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Residential Heating and Cooling

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Residential Heating and Cooling Powered By Docstoc
					Residential Heating
   and Cooling


    Prepared by:
    Will George
    Ryan Lester
       Causality Parameters
• Temperature – variance in temperature
  creates different energy demands for
  heating and cooling. Degree day data was
  compiled on a state by state basis.
• Households - number of households was
  available for each state by decade and
  interpolation was performed to find the
  missing years.
     Causality Parameter Trends
• Weather is assumed to remain constant over the
  years, but varies spatially.
• Housing units have been steadily increasing:
                                                    Housing Units

                                14000000


                                12000000
      Number of Housing Units




                                10000000


                                                                                         CA
                                 8000000
                                                                                         GA
                                                                                         MO
                                 6000000                                                 NY


                                 4000000


                                 2000000


                                      0
                                      1950   1960   1970   1980     1990   2000   2010

                                                           Year
            Heating Data
• Natural gas consumption per state per
  month is available for the past 17 years.
• Heating fuel usage was extracted and
  applied to the housing units and degree
  days to come up with a conversion factor
  in the form of Btu/Housing Unit/Degree
  day.
• Housing Units and Weather are the
  parameters affecting the heating and
  cooling requirements
                                         National Natural Gas Usage

                     900000
                     800000
MMcf (Billion Btu)




                     700000
                     600000
                     500000
                     400000
                     300000
                     200000
                     100000
                          0
                              Jan- Feb- Mar- Apr- May- Jun- Jul- Aug- Sep- Oct- Nov- Dec-
                               85   85   85   85   85   85   85   85   85   85   85   85
                                                      Month/Year


    Subtract the amount from the lowest month from each month to find the
    amount used for heating. (The quantity from the lowest month
    represents utility gas uses other than heating.)
                                     Heating energy per degree day and housing unit

                        2.5E-05



                        2.0E-05
BBtu/HDD/Housing Unit




                                                                                             TN
                        1.5E-05                                                              AL
                                                                                             ND
                                                                                             CA
                        1.0E-05



                        5.0E-06



                        0.0E+00
                              1988   1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002   2004
                                                          Year
              Heating Fuels
Heating fuels used per household were
 available per decade per state (1940-
 2000). These were interpolated to
 estimate per year for each state.
Knowing the contribution in Btu by natural
 gas allowed the other fuel energies to be
 calculated.
                                             Heating Trend
                                                    NY Heating Energy by Fuel

                               Natural Gas    Bottled Gas   Electricity     Fuel Oil/Kero   Coal
              4.00E+05



              3.50E+05



              3.00E+05



              2.50E+05
       BBtu




              2.00E+05



              1.50E+05



              1.00E+05



              5.00E+04



              0.00E+00
                     1955   1960   1965      1970    1975   1980     1985      1990     1995   2000   2005   2010
                                                                Year


Natural Gas usage is rising, Coal and Fuel Oil usage is dropping, and electricity is
rising slowly. Wood usage has dropped significantly since the 1940s.
            Emissions Factors
                    (Mg carbon/BBtu)



•   Natural gas   14.47
•   Wood          100.67
•   Kerosene      19.72
•   Coal          25.9

Natural gas emits far fewer emissions than
 the other fuels
             Cooling Data
• Have AC usage data by region for 1993,
  1997, and 2001. Average proportion of
  energy used by region assumed to be
  constant over time.
• National energy use for a number of years
  given. Extrapolation and interpolation done
  on missing years.
                                          Calibration Curves
                                          AC Usage Per Household vs. Cooling Degree Days

                                16


                                14
AC Usage per Household (MBtu)




                                12


                                10
                                                                                           2001
                                                                                           1997
                                8
                                                                                           Linear (2001)
                                                                                           Linear (1997)
                                6


                                4


                                2


                                0
                                     0   500     1000     1500      2000   2500     3000
                                                   Cooling Degree Days
                                             Cooling Trend
                                                     State AC Usage

                        90000.00

                        80000.00

                        70000.00
AC Energy Used (BBtu)




                        60000.00                                                    Louisiana

                        50000.00                                                    Massachusetts
                                                                                    California
                        40000.00
                                                                                    Minnesota
                        30000.00                                                    Texas

                        20000.00

                        10000.00

                            0.00
                               1950   1960    1970     1980    1990   2000   2010
                                                       Year
              Cooling Trend
• Energy used for each state has been increasing
  overall.
• This increase is a result in increased number of
  houses and an increase in the percentage of
  houses that have AC.
• Some of the inconsistency is due to spotty
  national AC usage data. Also, an increase in AC
  efficiency will cause a decrease in AC usage if
  the number of households remains steady.
          Suggested Changes
• Migration to the warmer states
    – Heating degree days far outweigh cooling
      degree days
•   Increase people per household
•   Change heating fuel
•   Change thermostat setting
•   Close off unused rooms

				
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