the laser beam. · Simple rule of thumb for IOL calculation in But optical biometry is unable to provide axial aphakic contact lens wearers AC IOL power is length measurements in those eyes with dense approximately equal to contact lens power plus 6 cataracts. D. It is a comfortable technique for the patient · A decentred or tilted IOL can induce artificial because it is non- contact, done in sitting position astigmatism that is not due to Corneal curvature, without any topical anesthesia. So it is important to distinguish between This technique is very helpful in Multifocal IOL keratometric and non-keratometric cylinder. refractive accuracy to achieve spectacle indepen- If you steal from one author, it’s plagiarism; if you steal from many, it’s research. Wilson Mizner (1876–1933), U.S. dramatist In the course of writing one historical book or another, it has happened that I could hardly restrain myself from simply copying entire documents. Indeed, I sometimes sank down among the documents and said to myself, I can’t improve on these. Alfred Döblin (1878–1957), German-Jewish novelist, physician.