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Willie Lynch Real or Imaginary
                                                                                                      2




                        Copyright © by Rahim Muhammad 2007



All rights reserved under international and U.S. Copyright conventions. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, Including information storage and
retrieval systems without written permission in writing from the publisher/publishers except by reviewer
who may quote brief passages in a review.

                             Published in the United States of America
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I would like to give special and heartfelt thanks to Sister Renee Muhammad who was very eager,
proficient and prompt in providing her invaluable expertise in copyediting. Thanks for permitting
the light that Allah has given you to shine so brightly on this work. I also want to thank Brother
Dewayne Muhammad and his wonderful wife, Sister Lakisa Muhammad who both were the first
to offer support, encouragement and the first to proofread the completed work. May Allah hold
you forever in His Grace.
                                                                                                                                                    4




Table of Contents
  Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................ 4
Preface............................................................................................................................................. 5
Willie Lynch Real or Imaginary ................................................................................................... 7
The Only Known William Lynch Disproved................................................................................ 11
Historians and Critical Thinkers ............................................................................................... 31
Willie Lynch’s Handwritten Will (1718)...................................................................................... 41
Part II ........................................................................................................................................... 51
  Is Provenance The Linchpin (lynchpin)................................................................................ 51
Christianity, Slavery and Who Benefits...................................................................... 60
20th CENTURY TERMS IN LYNCH SPEECH ...................................................................... 67
FULL TEXT OF THE WILLIE LYNCH WRITINGS............................................................... 71
  Prefaced by Commentary on Willie Lynch “handbook” by Frederick Douglas .. 71
"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE" .......................................................................................................... 73
By Willie Lynch The Origin and Development of a Social Being Called "The Negro" .............. 73
Index ……………………………………………………………………………………80
5


                                            Preface
The Atlantic slave trade is one of the most far-reaching, devastating and lingering sagas in
human history. The Slave Trade’s social and economic impacts on the modern world are
incalculable. Honorable and dishonorable characters, famous and infamous characters have
garnered indelible ink in its epically deplorable history. One shady and despicable slaveholder,
William Lynch, is the focus of this essay. Under the glaring light of universal moral
condemnation, William Lynch and the many perpetrators of this nefariously depraved crime
against God and humanity are burdened by unspeakable shame as the eternally wagging finger of
their own "Declaration of Independence" haunts them like hell. The guilty have sought to escape
the censure of polite cultures by muffling history's scolding voice at every narration where they
could not silence it altogether. "Willie Lynch" falls in this obscured history category as well as
the infamous slaveholder category. Many would prefer that his story never come to light at a
social gathering where nations of self-proclaimed freedom loving world leaders are
masquerading as men of refinement. A 64-year chapter of history, during which European
colonial barbarism was instituted by wickedly wise social scientists (slave makers), has been
intentionally buried and hidden from scrutiny; sunk in a guilt-ridden sea of innocent blood.
Should the waves of truth roar out of this historical oblivion, they would not merely rock boats -
but they would shake the foundation of the world's superpower to the ground; moreover, what
befell Rome would look like child's play.


Against this backdrop, I endeavored to shed a few rays of light on Willie Lynch in this humble
essay. The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad taught us the supreme value intrinsic in history.
He taught us that the preeminent thing in the universe is truth. The Holy Qur’ãn teaches us that
only truth and the truthful prosper. The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad validated and
meshed these three with this maxim: "History, of all our studies, is most attractive and best
qualified to reward our research, as it develops the springs and motives of human actions and
displays the consequences of circumstances which operates most powerfully on the destines of
human beings.” Elijah Muhammad’s best student, The Honorable Louis Farrakhan, embellished
on this maxim, imparting, and I paraphrase, “since today is based on yesterday, and tomorrow is
based on today, then if we don’t know what was, we don’t understand what is, and we are at a
                                                                                                    6


loss to plan intelligently for our future. Any people or person without a thorough knowledge of
their history, like a tree without its roots, - is dead. ” History turns on an inner light in the
mind, a light that does not blow out, or dim, but rather it glows ever and ever brighter. For the
most diligent students of history, the mind sparkles and becomes luminous, and glows long after
that student’s physical journey has ended, providing a lantern to guide unborn generations
through the dark universe of the future.


When I got wind of the swirling storm of accusations that The Willie Lynch Letter is a hoax and
knowing that many Black people believed it to be true, I was compelled to act. Once the polemic
was hurled specifically at The Honorable Louis Farrakhan, I laced up my hiking boots and began
to trek the trail of history in search of the truth.


It is imperative that I attribute the following sentiment to another Muslim writer, who so
eloquently declared that whatever the reader may find useful and worthy, then, all of the credit
and praise belongs to Allah Alone. Consequently, any shortcomings or mistakes are mine.
Thank you in advance for reading my humble work.
7


Willie Lynch Real or Imaginary

My first introduction to the now famous or infamous “Willie Lynch Speech” was in F.O.I. class
sometime before the Million Man March. I am not sure of exactly the year, but it could have
been as early as 1992 or 1993. F.O.I. means Fruit of Islam and the class is a part of the military
training for us Black men who belong to Islam in North America. While the speech struck a
deep and resounding chord in my mind, it was not a new found moment of enlightenment or a
source of a great new awakening for me. The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad had taught
since 1931 that the first African slaves were brought here to the Western Hemisphere in 1555.
He taught us that the Caucasian historians say and write that we first came in 1619 in order to
conceal the 64-year period in which we were systematically stripped of our names, our language,
our God, our culture, our history, and our folkways and norms and mores. He taught us that
during this 64-year period we were separated from our parents whom they eventually killed;
afterwards the babies that were produced in captivity were reared with totally blank minds, and
then fed lies and superstitions, which were concocted by our slavemasters. They taught us such
things as we came from the jungles of Africa where we lived like apes and monkeys and we were
all savages - ugly kinky-haired savages at that. Indoctrinating us with the theological rubbish that
we were cursed with black skin and ordered by the great white god to be their permanent slaves
has proven to be a chronic disease in our souls, which never heals, but only continues to fester.
Elijah Muhammad said we were a nation of amnesia victims whom knew neither their own
identity nor where their home was and neither knew who their family was. The Most Honorable
Elijah Muhammad taught us over 75 years ago that European slave traders called us Africans to
make us, their North American slaves, believe that the people on that continent were the only
people we had. He taught that the Original people (Black) called the continent East Asia, but the
slavemasters called it Africa to try to divide them. Their aim was to make them, also to presently
make us think that we are all different as well. Sixty-four years we were subjected to this
thorough and all-encompassing psychological manufacturing and all the while being shackled in
physical captivity.

I am certain the historians will want the question answered, “Exactly where did this protracted
dehumanization process and psychological fracturing take place?” Herein proof is offered that
                                                                                                      8


this dehumanization took place on various Caribbean Islands or in the so-called West Indies.
Upon completion of three generations of a steady regimen of psychological manufacturing we
had become a totally different people. Once our minds were thoroughly debilitated, our
slavemasters had to give us a new name; so they called us Negroes. Thus, we had been cut off
completely from our history, our culture, our names and language, and most importantly, the
umbilical cord through which flowed our native soul from time immemorial that connected us to
our fathers and mothers, had been severed. Truly, we had become strangers in a strange land
among strange people.

If we could suspend our well-educated and highly cultivated intellects for a brief moment and
just imagine our forefathers and our foremothers for three generations without any reading,
writing, math, science, true history, and also without our psychological, spiritual, moral lineage
nor any positive intellectual stimuli, then, we would become crystal clear on the fact that what
was done to us was never done to any other people in the annals of history. There is no PhD
degree or Masters Degree that is sufficient to allow us to awaken from that 64-year nightmare. I
should like to refine the metaphor of awakening from a nightmarish sleep to the more accurate
reality of a resurrection from death. Our amnesic state indeed left us in a mental, spiritual, and
moral death. Sleep and death are twin sisters; one who is asleep can appear to be dead, and one
who is dead can appear to be only sleeping, however a sleeping person is easily aroused, but
there is no waking up from death. Analogously, our mental, spiritual and moral deaths are akin
to a physical death, consequently and incontrovertibly, only the Original Life-Giver can raise us
from our dead state, since it was He Who created us in the beginning from nothing. There can be
no life without water, and there can be no spiritual and mental resurrection or repairing for us as
a people without Allah’s Word, in which, is Life, Light, Power, and His Own Spirit. Moreover,
Allah’s Power to Create Life is not diminished by time or age or infirmity, nor is it hindered an
atom’s weight by any opposer or opposition or obstacle. Subsequently, no amount of “higher
education” or “scholarship”, whether it is Western or Eastern, can substitute.
9


                    Grimm’s Law of Consonants

Returning to the term “Negro”, it is not from the name “Niger” as many, even among Black
academicians, are fond of ascribing as its origin, but rather it is from Greek. Nekro means dead
in Greek. The English words necrosis and nectar come from this Greek root by way of Latin1[1].
The Greek word nekroun means to make dead, which is exactly what our Caucasian slave
makers made us. Hence the new name. According to linguistics laws developed by German
historical linguistic scholar, Jakob Ludwig Grimm, changing a consonant in a word does not alter
the meaning of the word. The English consonants c, k, and g are interchangeable. Therefore
negro or nekro have the same meaning. Thus the Greek word nekros for corpse is the same as
negro. Our slave makers considered us as a corpse or dead since they had murdered our intellect
and our souls.

Given the depth of knowledge that has been my good fortune to come under the tutelage of,
mind you, while nursing from some of the most brilliant minds in history, and given the extent of
study that I have delved into over many years, I had not placed “Willie Lynch” that high on my
list of earth shattering revelations. I have been breast-fed spiritual milk and spoon-fed the Divine
Wisdom of the universe by one of the keenest and most powerful spiritual minds that has ever
been and perhaps will ever be, The Honorable Louis Farrakhan. Nonetheless, I did think,
however, that it was another of any number of reconfirmations of what is well known. Yet the
tone of Prof. Manu Ampim’s concerned pronouncements on what he has termed, “Death of
Willie Lynch Speech”, caused me to stop and think. After reading Prof. Manu Ampim’s essay I
thought to myself, “Interesting”! Carefully discerning Ampim’s suspicions as to the authenticity
of the “Willie Lynch Speech” I penetrated through his thinly veiled scholarly dismay to perceive
his ulterior motive, which is to discredit The Honorable Louis Farrakhan. So much has been said
and so much has been written with the intent to contradict, dispute, refute or discredit The
Honorable Louis Farrakhan and “The Teachings” of the Nation of Islam, that consequently, it
has become my wont to, maybe, skim such items and make a mental note and continue on my

1[1]
   ETYMOLOGY: Late Latin necrosis, a causing to die, killing, from Greek nekrsis, death, from nekroun, to
make dead, from nekros, corpse.
                                                                                                      10


merry way. So many have tried to hinder The Honorable Louis Farrakhan in particular, and the
leaders and teachers and teachings’ of the Nation of Islam in general, until it really is of little
consequence nowadays, given the amount of worldwide success that Allah continues to bestow
upon him and those of us whom heed his advice. Even so, I love history and I revere history’s
authenticity as much as anyone; in fact, I thrive on it and depend on it. And in spite of the
amount of controversy hurled at The Honorable Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam
because of The Million Man March, I am convinced that October 16, 1995 is one of the most
significant events in the lives of Black people since 1555. If ever there was nectar with potency
enough to bring us back from the dead, then that was our elixir. The battle cry of the 2.3 million
brothers marching forth from that monumental day was “give God the Glory”. Therefore, I
thought, - how strange that after all the beauty and the power and the unity of that divine day that
one would choose “Willie” to complain about.

Prof. Manu Ampim begins with vague statements and words, such as, “completely explains the
internal problems and divisions within the African American community” and he attributes them
to “they”. Even though he references several works, I think he should offer at least one or two
specific names and/or faces and then point out for the reader a specific example of exactly what
it is that he is objecting to. The Professor characterizes someone’s mentality in the following
manners, “naively assumed” and “assume”; and then he goes on to vaguely identify them with
the adjective “some” and the pronoun “most”. Again, by directly attributing them to people who
are African Americans and who used the Internet for one reason or another, I think it’s most
appropriate to identify them with proper names. Professor Manu’s stated motivation in
debunking William Lynch due to non- extant historical documentation is for the enlightenment
of Black people who have been conned. For that reason, I thought it quite apropos, if possibly,
he could point out some of our beloved Brothers and Sisters whom assume that entirely, the
Willie Lynch speech is, in his words, a “very crucial historical document which explains what
has happened to African Americans”, especially since provenance seems to be the gist of his
wariness. Unfortunately people do generalize and attribute things to and about the Honorable
Louis Farrakhan and unfortunately they have characterized him in false ways and through
misquotations that have become media-legends, so you may understand why we empathize and
11


cringe at no specificity of attributions, and moreover, why we would not wish this on the rest of
our people.


The Only Known William Lynch Disproved

Prof. Manu writes that the only known”William Lynch” lived from 1742-1820 and never owned
a plantation in the West Indies. I have great love and admiration for historians and archivists,
archeologists and cultural anthropologists and I find their contributions to the continuity of
society to be invaluable. Therefore I spent several days searching wills, birth records, marriage
records, death and burial records and census and land deeds just to satisfy my own curiosity and
to see if “ol Willie” might turn up. I hope others will do some digging, for I make no
comprehensive claims about what I was able to find. Notwithstanding, I discovered an authentic
will written by William Lynch’s own hand and have forthrightly included it herein for your
perusal. The will is signed: “I William Lynch . . .being of perfect mind and
memory do this thirtieth day of October in the year of our Lord One

thousand Seven hundred and Eighteen make this my last Will and

Testament”.


Burial Record from Antigua Refutes Manu’s Claim No William Lynch
in West Indies

Ironically my oldest sister lives in Antigua and she has been after me for years to come visit.
Maybe I’ll go just to see if I can dig up ol’ Willie. The following is a burial record of Willie
Lynch buried in the West Indies prior to the 1742 date of Professor Manu’s purported only
known Willie Lynch.


Baptisms and Burials, Parish The Road, Antigua
1 Nov 1733 – 31 Oct 1734
Including the following:
Mar 18 THOMAS WILLIAMS buried at The Road
Aug ? WILLIAM LYNCH buried at The Road
Oct 9 SAMUEL MARTIN, son of SAMUEL MARTIN, christened
Oct 28 WILLIAM, son of WILLIAM CODRINGTON, christened
                                                                                                  12


Photograph of the Lynch Plantation


Lynch Plantation Museum

Lynch Plantation Museum is the only domestic museum in the Dutch
Caribbean displaying a remarkable collection of household artifacts and
antiques. Located on the North-eastern side of the island.




I imagine that all of the dry land on Mr. Lynch’s plantation was once thriving with sugar cane.
Guess who was doing the work?

William Lynch Among West Indian Elite (1727)
The precious few pieces of information that I was able to glean from historical documents seems
to suggest that the Lynches probably were a wealthy Irish family, possibly from Galway, Ireland.
William Lynch was apparently among the “movers and shakers” of the West Indies judging from
the other prominent names listed on the following letter to acknowledge King George II. Once
you have researched historical and archival records, it will be clear that many of these men were
prominent members of the community and many were wealthy planters (plantation owners)
13


along with “William Lynch”. I will return to this point later. The following letter also dated
pre-1742 proves that William Lynch was alive in Antigua in 1727. (Some of the names were
unreadable to the archivists).


Antigua proclamation received from Mr. BEALE dated Antigua 30
September 1727 referred to in General MATHEW’S letter of 12
October 1727.
Received and Read 9 January 1727/28. Letter from the Council
Chambers, St. John’s, Antigua 30 September 1727 acknowledging
new King, George 2nd.

ST. JOHN’S ANTIGUA, 30 SEPTEMBER 1727
(a few names are missing, unable to read)

JOHN KER, JOHN ELIOT, WILLIAM LAVINGTON, JOHN GOBLE, BENJAMIN
NIBBS, SAMUEL (WHARTIN), JOHN VICKORY, THOMAS FENTON, ROBERT
OLIVER, J SANDERSON, JOHN HALLORAN, JOHN MAYER, SAMUEL WICKHAM,
JOHN FARLEY, ROBERT FREEMAN, SAMUEL HARMAN, JOHN MASTERS,
CHARLES MORRIS, THOMAS ELMES, JOSHUA YOUNG, PHILIP DARBY, (H.
FRIAR), PETER MERCIER, WILLIAM CUMBAR, WILLIAM PAYNTON, WILLIAM
HORNE, THOMAS BYSKOPP, JOHN LANGELIER, GEORGE KOCK, JOHN
TOMLINSON junior, CHRISTOPHER HODGE, GEORGE (GRABB), NICHOLAS
COLLINS, WILLIAM BLIZARD, GABRIEL GAMBLE, ROBERT DAVIDSON

THOMAS KERBY, GEORGE JENNINGS, THOMAS WATKINS, D AUBIN, WILLIAM
(LINDELL), (P NICHOLAS), ? EDLEIGH, WILLIAM (SCHWINTHUS),
NATHANIEL CRUMP, JOHN FILBRIGGE, JOHN HARRIS, (SYER) HANCOCKE,
(JEB) HARRISON, JOHN OSBORN, JAMES BLACKFORD, JAMES
(HAMELBORG),THOMAS STEPHENS, WILLIAM (GEANETH) junior, SAMUEL
MARTIN, (S. ROB---ARD), GEORGE CRUMP, EDWARD CRUMP, BAYER OTTO
BAYER, JOHN TOMLINSON, (CIPHER SCANDRETT), STEPHEN SYMES,
WILLIAM LYNCH JAMES

NATH (CRUMP), JOHN HODGE, JOHN GAMBLES, ASHTON WARNER, JOHN
GUNTHROP, JOHN (HURLON), FRANCIS CARLISLE, GEORGE THOMAS, THOMAS
(JAMES), JAMES ?, ? WARNER, (BONSOR KENDALL/HENDALL), JOHN
PEEKS, WILLIAM JOHNSON, ROBERT ADAMS, THOMAS FREEMAN, (P WEST),
JACOB THIBOU

Antigua proclamation received from Mr. BEALE dated Antigua 30
September 1727 referred to in General MATHEW’S letter of 12
October 1727.
Received and Read 9 January 1727/28.2
                                                                                                  14


Archives Detailed Differences in Age, Sex, Skin Colour and
Treatment
Once again Professor Manu has not done his homework thoroughly when he erroneously
declares “none of these ‘tactics’ were concerns to slave holders in the early 1700s in the West
Indies or colonial America”. Researching the actual archival records we find that from the mid
to late 16th century these differences were indeed of major concern. Thus, we present evidence in
the slaveholders’ own handwriting that they kept ledgers in great detail whereby they
meticulously and painstakingly outlined the differences stated by Willie Lynch to his partners in
crime. Clearly they all were already quite well aware of age, sex, skin color, and intelligence
(employment) among their slaves. Willie Lynch merely showed them a new way to make use of
accounting data. I have emphasized the archivists’ firsthand account, eyewitness testimony as it
were, of our real history by red highlighting certain facts.

    “These schedules listed the slaves on the respective plantation and gave particulars of
    name, sex, colour (whether black or coloured), employment, age, country of origin,
    and cause of increase or decrease (deaths and births). Furthermore, the slave schedule
    may also point to the demography of slave populations, in terms of whether they were
    predominantly Creole or African, how enslaved persons of different sex and age were
    utilised for effective labour on the plantation, and of the presence of a mulatto
    population on the plantation and their treatment.”

While researching West Indian planters I ran across numerous wills relating to the Lynch family.
Clearly the Lynches owned a lot of slaves; unsurprisingly and equally clear is that they passed
them on for generations, as did all of their friends. I have refrained from including most of those
archival records because my original intent again was just to peruse them out of curiosity and
respond narrowly to a specific Email. An authoritative academic treatise is not the intent or
claims of these few observations, even though the scope has broadened. However, I would like
to demonstrate the wealth of knowledge and the priceless treasure that archives provide for
historians and for each and every one of us lay history buffs as well.
15




                                Legislative Records: Minutes of the St. John Vestry, from 1649 -
1699. These bear evidence of names closely associated with the system of sugar and slavery.
Vestry members were, for the most part, the most prominent sugar estate owners, using their
office as Vestry officials to further their influence and ability to manipulate societal institutions
to their own advantage. Such manipulation produced the political system commonly known as
the plantocracy. It was this oligarchic ruling elite of white plantation owners who would exercise
almost complete dominance in the affairs of West Indian islands right up until the early 20th
century. The Vestry minutes supports the claim that planters and other slave owners enjoyed a
stranglehold on political and legal institutions in the West Indian colonies.




                                               Accounts Ledgers: accounts or plantation ledgers
can give some background to the nature of the plantation enterprise, which of course was at the
centre of the slave system. They are detailed accounts books, showing income and expenditure
for the plantation and in some cases included schedules of slaves. These schedules listed the
slaves on the respective plantation and gave particulars of name, sex, colour (whether black or
coloured), employment, age, country of origin, and cause of increase or decrease (deaths and
births). Furthermore, the slave schedule may also point to the demography of slave populations,
in terms of whether they were predominantly Creole or African, how enslaved persons of
different sex and age were utilised for effective labour on the plantation, and of the presence of a
mulatto population on the plantation and their treatment.
                                                                                                16




                                 Deeds and Wills: One acquires a more profound understanding --
from perusing these particular document types -- of the slave owners' attitude towards the
condition and welfare of their bondsmen and how they viewed them as literally part and parcel of
the plantation system. We see evidence of transfers or loans between slave owner and family or
friend / associate. Similarly, there is mention of sales of human chattel as constituting part of a
mortgage agreement for a plantation or estate. Although rare in occurrence, data of this nature
may provide evidence concerning the location, identification and naming of some Caribbean
families.




William Lynch was a trusted citizen in the West Indies as
this document indicates:
    Antigua May 6th

    THOMAS BIRMINGHAM of Antigua appoints Mr. Richard RU(ST/K) and Mr. MATT
    BIRMINGHAM both of the island.

    ==

    (10) th September 1715
    Signed
    LUKE DANIELL
    WM LYNCH

    LUKE DANIEL & WM LYNCH
    Who made oath on the Holy Evangelist before the HON ED. BYAM 10th May
    1716 that the contents of the above was witnessed by them.

    (Above is hard to read)


    ==

    Antigua

    EDWARD HOME & JOHN BOOTH both of this island are holden and firmly bound
    to the HON WILLIAM MATTHEW etc. in the full and just sum of £500 current
    money of this island to be paid to the said WM MATTHEW, his heirs etc.

    8th November 1715
17


     (The lower section readable given time)

     (On a small piece)

     EDWARD HOME bond to intermarry with SARAH LE ROUX, widow, 28th November
     1715.

 ------ It is reasonable to argue that “WM” Lynch is quite possibly William
since Hon William Matthew is said “WM” Matthew. Hon. William Matthew is
identified in several archival documents to be a friend of the Lynch family.

http://www.houseofnames.com/xq/asp/s.Lynskey/Origin




 .IR/sId./qx/coatofarms_details.htm Online.

The Lynch coat of arms came into existence centuries ago. The
process of creating coats of arms (also often called family
crests) began in the eighth and ninth centuries. The new art of
                                                                                                18

Heraldry made it possible for families and even individual family
members to have their very own coat of arms.




Ampim’s “No Known William Lynch” Erroneous


Once again, the following deed proves that William Lynch was wealthy, and that the Lynch
family was well propertied and that there was definitely more than one William Lynch, such that
father and son. There are recorded wills in the West Indies in which The Lynches bequeath their
slaves to their children and relatives. So while this still does not prove that William Lynch gave
a certain speech, or many speeches or no speeches, it certainly proves that there were slave-
owning and plantation-owning “William Lynches” whom would have been qualified to make
such a speech and whom most certainly would have had a fervent interest in such a speech.
19

FILE - Deed relating to Staple, Wingham, Goodnestone and Woodnesborough, Kent. -
ref. Pa D 114 - date: 26 April 1608
            [from Scope and Content] Copy of sale agreement by which William Lynch of Wells
Court, Kent, gent., and his wife Mary and his son William Lynch of Staple, Kent, gent.,
and his wife Judith, and Robert Lynch younger son of William Lynch, grant to Sir George
Parkyns of Wallmer [Walmer] Castle, Kent, Knight, for the sum of £2,000 already paid and
for a further sum of £1,000 yet to be paid to William Lynch the son, the manor of Groves
in Staple, Kent, with all buildings, lands, tenements and appurtenances in Staple, Wingham,
Goodnestone and Woodnesborough, Kent and all their other lands, tenements and
hereditaments there.

     FILE - Grant from William Lynch of Wells Court, Kent and William Lynch of Staple,
Kent to Sir George Parkyns of Wallmer Castle, Kent of part of the manor of Dauncourt -
ref. Pa D 115 - date: 31 May 1608
          [from Scope and Content] William Lynch of Wells Court, Kent, gentleman, and
William Lynch of Staple, Kent, eldest son of William Lynch, grant to Sir George Parkyns
of Wallmer [Walmer] Castle, Kent, 80 acres of land, part of the manor of Dauncourt, lawfully
possessed by them following the lease of all the manor of Dauncourt with all lands,
tenements, rents, woods, profits of court etc. by Nicholas Metcalfe, Clerk and Master of the
College of St. John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge, the fellows and scholars, to
Robert Woodward, Clerk, 20 Dec. 21 Henry VIII [1529] for 99 years and following the
conveyance of 80 acres of the land to William Lynch the elder and William Lynch the
son for the remainder of the 99 years, to be held by Sir George Parkyns together with all
deeds and charters concerning the land for the remainder of the 99 years.
                                                                                                  20



    Origin Of Lynch Law

Much speculation and many theories have been offered to explain the origin of the term
“lynching”. The term is attributed to a Mr. Lynch in a quite surprising event. I offer it here just
because I found it interesting. Perhaps someone or some historian will search for and arrive at
the truth of this anecdote:

        “. One of the Lynches, while in office as mayor, condemned his own son to death for the
       murder of a young Spanish visitor and carried out the sentence with his own hands when no
       one else was willing to do it: hence the origin of the term "lynch law." A black marble tablet
       on the wall of the old prison in Market Street marks the spot where the execution is said to
       have taken place.” I am heavily suspicious that our Mr. Willie Lynch was indeed descended
       from the aristocrats of Galway, Ireland. There is enough historical evidence to support this
       theory. Many of the aristocratic families found their spotless lineages stained by sons, in
       particular, and a few daughters whom sullied their characters from time to time by running
       afoul of the law. Nevertheless, historians seem to bolster our suspicion on a website with
       the following, “Lynch's Castle (16th C.: National Monument), a large gray building with
       coats of arms on the facade, now occupied by a bank, was the residence of the Lynches, an
       aristocratic family which provided several mayors of Galway.”10




2
    http://www.candoo.com/genresources/antiguafilms4.htm
21



                        Lynch Castle




A black marble tablet on the wall of the old prison in Market Street marks the spot
where the execution is said to have taken place.
                                                                                                22




Lynch
  This is one of the most ancient, and, until the middle of the seventeenth century, was one of
  the most leading families in Galway. In the old volume of pedigrees, preserved in the
  Heralds office, it appears, that, ''William le Petit, came to Ireland, in 1185, with Sir Hugh de
  Lacy, who granted him, by his charter, Macherithirnar, c. (now the barony of
  Macherydernan?, in the County of Westmeath,) except the Logh and Town of Dysart?; that
  they were palatine barons of Molingare?, and that William le Petit, had a son, Nicholas, v2
  who was ancestor to the family of Lynch of Galway. w William, (or according to other
  accounts,) John de Lynch, was the first settled of the name in Galway, he was married to the
  daughter and sole heiress of William de Mareschall, and, it is stated, that the eldest branch of
  the family, was called Mareschall, until the male line became extinct. During the greatest
  part of the 15, 16 and 17th centuries, they possessed the principal authority within the town.
  Dominick Lynch Fitz John, commonly called Dominick dubh, in 1484 solicited and
  procured the charter of Richard III. under which he caused his blother, Pierce, to be elected
  first Mayor, and was himself the second. His son Stephen, at the same time, sued out and
  obtained the bull of Innocent VIII. which established here that singular ecclesiastical
23


     jurisdiction, the wardenship. Thomas Lynch Fitz Ambrose was the last catholic mayor in
     1654, when the ancient inhabitants were dispossessed by Cromwell; and during a period of
     169 years, 84 members of this family, were mayors of Galway. The eldest line of the
     Lynches from which the younger branches sprung, was distinguished by the appelation of
     Cranmore, which means, the great tree or stock; and the house of Newcastle, descended
     from Emon-a-Tuane, who lived in 1342, claimed this distinction. The present lineal
     descendants of this family, are, the Count Lynch late Mayor of Bourdeaux, (who so
     eminently distinguished himself in the cause of the royal family of France, against
     Buonaparte,) and his relative, John Lynch Alexander, Esq. of Galway. The respectable
     families of Barna?, Cartron?, Clough?, Drimcong?, Lavally?, Lydican?, Moycullen?,
     Rathglass?, and Shannonbridge?, in the County of Galway, Duras? in the County of Clare,
     and Ballycurren?, Castlecarra? or Ball?, Clogher? and Partry? in the County of Mayo, are now
     the principal of the name. (Reprint)




Lynch Signer Of Declaration of Independence
Since one of the Lynches is a signer of the Declaration of Independence, is it possible that
whoever released the document, Willie Lynch Speech, would have had an acute interest in
anonymity?

Thomas Lynch, Jr., was born in South Carolina on August 5, 1749. He received an education in
England and graduated with honors at Cambridge. He studied law in London and then returned
home in 1772. He was politically engaged as soon as he returned home, and was commissioned a
company commander in the South Carolina regiment in 1775. Soon afterward he was elected to a
seat in the Continental Congress. He fell ill shortly after signing the Declaration and retired from
the Congress. At the close of 1776 he and his wife sailed for the West Indies. The ship
disappeared & there is no record of his life after.
                                                                                                  24




Changing Surnames Commonly Practiced
    “Thomas, Jr., had his own plantation, called "Peachtree". It was stipulated in his will
    that the person who inherited "Peachtree" would be named Lynch. Since he had no
    children, his sister Sabina (who married John Bowman) had a son named John Lynch
    Bowman. His name was changed to John Bowman Lynch to comply with the will. John
    married a Miss Campbell and had four daughters and three sons. All three sons died in
    the Confederate service in the War for Southern Independence, and had no heirs. This
    ended the line with the surname Lynch.”




In light of this historical reality whereby surnames were disguised, provenance will not always
be a certainty beyond all doubt. Fudging and forging legal documents is by no means a recent
phenomenon. Furthermore, there are differing attributions to the actual signer of the Declaration
of Independence, i.e., was it Thomas Jr., or Thomas III? According to the American Revolution
website, “Thomas Lynch, Jr., actually, the III, of the colony of South Carolina was a delegate to
the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, PA, in 1776.

Incidentally, I have read differing accounts as to why Thomas Lynch III retired to the West
Indian Island of St Eustatius (Statia), nevertheless, I know that there were many descendants of
this same Lynch family sprawled throughout the islands. Also we will show that travel back and
forth between the islands and the colonies was quite frequent.
25


Their Own Archival Record Places William
Lynch of The West Indies in Virginia
A “William Lynch” appears among those coming from the West Indies to Virginia. Also,
an extracted marriage record for locality listed in the record. The source records are
usually arranged chronologically by the marriage date. (Bold type is mine).



1678

About 100 Irish families sail from Barbados to Virginia and the

Carolinas.

1685-1705

Many French Huguenots seek asylum in Ireland. (French spelling of the surname Lynch is D’Lench)



196b 29 Lynch            Bridget         20    Ireland        pg0193a.txt

153a 3 Lynch            John           50     Ireland       pg0146a.txt

138a 9 Lynch            Judith         25     Ireland       pg0133a.txt

156a 29 Lynch

Judith         23    Ireland        pg0155a.txt

56a 27 Lynch            Margatte         18    Ireland        pg0049a.txt

196b 3 Lynch

Mary            22   Ireland         pg0193a.txt

144a 23 Lynch            Mary B.         17     Ireland        pg0142a.txt

153a 4 Lynch            William          20    Ireland        pg0146a.txt
                                                                                                 26


William Lynch Marriage Certificate in West Indies12


 Husband
      WILLIAM LYNCH


      Birth:
      Christening:
      Marriage: 14 NOV 1724 Saint John, Barbados, Caribbean
      Death:
      Burial:




 Wife
  SUSANNA SMITH

      Birth:
      Christening:
      Marriage: 14 NOV Saint John,
                   1724 Barbados,
                        Caribbean
      Death:
      Burial:




How and Why Did The Lynches Come West


West Indies-Virginia Nexus

Indisputably the American slave culture and her institutions moved from the West Indies to the
Colonies. Prof. Manu questions why the Virginia plantation owners would pay for Willie Lynch
to come to Virginia just to give a speech. The answer is that the trip from the so-called West
Indies to the Colonies was a routine business trip. Moreover, according to the history of the

10
     http://www.planetware.com/galway/lynchs-castle-irl-ga-lych.htm
27


island of St. Eustatius, mind you, this is the island where we find the Lynch Plantation; it was the
main connection and shipping point between Europe and merchant shipping to the Colonies. St.
Eustatius was central to the slave trade.7 Prof. Manu seems to almost ridicule slavery when he
pronounces disbelief at the lack of etiquette of the one whom even he insinuates is our “alleged
Mr. Lynch”. Prof. Manu wrote, “Lynch never thanked the specific host of his speech, he only
thanked “the gentleman of the Colony of Virginia, for bringing me here.” Mr. Manu goes on to
write, “Here he is rude and shows a lack of etiquette.” Whether this is an insensitive and ill-
thought-out crack at levity or whether it is a feeble attempt to exercise some shrewd scholastic
acumen, either way it is an extremely unfortunate comment. Moreover, and more unfortunate is
that this comment affords us a look into the mind and motives of Mr. Manu. In light of the
unfathomable demonic nature of the whole grisly institution of slavery and the wretched plight of
those whom had their lives destroyed by slave-owners, Mr. Manu’s comment showing concern
that those wicked “architects and wardens of our living hell” would somehow be overburdened
with the “considerable cost” to give what he termed “general remarks” is an unpardonable
absurdity. So that Mr. Manu can sleep well at night, I would like to assure him and us all that the
slave-owners and plantation owners had money to burn; conversely, it was the slaves whom were
penniless.

April Lee Hatfield, author of an insightful book entitled Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial
Relations in the Seventeenth Century8 writes a compelling history of the actual interdependence
of the West Indies and Virginia, documenting both their economies and slave institutions. She
lays out the paradigm and the facts proving that the so-called West Indies indeed had a seminal
role in the interplay between the planters of the West Indies and the planters of the Virginia
Colonies. So compelling is her findings that the question would have to be converted into, - how
was it not possible that Willie Lynch or a Willie Lynch type plantation owner did not come to the
bank of the James River? Historians are charged with the duty of relaying to the world’s seekers


12
  FamilySearch™ International Genealogical Index v5.0 Caribbean Islands
/ Extracted marriage record for locality listed in the record.

7
    World Book Encyclopedia 2004 Edition
8 http://www.uwichill.edu.bb/bnccde/svg/conference/papers/honychurch.html
                                                                                                  28


of knowledge a verifiable account based on solid evidence. Credible historians do not surmise
nor do they tell historical events contrary to what the evidence points to with the weak
justification of “highly likely”, especially while they are presenting a refutation as a supporting
branch for their condescending perch. Credible historians do not reconstruct history “willy-
nilly”. One reviewer of Hatfield’s work summarized that, “She describes the movement of
Barbadian planters and slaves to Virginia, who, due to prevailing subregional patterns of trade
between the Chesapeake and the West Indies, were concentrated in the marginal tobacco
counties of the Eastern Shore and the lower James River.”


           “. . . as our boat sailed south on the James River”

The prominence of interchange between plantation owners from Barbados and the Chesapeake
region may make it more “highly likely” then not that “Willie Lynch” would state, “as our boat
sailed south on the James River”. According to Geographers and the World Book Encyclopedia,
the James River flows southeastward from the Allegheny Mountains and empties into the
Chesapeake Bay. A glance at any map would confirm that one would indeed be sailing south as
you neared the Chesapeake Bay.


                     HANGING SLAVES LEGALIZED

At this juncture I may as well add proof that dispels any doubt about the notion of whether or not
it is “highly unlikely”, as once again Prof. Manu is apparently fond of arguing, that a slave would
have been hanging from a tree. The slave codes of 1705 instituted by the Virginia General
Assembly authorized hanging as legal punishment for African slaves. The fact is that it was
“highly likely” that by 1712 there were quite a few of our ancestors hanging from trees.
According to the Virginia Legislatures in article XXXVII, dismembering of slaves was legal.9
Another historian records: “1705 - In Virginia, slaves are assigned the status of real estate by the


       8
        Published by EH.NET (September 2004) Reviewed for EH.NET by
       Lorena S. Walsh, Department of Historical Research, Colonial Williamsburg
       Foundation.
29


Virginia Black Code of 1705. In New York, a law against runaway slaves assigns the death
penalty for those caught over 40 miles north of Albany. Massachusetts declares marriage
between African Americans and whites to be illegal”. The wanton murder of our ancestors was
in full effect in 1712; moreover, with the buttressing of legal immunity for “hanging” any nigger
who dared to get out of line, hence displeasing his master, proved to be the conductor that was
directing the orchestra of death by hanging (lynching) towards a crescendo. Legal immunity was
a de facto license to kill. Clearly the barbarism codified by the Virginia General Assembly
demonstrates that Professor Manu is either beset by a faulty and frail comprehension of historical
facts or he lacks credible knowledge and/or he lacks candor when he states categorically,
“lynching African Americans from trees did not become common until the late 19th century.”
Not only is he 200 years off in his facts, but also one might argue that a slave near the end of the
17th century may have considered Mr. Willie Lynch’s tactics - a relief.



          In 1705, the Virginia General Assembly removed any lingering
          uncertainty about this terrible transformation; it made a declaration
          that would seal the fate of African Americans for generations to
          come...

          "All servants imported and brought into the Country...who were
          not Christians in their native Country...shall be accounted and be
          slaves. All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this
          dominion...shall be held to be real estate. If any slave resist his
          master...correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such
          correction...the master shall be free of all punishment...as if such
          accident                      never                      happened."

          The code, which would also serve as a model for other colonies,
          went even further. The law imposed harsh physical punishments,
          since enslaved persons who did not own property could not be
          required to pay fines. It stated that slaves needed written
          permission to leave their plantation, that slaves found guilty of
          murder or rape would be hanged, that for robbing or any other
          major offence, the slave would receive sixty lashes and be placed
          in stocks, where his or her ears would be cut off, and that for minor
          offences, such as associating with whites, slaves would be
          whipped,               branded,             or               maimed.

          For the 17th century slave in Virginia, disputes with a master
          could be brought before a court for judgement. With the slave
          codes of 1705, this no longer was the case. A slave owner who
          sought to break the most rebellious of slaves could now do so,
          knowing any punishment he inflicted, including death, would not
          result in even the slightest reprimand.
                                                                                                                   30


The following reprinted passage demonstrates the seminal role that
the West Indies played in relation to the colonies
    “The Barbados Slave Code of 1661 was the English legal code set up to provide a legal base for slavery in the
    Caribbean island of Barbados. It required that slave owners dress their slaves. However, it also denied slaves
    even basic rights guaranteed under English common law such as the right to life. It allowed the slaves’ owners
    to do entirely as they wished to their slaves, including mutilating them and burning them alive, without fear of
    reprisal. This code was adopted by South Carolina in 1696, and formed the basic outline for slavery in the
    British North American colonies.”


Spoken Word Governed Chesapeake Slavery
April Lee Hatfield reconstructs a probable scenario in her monumental work, in what she terms
“Chesapeake slavery”, for why a Willie Lynch would have come from the West Indies just to
give a speech when she documents that, "English American slavery developed within a context of
intercolonial conversations -- spoken and implicit -- regarding the parameters of the institution
and the choices available to individuals living within it" (p. 137). If the institutions and the
culture lay on a foundation of conversations and the spoken words, then a record of the Willie
Lynch Speech or other speeches may not have been recorded or even written down for that
matter, so that historians may easily ascribe provenance. While Hatfield does not name names,
nevertheless she does provide us with a pool of plantation owners from which to narrow the
focus of our research:

    “The evolution of slavery in Virginia was deeply influenced by information on Spanish
    practices and most crucially on practices in the Dutch colonies and in Barbados. Those
    planters who acquired slaves and created laws to define their status and govern them were
    "members of a highly mobile group of English Atlantic elites" (p.139).

We have already demonstrated the William Lynch was from a wealthy family of European
elites. Hatfield sharpens the picture that is already crystal clear, such that, the Spanish and West
Indian influences were paramount in Virginia, New York and everywhere else in the colonies.
Mind you that the Spaniards most certainly would have used the tactics espoused by Willie
Lynch. W.E.B. Dubois corroborates Hatfield’s research in a scathing historical assessment of
the British, whom he describes as coming late to the Atlantic-African slave trade, but, he wrote
that they set all of their might behind the objective of wrestling the dominance of the slave trade
from the Dutch.
31


Hatfield documents that, “Later some elite Barbadians migrated to Virginia, serving as county
and provincial officers who helped shape local slave codes and who also helped other prominent
Virginia planters to make connections in the islands for acquiring slaves.” Is it plausible Willie
Lynch was among these Barbadians? Archival records show William Lynch making the journey
from Barbados to the colonies. Again, the marriage record of William Lynch corroborates
Hatfield’s research.




Historians and Critical Thinkers


“The proper way to think is to never rule out any possibility”
                                                         ~The Honorable Elijah Muhammad

Roundtrip From Barbados To Virginia
In a speech delivered by award winning writer and broadcaster Siobhán McHugh she relates, “the
Irish were sent out there, to the West Indies in the seventeenth century, in a kind of early version
of transportation where political undesirables and general rejects of society were sent out as
indentured servants for seven years to work in the sugar plantations and when they came off
there, most of them stayed on”. This then would account for the where and the how and the why.
Recall that Professor Manu questioned the expense of such a trip to Virginia from the West
Indies just to give a “short eight-paragraph speech, yet, one of our most esteemed historians, J.A.
Rogers, documents that the European elite would often opt to send undesirables to the colonies
of the new world instead of imprisoning them. In his monumental work AFRICA’S GIFT TO
AMERICA Rogers tells us that the stockholders were eager to use the labor in the colonies rather
than hanging an able-bodied man. (Pg. 31) He further writes, “It cannot be denied that
deportation was England’s favorite way of getting rid of her loose women.” (Pg. 31-32) Thus, it
is more than plausible that Willie Lynch was invited just to give a speech and more probable
than not that he made many trips since a trip to Virginia was merely the cost of doing business,
the same way that CEO’s and corporate executives fly first-class today on a regular basis and
                                                                                                     32


never bat an eye. Siobhán McHugh confirms that “ . . . the Irish became plantation owners, they
then abandoned their opposition to plantations and they took slaves themselves.” She goes on to
amuse, ‘We’ve heard of Bernardo O’Higgins the liberator of Chile and even Che Guevara
descended from a Lynch from County Kerry (audience laughter), but we couldn’t get all that in.”

Maybe we cannot be 100% certain without anything less than an actual photograph that the
William Lynch whose marriage certificate and burial record that is presented above, and whose
“Last Will and Testament” is presented below is the William Lynch who gave “the speech”, or
just a William Lynch, however, prudence demands that we do not rule out the possibility. It may
be our Willie Lynch or it may not be, or it may be one in his family, nonetheless we did find
enough archival evidence to bolster acceptance and quell suspicions. The will is signed “I,
William Lynch . . .of perfect mind and memory do this thirtieth day of October in the year of our
Lord One thousand Seven hundred and Eighteen make this my Last Will and in Testament . . .”
Personally I am convinced. I have witnessed people convicted and sentenced to death on less
circumstantial evidence than what we have been able to dig up to support a West Indian
plantation owner by the name of William Lynch. Deepening my conviction and moving me
away from merely quelling suspicions to quenching all doubts is McHugh’s gloating,

    “The interesting thing about   that was that in the early years they formed alliances with the
    blacks, the African slaves, who were working on the plantations. They actually had an
    uprising together against the plantation owners but then with classic Irish perversity, and this
    is always the bit that I like, I always like the exceptions and the contrariness, but television
    isn’t good about this. What happened was that when some of the Irish became plantation
    owners, they then abandoned their opposition to plantations and they took slaves
    themselves. So this is the kind of thing that we need to examine about ourselves rather than
    have this comfortable notion.

Given McHugh’s account, pray tell us, who would be more qualified to know the idiosyncrasies
and psychological make-up of the African slave then one who was intimated to such a degree as
the Irish indentured servants. Given the shortage of available brides in the colonies, and since
men generally outnumbered women 4 to 1, it is most probable that Willie Lynch would have
taken a bride from this pool.
33


Willie Lynch Possibly Mulatto or Quadroon?

I shall like to use my scholarly license at this point to say that after studying as many documents
as possible from my laptop computer and at the risk of shattering all of the current copyright
laws, I am of the strong opinion that Willie Lynch may have been a mulatto son of Sir Thomas
Lynch, governor of Jamaica, and honorable knight of the Old World. Sir Thomas Lynch was a
man of great acclaim and accolades; praised both by historians and by his peers and
contemporaries. For some reason that’s not exactly clear, Sir Lynch was reproved and dismissed
from gubernatorial duties and recalled to England early in 1665. Sir Lynch, who was also known
as Captain Lynch, had earlier been charged and sanctioned by the military according to the
following historical record: “1662, Ap. 16. Capt. Tho. Lynch named in an action for slander”.
The severe reprimand was over an intention to marry an unnamed woman, who the aristocracy
class of Europe had met with disapprobation. One historical document records that:

     “1665, Feb. 12. Lt.-Col. Tho. Lynch writes that the Governor has discharged him from his
     Council and office of Chief Justice. It only constrains Lynch's return and prevents the
     resolution he had to marry, send for his relations, and make this his England. Starts to-
     morrow towards New England. Intends in Spain to obtain permission to buy cattle in Cuba.
     Though 10 years of sufferings and hazards have endeared the Island (of Jamaica) to him, yet
     resolves never to return. 277.”

I am using my powers of inference to conclude that the references to “the resolution he had to
marry” and “send for his relations” can only be that LT.-Col. Thomas Lynch apparently wanted
to legally marry a woman who must have had a drop of African blood. Possibly a mulatto or
quadroon or octoroon, and then bring her / their mulatto children to England. Willie Lynch, if
not mulatto, then he very well may have had a drop of African blood. As we stated earlier,
colony aristocracy would educate their children in Europe’s prestigious institutions of learning.
Inference and intuition spurred me to keep digging and I was rewarded with the discovery that
after much legislation and legal wrangling, later generations of mulatto descendants were more
able to secure their property and inheritance rights. Justice would come to the Lynches several
generations later. Case in point:

     “CO/139/43 (660) John Lynch a free mulatto, Elizabeth his wife a free quadroon woman &
     Grace Anne Lynch, Elizabeth Banton Lynch, Mark Lynch, Eleanor Banton Lynch, Margaret
     Banton Lynch, Frances Jane Lynch, John Saunders Lynch, Benjamin Banton Lynch,
                                                                                                                34


       Priscilla Lynch & William Lynch born in lawful wedlock to the said Elizabeth to the same
       rights and privileges under certain restrictions. 22.12.1787”




Colonial Planters Commonly Married Mulatto Women


Another fact of history that serves as an obstacle to provenance is the number of marriages
involving mulatto and quadroon women. The slavemasters were not permitted, socially or
legally, to be up front about their lust and longing for their African slaves. Yet there are no two
opinions among credible historians and the novice alike about the fact that there was a high
incidence of white masters and their constant relations with their African slaves. In the
biographies of slaves it has been stated that the free access to the female slaves may have been
the single-most driving factor that prolonged the slave industry. Henry Box Brown wrote:


       “The slave's wife is his, only at the will of her master, who may violate her chastity with impunity: It is
       my candid opinion that one of the strongest motives which operate upon the slaveholders, and
       induce them to retain their iron grasp upon the unfortunate slave, is because it gives them such
       unlimited control in this respect over the female slaves. The greater part of slaveholders are
       licentious men, and the most respectable and the kindest of masters, keep some of their slaves as
                                     16
       mistresses.”--- Henry Brown


Henry Brown, an escaped slave, whose narrative provides us with a firsthand account and a
primary source of not only of the facts, but also the emotional sentiments as well. Nothing is
more telling than Mr. “Box” Brown, who earned the name “Box” because he escaped the death
grip of slavery by enclosing himself in a box that was 3 feet long and 2 feet wide, stating,
“Northern people sustain slavery, knowing that it is a system of perfect licentiousness, and yet
go to church and boast of their purity and holiness!” One slave’s biography recalled the tension
between his master and his master’s wife because all three of the children were mulatto.”

I have heard some say that Willie Lynch had a plantation in Tobago. Records show that there
were mulatto planters in Tobago, Grenada, St. Vincent, the isles of Dominica, etc.

9
    Source: Hening, ed., The Statutes at Large, vol. 3, pp. 447-462.
35




                  8

                                                                 Above: Mulatto Plantation Owners


If our William Lynch were in fact a mulatto or quadroon or he married one, then perhaps that
would explain his unique sensitivity to the African mind and his keen insight into the longings,
both good and bad, in the souls of Black folks. Dissecting Captain Lynch’s will seem to bear
witness to what my suspicions are. The wills are so complex that it is impossible to present
every angle that they reflect. This is due to the fact that to circumvent certain aspects of the law,
landowners would use many tricks, including changing names and filing similar wills and deeds
                                                                                                   36


in different counties, etc. But if we keep their single-minded purpose and their utmost
considerations in mind, which was the transfer of land and money to their descendants, then we
can keep a faint scent on their trail.

Sir Captain Thomas Lynch’s Will is certainly somewhat ambiguous especially considering his
statements such as “if I leave a son”. Would he not simply amend his will before his death if he
begets a son after the initial writing of the will? Willie Lynch most certainly updated his will
more than once.


Sir Captain Thomas Lynch’s Will
Sr Tho. Lynch of Esher, co. Surrey, Kt. Will dated 30 August 1681. While my debts are paying
my Wife to have £200 per annum and my dau. £120 per annum. My office at Jamaica to be
continued, likewise my £300 per annum being for a great debt the King owes me. When my
debts are paid I give to my Wife the yearly profit of all my estate in England and Jamaica until
my dau. or wife marry, then I only give my Wife £200 per annum and my house in Lester ffields
[Fields]. To my said dau. Philadelphia all my estate, but if I leave a son she shall have £2000. If
she die then my lands in Lancashire after my Wife's death to my sister Eliz., then to my sister
Judith Freeman, then to my cousin Eliz. Tomlinson. To my sister Eliz. £40 per annum. £100 to
my Father's Wife. £150 to my cozen Judith Agar, and as much to my cozen Eliz. Payne my
Uncle's daus., and £600 to the necessitous of our relations as my uncle Aylmer* Lynch direct,
and my manner of Esher, etc., to Christchurch Hospital in London. My Wife Vere Lynch to be
Executrix, and my friends Sr Chas. Lyttleton of London, Knt, Mr. Tho. Duck and Mr. Tho.
Goddard of London, merchants, and Hender Molesworth, John Bourdon, and Tho. Freeman of
Jamaica, Esqres, Trustees and Overseers, and £50 apiece for a ring. Witnessed by Henry
Harrington, Jos. Whiston. (39, Vere.)

18 August 1691. Commission to Sr Rob. Cotton, Knt and Baronet, the Guardian of Philadelphia
Cotton alias Lynch, now Wife of Tho. Cotton, Esq., the dau. and only issue of testator, late at
Jamaica, deceased (Dame Vere Lynch having died in his

* He was baptized 23 November 1600; son of William Lynch of Staple, co. Kent; B.A. Cam.
1622, B.D. 1642; died 24 January 1691; M.I. at his Rectory of Langley Burrell, Co. Wilts, Will
(60, Fane). (See Howard's "Misc. Gen. et Her.," New Series, iv., for notes of his family.)

The statement “necessitous of our relations as my uncle Aylmer Lynch direct” with an asterisk
leads to the name “William Lynch” and the word “son”. This seems puzzling to me, but
nonetheless he clearly establishes his kinship with William Lynch of Staple, co. Kent. Whatever
the archivist saw that made him identify Aylmer as such is unknown to me. Some of this
particular document was either torn or the ink unreadable. However a “necessitous” is one who
37


is dependent upon you and Aylmer can be a proper name, but it can also designate one who is in
charge of an estate for the owner. It is akin to a baron. It is difficult to understand why Thomas
Lynch would reach back to an uncle from 100 years earlier to include him in his will. Again it is
not uncommon for them to play these types of games with mulatto heirs.
              38



Actual Will
39




On the next page is another document that has two important bits of information. First is the
prominence of William Lynch at the top and the Crest and Arms that distinguish him, also we
have Aylmer again with an asterisk (*). Second is the birth of a son, Charles Lynch. I have read
that Willie Lynch had a brother named Charles. Lastly, the intersection of the Lynch family and
the Cotton family is most important, because this is where the accuracy of the documents began
to be fudged. To decipher and explain the Cotton family role is far afield of my purpose here
and too time consuming, although I suppose I could tackle it at a separate writing, but quite
frankly it would be redundant.
40
41




     Willie Lynch’s Handwritten Will (1718)
42
43
44
45


Elizabeth Lynch, Mother of William Lynch Was an
Octoroon
Elizabeth Lynch, who was an octoroon woman, wrote in her will that William Lynch was indeed
her son. The document under the “Willie Lynch mulatto section” that archives the Lynches’
mulatto heirs, clearly show Elizabeth Lynch to be a free woman, lawfully married, and the
mother of William Lynch. After obtaining a copy of her will, then reading in her own
handwriting these words, “to my son William”, I realized that I now possessed two primary
sources, in the form of first-hand accounts that this is “the” Willie Lynch. What is most
startling is that “Willie Lynch” indeed comes under the infamous “one-drop rule”. I have
chosen to leave intact my original thoughts on whether the possibility existed that Willie Lynch
could have a drop of Black blood as an example to other researchers that if we are free from a
preset agenda, then once we are presented with other reliable evidence, we should readily adjust
our retelling of the historical events in accordance with what is verifiable.
                                                                                                         46



Note To Aspiring Historians

    Prior to 1850, and the introduction of a detailed Federal Census, wills, and other documents
    providing for the distribution of property, are often the only positive means of determining the
    relationships between individuals. Parents leave specific property to their sons, identifying
    lineage; to their married-daughters, identifying their married-name; to their children "not yet of
    age", identifying a range for birth-years; to their "grandchildren", connecting 3-generations in a
    single document. These documents provide insight through the type of property they transfer --
    indicating what was of value to the Devisor; the quantity of property they transfer -- indicating
    the relative wealth of the Devisor; the location of the property -- helping to pin down where the
    Devisor lived; and sometimes the prior owner of a parcel -- helping to determine when a
    property was acquired, or how long the Devisor has lived in a particular area.

    Wills exist in at least two, and sometimes more, forms: there is:

•         (1) the original, personal copy of the will, produced and retained by the individual;
•                       recording
          (2) the first recording, the hand-copied version recorded in County-of-residence records by
    the local Clerk, usually at the time of the individuals death and probate; and
•             recordingsgs,
          (3) recordings additional hand-copied versions in State records or the records of other
    Counties where the individual may have owned property, and where a record of its disposition
    was made, usually done after the death of the individual.

    http://www.boonefamily.org/wills.html




The African Holocaust; Never Again
47

     African slaves made up the majority of populations in most West Indian countries. Slavery
     became an established form of labour from the 1640s when Dutch merchants from Brazil
     introduced sugar into Barbados.


     Sugar farming was physically demanding and it was soon apparent that white indentured
     servants were not suitable for this form of agriculture. Instead planters sought cheaper and more
     robust labourers, and African labourers who were used to tropical climates, diseases and food
     were considered more suitable.


     Slaves were personal property who could be bought, sold, gifted, inherited and bequeathed
     according to the whims of their owner.




Historical Documents Always Subject To Scrutiny

Olaudah Equiano’s Authenticity Questioned

By taking away the identity of the slave the owner was able to demonstrate the total control he
had over his 'possession'.

One of the august historians and /or enslaved African Americans cited by Prof. Manu for being
“silent” on Lynch’s speech, Olaudah Equiano (Ampim’s article printed name as Equino so I’m
assuming we are referencing the same) has had his authenticity questioned by Vincent Carretta:

     In recent years, however, it has been suggested by Vincent Carretta that Equiano may not have
     been born in Africa at all. According to Carretta, Equiano may have been born a slave in South
     Carolina - at that time one of the thirteen British colonies in North America. Indeed, if Carretta's
     evidence - Equiano's baptismal records, and a naval muster roll - is accurate, there is a possibility
     that Equiano never visited Africa. The early parts of his autobiography may reflect the oral history of
     other slaves, combined with information Equiano gleaned from books he had read about Africa.


                                                      http://www.brycchancarey.com/equiano/biog.htm
                                                                                                            48


On this same question of authenticity:

    “Academic study of Olaudah Equiano has been energised in recent years by arguments asserting
    that some aspects of The Interesting Narrative (1789) may not represent Equiano's personal
    experience. In particular, the critics S.E. Ogude and Vincent Carretta have cast doubt over Equiano's
    account of his birth and upbringing in Africa, his kidnapping, and his experience of the Middle
    Passage. While Ogude's argument is based in textual analysis, Carretta's evidence emerges from
    archival work - yet both reach similar conclusions: that Equiano probably never visited Africa, and
    that the early parts of his Narrative are most likely rhetorical exercises, largely 'based on oral history
    and reading, rather than on personal experience'.”


We must all be careful in trying to position historical accounts as absolutely accurate. Without
veering too far into the finer aspects of the branch of knowledge known as history, I should like
to point out that the two historians are questioning what is known as primary sources versus
secondary sources. Despite the fact that textual analysis and archival documentation appears to
bear out their skepticism, yet, can we fairly or wisely discount all that Olaudah Equiano wrote?
Moreover, when we examine the list presented by Prof. Manu as credible historians and
abolitionists and advocates we find that none of the African-Americans wears their own name.
With the exception of Olaudah Equiano, they all wear the names of their slave masters. Is this
not evidence of an elaborate universal scheme of control? Even Equiano’s biography relates that
changing a slave’s name was a form of control and indeed ridicule. Note this observation:

    “Pascal gave the boy the name of Gustavus Vassa. This was a rather cruel joke on Pascal's part.
    The original Gustavus Vassa was a sixteenth-century Swedish nobleman who had led the Swedish
    people into a war of independence from the Danes and as a result had become the first Swedish
    king of the Swedish people. He was thus seen as the man who had led the Swedes out of a sort of
    slavery. Pascal's renaming of Equiano was a typical act of slave owners. By taking away the identity
    of the slave the owner was able to demonstrate the total control he had over his 'possession'.




Did Pascal see an emancipator in the soul of Equiano? Was he possibly gloating over his prey?
Slave owners were preoccupied with methods and means to control their slaves; there can be no
two opinions about these historical facts. For instance, the following clearly shows that the slave
masters were acutely aware of divisiveness among the slaves:
49


     “Another issue is that the Spanish Maroons were Creoles mostly from the northern part of
     West Africa and Angola, while their eighteenth century counterparts were mainly Akan
     speaking blacks. What is important is that there were hostilities between these two groups.
     The Spanish Creoles did not take kindly to the newly arrived African runaways who came to
     join them in the hills. One reason is that British slave traders concentrate mostly on the Gold
     Coast of Africa seeking slaves for the New World. The Akan blacks were from Ghana and, a
     cause for the open hostility and lack of unity between the two groups.”




Fredrick Douglass Speaks Directly to Willie Lynch
“Handbook” and the “Willie Lynch Speech Appears in 1970

At the end of this paper, now book, I am including the words and the assessments of Willie
Lynch’s Handbook. I am including it for several reasons. The date on the Willie Lynch Speech
clearly predates the purported notion that it magically first appeared in St. Louis in 1993. Mr.
Kenneth T. Spann gave the date as 1970 for the reprint. I have been unable to confirm the
identity of Mr. Spann with a second source, so I apologize to him in advance should new facts
are subsequently discovered proving me to be mistaken. The best identity that I’ve confirmed
for Mr. Spann is the following: Kenneth T. Spann is MBA, JD, MCSE and is a partner Strategy
Consultant/Accenture-Microsoft Consulting Services {Central Division) and MSUS
DIVERSITY LEADERSHIP COUNSIL REPRESENTATIVE—PROF: ME. There is an
attribution preceding the “handbook” given to Fredrick Douglass. I certainly have no way of
knowing if it is the Fredrick Douglass or just a Fredrick Douglass, but what I can absolutely
validate is that what is outlined in the handbook is in harmony with what The Most Honorable
Elijah Muhammad taught us of the actions of our open-enemies, who are our former
slavemasters and their children.

Once the reader reads the graphic, gross and grotesque nature of what Willie Lynch outlined in
his “handbook”, then, he or she will wonder, if, in fact that it is Prof. Manu, who when he said
that there was no “outline of action” isn’t the one immersed in mythology.
                                                                                                                 50


Encyclopedic Reference to Willie Lynch’s “Perpetual
Slaves” Policy in 1650


       By the 1650s some of the indentured servants had earned their freedom. Because replacements, whether black or
       white, were in limited supply and more costly, the Virginia plantation owners considered the advantages of the
       "perpetual servitude" policy exercised by Caribbean landowners. Following the lead of Massachusetts and
       Connecticut, Virginia legalized slavery in 1661. In 1672 the king of England chartered the Royal African
       Company to bring the shiploads of slaves into trading centers like Jamestown, Hampton, and Yorktown.
       (Compton's Encyclopedia)
       2




This is absolutely congruent with The Willie Lynch Speech and its boastful claim of perpetual
slaves. I have taught my sons and daughters that an excellent first step when researching any
subject is to begin with several encyclopedic materials. Perhaps, just perhaps, our esteemed
historians may want to take heed. Encyclopedia editors demand accuracy, therefore, one can be
certain of a high degree of credibility and we may attribute considerable credence to the
information and to the knowledge found therein.




16
     http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/boxbrown/boxbrown.html
51



                                            Part II
Is Provenance The Linchpin (lynchpin)

The question of provenance is a question of considerably weight to any credible historian, yet
there are reasonable circumstances where we may be forced to accept less than one-hundred per
cent verifiable primary sources. Annette Gordon-Reed, a Professor of Law at New York Law
School observed the following in a piece that she entitled, When the Past Speaks to the Present:
A Cautionary Tale about Evidence3:

       A further complication comes from the fact that the type of corroborating evidence historians are
       accustomed to look for -- other written documents -- was rarely produced by enslaved African
       Americans. The vast majority of enslaved people was illiterate, and even those who were literate
       rarely contributed to the creation of official records that often give historians information about past
       lives. Slave marriages were not recognized in law, and slaves did not write wills or deeds —
       although they appeared in them as items of property. Most of the personal experiences of
       enslavement live on in a very different form: in the stories passed from one generation of African
       Americans to the next through an oral history tradition.


Whether we like it or not we must accept oral history as factual history. History is written in
human nature. It is eternally joined to our souls. We usually and instinctively recount our day’s
history at suppertime to family or friends at the end of each day. The delight of our
grandparents’ stories about our parents and the world before our birth mesmerizes us as children
and impacts our identity. The maxim that states, “newspapers write the first draft of history”,
once it is dissected, we see that the freshest historical records are in part hard facts and in part
oral history; such that, “eyewitness accounts” go into most reporters’ story, thereby becoming a
permanent part of the primary source. Objectivity must be the aim of every historian and history
teacher alike; we must constantly guard against prejudices and bias. Honesty must be the
hallmark of our work in the conveyance of the facts as we find them. Honesty is even more


3
    http://www.historynow.org/12_2004/historian4.html
                                                                                                          52


paramount in our acceptance of sources that we may personally deem creditable enough for
provenance. It is paramount that we scrutinize our own thought processes more rigorously with
our mightiest deliberate effort to avoid our retelling of historical facts that have been polluted by
our own personal biases. Otherwise, we may slant history by telling our interpretation of the
actual historical events, thus completing the conversion of history from truth and reality, to myth
and fiction.

Why do some question the Willie Lynch speech? To this end we all have heard it said among
many generations of Black people that “a nigger ain’t sh*t”. Subconsciously many of us are
programmed to believe only white people. We have witnessed erroneous reporting in some of the
most prestigious newspapers of modern times, specifically the New York Times. Furthermore,
there’s the “George Washington never told a lie”; lie, and then, - there is the “George
Washington chopped down the Cherry tree” lie; and the biggest lie of them all is the
“Christopher Columbus discovered America” lie; all taught as historical fact.

Currently, with twenty-four hour blogging, much of the first drafts of history are insidiously
biased and extremely distorted. And, if the Bloggers are not enough of a hint as to how biased
history may be, then Professor Gordon-Reed states this point much more eloquently than I when
she writes:

    “Second, we must not privilege one form of evidence over another. Especially in reconstructing the
    story of slavery we must remember that slave owners controlled the production of documents and
    prevented those whom they enslaved from producing their own records of their experiences during
    slavery. Certainly there was much about their relationships with slaves that masters simply did not
    want outsiders to know. Finally, we must view both orally transmitted history and document-based
    history with a trained, critical eye, remembering that both are created by human beings and both are
    therefore fallible.”


She even quotes Fredrick Douglass while continuing the subject of historical reliability, “A city
slave is almost a freeman, compared with a slave on a plantation,” Frederick Douglass
observed, and it is no accident that several historians have erroneously identified Gabriel as a
freeman.” Convincingly, Professor Gordon-Reed expands the accepted arena of provenance as
she evinces that “This focus on slavery from the slave owners’ perspective no longer dominates
53


the field . . . Yet it is important to realize that in reconstructing that past, scholars face multiple
challenges, among them evaluating two quite different forms of evidence: document-based
evidence and the evidence based on oral traditions.”


History or His Story

    “If a man won’t treat you right, what makes you think he will teach you right?”

                                                                   ~The Honorable Elijah Muhammad

Our Native American communities know well the above truth. Brooke M. Black astutely notes
in her graduate paper4,

     “In his article "Archival Captive - the American Indian," William T. Hagan states, ‘To be an
     Indian is having non-Indians control the documents from which other non-Indians write
     their version of your history’ (1978, p. 135). This, I believe, is the fundamental reason for
     tribal archives. As Hagan has observed, the problem with traditional Native American
     archival collections is that they are "the product of white men" (1978, p. 137).”

The Honorable Elijah Muhammad asked, “If a man won’t treat you right, what makes you think
he will teach you right?” What a profound and far-reaching question. Brothers and Sisters, let
us ask ourselves, what is it in our minds that causes us to unreservedly accept history from the
same man who outlawed reading and learning for us, without ever questioning its veracity?
Should not we be at the least just a little suspicious when he says that he has qualified us for a
real PhD degree from his colleges and universities? Ah! –But wisely, Brooke Black, who has a
BA in Anthropology from Arizona State University, demonstrates profound understanding when
she further exposes our common dilemma using Mr. Hagan’s work, “The sources of the
traditional archival material, whether Indian missionaries or government agents sent out to
reservations to oversee the Indians, were men who were largely "unsympathetic to the Indian
viewpoint [and] ignorant of what they were observing and trying to describe" (Hagan, 1978, p.
137).”

4
 Master's of Library and Information Science MLIS graduate student paper, San Jose State
University, California, published in Provenance.ca in Feb. 2005
                                                                                                     54


I consider myself to be a fairly astute and vigilant researcher of history. While I don’t have a
college degree, I have lectured at colleges and universities and high schools and various other
schools. Lecturing on an array of subjects set across a broad spectrum of classes, including
mathematics classes, history classes, English classes, science classes and health et cetera. Upon
my early arrival to the classes, in particular history courses, the first thing that I would do was to
examine the textbook for that particular course. Why? —To identify who were the editors and
contributors and researchers for that textbook. There are huge political fights that are waged
annually in America over the historical content and bent published in textbooks for students
whom are to be subjected to, or indoctrinated with its curriculum, if you will. Clearly my aim is
to equip the students with a wariness that will accompany them throughout their life-long quest
for knowledge. In a word, always consider the source.

“O you who believe, if an unrighteous man brings you news, look carefully into it, lest you harm a
people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you did.     ~Holy Qur’an 49:6


Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings

       “Equally important and challenging is the need to subject claims made by masters and those
       made by slaves or the children of slaves to the same rigorous standards of proof. For, as the
       history of the debate over the relationship between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings
       demonstrates, scholars may still be inclined to give more weight to the records and accounts
       of the powerful, the famous, and the educated, and to their descendants, rather than to the
       stories told by those such as slaves, women, and the poor who stand outside the circles of
       power and authority. 14”


Divide and Conquer

Professors Manu asserts unequivocally and uncompromisingly that “divide and conquer” was not
used during the 15th and 16th centuries. According to Guyana.org the slavemasters used specific
“methods of control”. According to Guyana.org, “The white plantation owners used various

14
     http://www.historynow.org/12_2004/historian4.html
55


methods to maintain complete control over their slaves. Their principal method was that of
"divide and rule".” They go on to detail the exact methods used. Suffice it to say that many
other historical accounts have outlined the same realities of our subjection and they have given
equally detailed accounts. One method they mention is in harmony with what The Most
Honorable Elijah Muhammad taught, which was that “Members of the same tribe were separated
on different plantations to prevent communication between them.” The Most Honorable Elijah
Muhammad taught that their main tactic was to separate the babies from our parents, thereby
preventing us learning anything of our roots and thus cutting us off from our history.


House Niggers, Color and Class

Wherever Professor Manu got the notion that “color and class” are 20th century divisions is
beyond me. That notion is so far from the truth that it barely even warrants a response. History
is replete with historical accounts of these well-documented divisions before the 18th century. I
put forward the following verifiable account as a case in point:




(We take) Allah’s colour, and who is better than Allah at colouring, and we are His
worshippers. ` Holy Qur’ân 2:138

We are a people and a human family in need of a spiritual resurrection and reconnection to The
Supreme Being, Whose proper name is Allah. The Holy Qur’an teaches us that we should take
Allah’s colour, arguing, who is better at colouring than Allah? This means that we should strive
to be righteous in our deeds and actions, thereby we must shun the norms and values of our
former slavemasters and the children of our former slavemasters. I have read personal accounts
by slaves who say that the slaves would take on the character of the masters. Unfortunately,
many of us make imitation of our slavemasters’ children our ultimate drive in life.

     “Because slavery was not calculated to bring out the best in those who fell under its sway,
     whether owner or slave, the system had a debasing effect on the character of those involved.
     This was explicitly so for those tyrants who were head gang-men or drivers. These
     representatives of capital in the field, along with the house slaves, were permeated with the
                                                                                                           56


       vices of their white masters and scheming bored mistresses, and they despised the slaves in
       the field. They internalised the ideas of their masters and were imbued with self-hatred.15”


To my dear brother and professor Ampim, it is not the speech given by Willie Lynch that is the
main reason that Black people have problems among us today; it is our self-hatred. Self-hatred
was and still is the fertile soil in which the ideas of Willie Lynch were planted, in which they
took deep root and in which they have flourished to the nth degree. Self-hatred and lack of
knowledge of self is the root cause of our languishing in a social morass, and as the slavemasters
exacerbated our condition and capitalized on it in the past, even so do the children of our
slavemasters presently. We obliged them then; and we continue to oblige them now.

In light of these psychological and social conditions that were forced on us, it is quite unsettling
to hear our learned and erudite professors of history speak in such a condescending tone to their
Brothers and Sisters whom may be less well educated than they. You ought to be ashamed of
yourselves. “To whom much is given, much is expected”.


Cultural Anthropologists Document Slavemasters’
Awareness of Divisions

The cultural anthropologists have studied and well documented the cultural, linguistic and
insulating aspects of the various original and acculturated societal Black enclaves of slaves. The
following insight is from E. Joyce Moore, author of Gettin’ to the Good Wood,

       “Intraracism. The enemy lies within and the enemy is us. In the days of conscious physical slavery
       in this country, there were the house slaves and the field slaves – a deliberate psychological class

       distinction. House slaves were programmed to believe that their loyalty included the betrayal of
       any exhibiting the potential of having an original thought or might potentially create a “problem”. Ask
       yourself why – even today – Anglos get nervous, even angry when three or more of their minority
       counterparts are talking together and they don’t know what they are talking about. They want to
       know what’s going on. If you are asked about the conversation and don’t disclose the subject


15
     http://mojo.calyx.net/~olsen/RASTAFARI/CAMPBELL/chapter1.html
57

     matter, they become offended. You become the enemy. We are selfish about our piece of the
     corporate, social or economic pie, afraid to share because we think that there might not be enough,
     not realizing that we have the power to bake a whole new pie. So we “shuffle and grin” at the
     “massah”, and sell our own down the river in fear that we will somehow be reclaimed and sent back
     to the plantation.”


It is noteworthy to re-emphasize that divisions among slaves were deliberate and that slaves
were programmed. I again quote Moore, “House slaves and the field slaves – a deliberate
psychological class distinction. House slaves were programmed to believe”. You cannot have a
programmed slave unless you have a programmer.

Margaret A. Harris in a study of slavery life from an anthropological and cultural view, points
out the attention paid to the division among slaves even before we arrived at a plantation and her
point is so pertinent to today and the timeliness of THE MILLIONS MORE MOVEMENT
that I liberally cite it again for it will also take us into the culture of our enslavers:

     “Another issue is     that the Spanish Maroons were Creoles mostly from the northern part of
     West Africa and Angola, while their eighteenth century counterparts were mainly Akan
     speaking blacks. What is important is that there were hostilities between these two groups.
     The Spanish Creoles did not take kindly to the newly arrived African runaways who came to
     join them in the hills. One reason is that British slave traders concentrate mostly on the Gold
     Coast of Africa seeking slaves for the New World. The Akan blacks were from Ghana and, a
     cause for the open hostility and lack of unity between the two groups.”

This is an extraordinarily useful and insightful piece of history whereby the keen eye of a gifted
historian is able to glean, literally, volumes of history covering two centuries in this one passage
alone. The 18th century period is marginally on the cusp of the history germane to our main
focus, however, it is the reference to the Spanish influence that is so telling and raises the
eyebrows. Taking careful note of the reference to the nominal adjective “Spanish”, since it is an
indisputable fact of history that the Spanish were the pioneers of bringing African slaves to the
Western World, and they were the pioneers of “divide and conquer”; needlessly to say they are
the masters of it as well. The Spaniards had long designed to defeat the Moors’ (Muslims) rule
in the Ottoman Empire. To that end the Spanish Christians invented many crafty, under-handed
                                                                                                       58


“divide and conquer” tactics, which they skillfully employed against both Muslims and Jews.
Racism, bigotry, xenophobia, ethnicity, class, and sexism were alive and thriving long before
Willie Lynch. To assert that somehow it is too far-fetched that Willie Lynch would have been
aware of such tactics is dishonest on its face. Furthermore, it was the Spanish whom brought the
first Black slaves to the so-called West Indies, notwithstanding that there were African slaves
whom were already living in Spain, however, their roles were only as servants or craftsmen or
navigators in the early expeditions. Nevertheless, it still remains as a salient fact of our history
that the Spanish Empire was the first to orchestrate and sanction the mass kidnapping and
enslavement of wholesale numbers of African peoples for the expressed purpose of laboring for
the New World.

The Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad taught us that Sir John Hawkins was prominent in
bringing our fathers to these Western shores in 1555. Historians bear witness that Sir John
Hawkins and his cousin Sir Francis Drake brought slaves from West Africa and sold them to the
Spanish colonies in the West Indies. Many times Hawkins would simply raid Spanish ships; as a
result, he became wealthy and he also made Elizabeth I wealthier and more powerful by means
of his piracy and slave trading.




Sir John Hawkins                           Sir Francis Drake

                    Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566)

How may we ever forget the infamous Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566), who is reputed to
be the greatest of the Dominican missionaries to the New World? History teaches us that
Bartolome’ de Las Casas is the one who first justified the churches role in African slavery. “It
59


was in this early period that Las Casas for a time argued for the importation of Black slaves from
Africa in preference to enslaving the Indians, because he supposed that we had been enslaved in
a just war and that we were physically better able to survive in the mines.”5 The Dominican’s
own history records their racial hatred and religious bigotry. The Spanish Inquisition is so
infamously well known that it needs no documenting.


Spain’s Church and the African Holocaust

       “Las Casas' story is central to the history of the Dominican missions in the New World, but
       it is by no means the whole of it. Sometimes these efforts were very imaginative and open
       to the good qualities of the pagans, but often limited by European prejudices which
       prevented the Spanish and Portuguese from accepting those of other races into the Order, a
       prejudice rooted in part in the history of Spain and its struggle to find national unity in the
       face of Moorish and Jewish minorities.”




5
    http://www.op.org/domcentral/study/ashley/dominicans/ashdom05.htm
                                                                                                    60


By 1550, Spain controlled Mexico, Central America, nearly all the West Indies,
part of what is now the southwestern United States, and much of western South
America. In the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, Spain and Portugal agreed
to a line that divided the New World between them. –World Book Encyclopedia

Christianity, Slavery and Who Benefits
Emerging out of the dominance of the Spanish Empire and also the Spanish mindset, which was
decidedly anti-Black, anti-Semitic and anti-Islam, along with an insatiable lust for geopolitical
hegemony, colonial slavery rose like a leviathan out of the sea. Unfortunately for the Moors, the
Spanish Jews, and the Africans, - Spain and Portugal had become quite proficient at the slave
trade by the middle of the 16th century. Clearly the British learned the slave trade from the
Spanish. The British, like all imperialistic nations of that day, were hyper-motivated to jump
into the “explore to exploit” game; they consciously and skillfully prosecuted colonizing
political wars as a practical means by which to counter the growing power of Spanish Empire,
which literally, expanded the entire known world at the time. They did this in much the same
approach that American and Russian imperialistic geopolitical designs played over the 20th
century. The joint-stock classes, whom financed both the slave trade and the colonization of the
New World, had more pragmatic motivations, of course.

Can we ever forget Hernan’ Cortes’ and the marauding, conquering pirates whom decimated the
Mayans, Aztecs and all Indian civilizations in their greedy path? Has our multi-million dollar
condos and our frolicking in the sun in Cabo San Lucas, Acapulco, Cuba and Cozumel given us
amnesia? Why do we have a whole new race in the Western Hemisphere, the so-called
Mexicans? Is it not because of the wanton rape of our Native American Sisters? The biggest lie
in history is that Islam was spread by the sword; but the truth of the matter is that it was
Christianity which was spread by the sword.


Political Power of The Popes

The covetous hearts of the kings and queens of Europe schemed for gold and wealth (land), but
the Popes lusted after political power. Since the popes were perceived in the minds of the
masses as the supreme authority of God, then they were the de facto supreme authority over all
of the kings and queens of Europe. They, by divine decree, had complete control and sway over
61


all political power, complete control over all wealth and they enjoyed unquestioned loyalty from
the masses of believers in the church. Papal secret councils contrived their political machination,
then hid their plan under the altar of pious edicts and providence, and then slyly had all their
subjects enact it in the name of God and country. Thus, the Popes wanted the Church to be
established in the New World ahead of any secular governments. The first act of Cortes’ and his
demonic comrades was to pull down all the Mayan temples and all other religious institutions
and symbols of religion. They immediately began psychological warfare, which manifested as a
tactical campaign to dehumanize the indigenous people as savages.

The full brunt of the Spanish Inquisition and all of its horrible tactics were forcefully brought to
bear against the aboriginal inhabitants of the new world. The Mayans, Aztecs and Olmec
civilizations were forced to convert to Catholicism or die, the same way Jews, Moors, Muslims,
Protestants, Calvinists and other reformists were in Spain, France, and England. Mexico became
known as New Spain due to the conviction of the Christian sword. Is all of Mexico, Central
America and South America catholic today because of the love of God or is it because of the fear
of the sword?

Did military might or did “divide and conquer” prove to be the more useful weapon? Here is
one of the too numerous historical accounts to mention where credible and able historians say
that it was definitely divide and conquer; this one is by John P. Schmal:6

       ” But Hernán Cortés and the Spanish conquest of the Aztec domain is a much more complex
       story than most people realize. Even with their superior weaponry and tactics, the fifteen
       hundred Spanish soldiers who took part in this two-year campaign could not have brought
       down this magnificent empire without assistance.

       Against insurmountable odds, Cortés triumphed over the great empire. As a master of
       observation, manipulation and strategy, he was able to gradually weave an army of
       indigenous resistance against the Aztecs, while professing his good intentions toward
       Moctezuma. Even more amazing is the fact that the Indian warriors who joined forces with



6
    http://www.latinobeat.net/HVC/Opinion/Guest_Columns/112204schmal.htm
                                                                                                    62


     Cortés and the Spaniards were Náhuatl-speaking people, like the Mexica of Tenochtitlán. In
     effect, the Aztecs were defeated by their own linguistic and cultural brethren.”

Schmal makes the same observation that all objective historians have similarly made, which is
the fact that:

     “The key to the Spanish conquest of Mexico was the dissension among the different peoples
     of the Aztecs' empire. The Aztec overlords made few attempts to assimilate the other
     cultures to their own and thus provided the basis for a full-scale revolt against them, which
     Cortés incited with great success. While the Aztecs were really unable to unify their empire,
     the Spanish managed to succeed where their predecessors in the area had failed. “


Classical Europe and Racism

Racism and slavery has been a prominent part of European culture from time immemorial.
Scholars say that from Homer to Aristotle slavery and racism have been an integral part of
European culture. The hallmark of an enlightened European culture has its origin in Greece and
the so-called Classical Age. The root of white supremacy is firmly planted in classical Greece
and it continues to thrive in Europeans’ psyche the world over to this day. Study the culture of
Greece and you will find the origin of racism and class and slavery. Barbarian was a pejorative
meaning “ignorant, brutal, and savage and referred to any persons whom were not “Greek”. In
modern “Greek” the word is “nigger”.


The Crips and The Spartans

Interestingly, yet not surprisingly, we find a group of young men trained and let loose to terrorize
specific communities in Greece. The Helots were a captured nation of people who were a
different racial group and who were made to be “share-croppers”. The Helots did all the work for
the Spartans, yet, they were not considered citizens of Greece, but they were, in fact, a race of
slaves. Any resemblance to any persons living in America today is not a coincidence. According
to Greek scholars, when a youth reached the age of sixteen (or possibly eighteen), he became a
member of the krypteia. The Krypteia was a kind of secret police force; its name is from the
63


Greek verb krypt, which means "conceal," thus indicates its subversive nature. Its purpose was
to intimidate the subjected Helot population. Leo Strauss, who is the godfather of the Neo-Cons,
is a devotee of the Spartan way of life.


Who were the Helots?

     Brutes and Animals

     Greeks held the assertion that some foreign peoples are bestial, savage, and even
     cannibalistic by nature – absolute markers not merely of inferiority but of utter
     depravity, meriting not subjugation but annihilation.

     Therefore Greek unsettling juxtaposition of quotes and their drive of Helot (native
     inhabitants of Sparta) extermination do not differ in essence from the worst deeds of
     holocaust or Serb ethnic cleansing.

     The most poisonous modern instances (e.g. Americans vs. African-Americans and
     Indians, Nazis vs. Jews and Slavs, Slavs vs. Albanians) have involved accusations,
     which were never leveled to the Greeks who practiced mass murder in antiquity.

     All those fears and suppression and the kinds of interactions that took place
     between Greco-Roman cultures played a powerful role in later forms of racism in
     Europe.

     Greek notorious ideas and pandemic of racism reached finally Rome. From the
     beginning the Roman Empire was a conglomerate of people hardly related by
     common language or divine ancestry. After the appreciation of Greek supremacy
     several curious permutations could be surveyed in Rome of the idea that foreigners
     were degraded beings who deserved to be conquered and enslaved.               Reprint
                                                                                                    64


Skin Color Before 1712

How unbelieveable can it be that Willie Lynch would craft a method of dividing slaves based on
skin color? In the history of Jamaica we read accounts similar to the following:

       ”Ethnicity was prominent in the organization and execution of slave revolts in Jamaica,
       especially those during the 17th and 18th centuries. Akan slaves were involved in most
       revolts. In 1673 about 300 Akan slaves revolted in the north central parish of Saint Ann. In
       1690 another Akan rebellion involving 400 slaves broke out on Suttons Estate in the south
       central parish of Clarendon.”18

Furthermore, cultural anthropologist traced the evolution of our divisions and consequently, the
devolution of our present paralyzing disunity and cultural identity confusion, for example:

       The new American-born slaves were different from their ancestors. They were born into a
       caste system and had never experienced freedom. They had never undergone the horrors of
       the middle passage and had not experienced the psychological shock of becoming a slave.
       Eventually, the American-born slaves did not have a language barrier with their masters or
       with the people in their environment (Brown). Unlike their ancestors, who once understood
       a more human type of slavery from their homeland, the American-born slave only knew one
       kind of slavery; dehumanizing race-based slavery of the white American planters (Brown).
       American-born slaves knew what was expected of them; they understood their masters’
       psychological make-up and knew how to employ this knowledge to suit their needs . . .
       Welsh 150). Mintz was able to enlighten us on the African and the American-born slave
       culture, “[a]ll slaves must have found themselves accepting . . . out of necessity the
       countless ‘foreign’ cultural practices, and implied a gradual remodeling of their own
       traditional ways of doing things” (47). The anthropologists and historians both agree that
       African-American culture emerged between 1720 and 1760 created by the Creole Blacks.

Walsh, Lorena S. From Calabar to Carter’s Grove: The History of a Virginia Slave Community.
The UP of South Carolina, 2001

18
     http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/43/130.html
65


Ms. Walsh’s book is about the lifeways and adaptive skills on South Carolina’s plantations.


Elijah Muhammad Taught The Most Intense Period Was
From 1555-1619 (The Missing 64 Years)

       “In the Caribbean there were even a few farms, notably in the Eastern
       Caribbean which produced slaves for sale.”

       The populations of the African continent, from which the slaves came, were extremely varied in
       ethnicity, culture and language. Most slaves had been13 forcibly separated from anyone with
       whom they could communicate, let alone anyone who shared their family or their ethnic
       background. By definition, the life they created, (language, culture or family) was never a matter
       of choice. In the Caribbean there were even a few farms, notably in the Eastern Caribbean which
       produced slaves for sale. All this had immense and enduring consequences on every aspect of
       Caribbean life and culture. Preserving a native language would have presented severe practical
       difficulties, even if slaves hadn’t been compelled to speak the language of their masters. But
       finding someone else who spoke the same language was practically impossible, so the dominance
       of European languages such as French and Spanish but particularly English, was both necessary
       and inevitable.
       Slaves were named by their masters. In a generation original names were forgotten. Those who
       had been bred, or sold away from their mother might never know their names in any case. For a
       time, the fashion among owners was to give their slaves classical names: Caesar, Pompey, Ovid.
       In French islands the ironical use of the word ‘king’ or ‘roi’ was popular, which gave rise to the
       name Leroy, but by and large, slaves were known by the names of people who owned the estates
       where they lived, which is why Caribbean families generally have European names.17


Mind you that we were bred as slaves over a 64-year period in the West Indies, just as
Elijah Muhammad taught!




13
     http://www.movinghere.org.uk/galleries/histories/caribbean/origins/origins.htm#disorientation
17
     http://www.movinghere.org.uk/galleries/histories/caribbean/origins/origins.htm#disorientation
                                                                                               66


                      Black Madonna and Child

The supplanting of the Black Madonna and Child in favor of a white Virgin Mary and a white
baby Jesus is the clearest historical record of just how acutely aware and also how shrewdly
manipulating the architects of white rule were. The erecting of Jesus as a Caucasian and his
mother Mary as a Caucasian was the most devastating, debilitating and destructive political,
religious and social tool ever devised as a weapon to defeat an enemy and lay claim to the
scepter of universal domination. It proved to be more successful than all of the armies of all of
the Crusades combined. A psychological victory is more permanent and more lasting than a
military subjugation. Willie Lynch had to have known that the original image of reverence was
the Black Madonna and Child and thus, it is the historically accurate one. Since 700 A.D. and
the second Nicene Council in 787 A.D., the poison of mental death was injected into the psyche
and the spirit of the darker members of the human family. The monument to white supremacy is
the image of a White Jesus, white angels and God the white father who is in fact a white man
who sits on the throne in heaven. I offer the following history:




    On the mountain named Montserrat, near Barcelona, in the Catalonia region of Spain, a
    church now contains a 'miracle-working' statue of the Madonna and Child known as La
    Moreneta, that is: the dark little one. Legend relates that the miraculous image was first
    known as La Jerosolimitana (the native of Jerusalem), since it is believed to have been
    carved in that city during the early days of the church. Another account, seemingly well-
    attested, indicates that the image was moved to Montserrat in 718, to avoid the danger posed
    by invading Saracens.

     The image disappears from the historical record at this point, to reappear in a legend
    holding that shepherds found the lost statue under supernatural guidance in 890: While
    tending their flocks that night the shepherds were amazed to see lights and to hear singing
    coming from the mountain. When this was repeated, the shepherds reported the situation to
    their priest, who investigated. When the priest also heard the singing and saw the mysterious
    lights, he informed the Bishop, and he also witnessed the phenomenon. The statue of Our
    Lady was discovered in a cave and was brought out and placed in a small church that was
    soon erected. However, the statue presently kept at the Montserrat shrine appears to have
    been introduced in the twelfth or thirteenth century. Its Romanesque style is consistent with
    this estimate.
67


20th CENTURY TERMS IN LYNCH SPEECH

What do the words history, anachronism, English, fuel, fool, proof and the prefix “re” have in
common—they all have their origin in languages that predate “the king’s English”. The
aforementioned anachronisms prompted Professor Ampim to conclude conclusively that this is
the smoking gun that proves that the Willie Lynch Letter is a recent hoax masqueraded as an
authentic historical document. Not so fast. English is a bastard language and a very recent
language that was spoken by very few people outside of the Angles. The English language is
derived from Latin, Greek and Germanic languages and was spoken only by small populations in
Britain, Ireland and Denmark until the late 15th century, having spread as European explorers
began to explore. They whom originated English and those whom speak English even call
themselves Anglo-Saxons, thereby acknowledging their Germanic roots. Latin was the principle
language of Europe because the Romans were the rulers of what are now Great Britain, Ireland
and France for centuries; therefore, it is quite plausible that any of the disputed anachronisms
could have been commonly used. As a matter of fact, they may well have been in vogue, then
forgotten, and then revived many times during the preceding centuries for all we know. We
can’t say for certain, but we can say that it is absolutely possible.

Nevertheless, we can speak with certainty of the bias of Anglo-Saxon historians and their
distortions of facts; for instance, they say that Columbus discovered America in 1492. That is
categorically false, because Native Americans had been here for centuries.

Furthermore, Anglo-Saxon historians heavily imply that William Shakespeare is the point and
paradigm of the “age of enlightenment” and the Holy Grail of Classical English; yet, the truth is
that there were greater substantive literary works written in and around the same period.
Because the other works were written in Latin and because they challenged the popular political
notions and historical viewpoints, they are strategically ignored. A salient case in point is the
writings of Sir Thomas Browne. Greek literature and writers inspired Latin literature and Latin
remained predominate even after English had begun to evolve to its present form. Many learned
and well-educated English speakers had knowledge of Latin as recent as the early 20th century.
The earliest English literature was written in so-called “Old English”, which evolve into so-
called “Middle English”. Anyone who has had an opportunity to read any prose in Old or
                                                                                                    68


Middle English can attest that it is almost undiscernibly to the ear of we whom speak Modern
English. From the Greek poet Homer, to the Latin poets Virgil and Horace, to the great Latin
play writers Plautus and Terence, prose has continued to evolve; thereby literature has shot her
arrow of inspiration into the imaginations of men through the barrier of foreign languages, thus
she has captured the fleeting moments of life causing time to stand still. Literature, with prose as
her only fountainhead, has imbued rote chronological records with spirit and enabled people who
are long dead and events that are long past to live again in the present. Excellent! Excellent
indeed!

Women got in on the act as well. St Catherine of Siena was one of the greatest spiritual minds of
her time. She wrote in Italian Latin and certainly the work of Nicolo’ Machiavelli resounds in
political arenas around the world as loudly today as it did in the 15th century. But most
importantly, Latin is a much more powerfully exact and descriptive language than English.
Many of her rich and vivid conveyances of meaning and spirit are impossible to capture and
reproduce in English. Think over the times you have tried to describe something to another
person and you were unable to come up with enough accurate adjectives. Oftentimes we must
settle for, “you know” the “what- cha-ma-call-it” or the “thing-uh-ma-jig”.


                                      Earliest Usages

Lexicologists do not give the absolute dates for the earliest usage or the origin of usage of any
particular word. Professor Ampim makes assertions about “earliest usage” of specific words that
Willie Lynch spoke, but at the same time he offers the reader no proof of his assertion. From the
Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary Tenth Edition, the lexicologists offer us what one
might deem to be a standard caveat:


  “Many words were certainly in spoken use for decades or even longer before
                            they passed into written language.”

    The date given applies only to the first sense of the word entered in this dictionary and not
    necessarily to the words earliest meaning in English. Many words, especially those with
    long histories, have obsolete, archaic, or uncommon senses that are not entered in this
69


     dictionary, and such senses have been excluded from consideration in determining the date .
     . . the printed date should not be taken to mark the very first time that the word-or even the
     sense-was used in English. Many words were certainly in spoken use for decades or even
     longer before they passed into written language. The date is for the earliest written or
     printed date that the editors have been able to discover. This fact means further that any is
     subject to change as evidence of still earlier use may emerge, and many dates given now can
     confidently be expected to yield to others in future printings and editions.

Another possibility is that whomever published the letter may have chosen to use a more
contemporary style of English much as the Biblical scholars have revised and rewritten The King
James Version in a modern English vernacular. The Living Bible is one example. Any person
who has read actual diaries and letters from that period will confirm that some of the English
vernacular can be almost indiscernible and unintelligible even to the ear of the most proficient
English speakers. Therefore, the so-called modern anachronisms that have been purported to be
concrete proof of the “Willie Lynch Letter” being a hoax, in reality, prove nothing and,
moreover, they have zero scholarly value.


“I shall assure you that distrust is stronger than trust and
envy is stronger than adulation, respect, or admiration.” ~
Willie Lynch

Forthrightly, and with all of the candor that I can muster, I challenge you my dear esteemed
professor Ampim first on your motive. Clearly your motive is neither the love of nor the
enlightenment of Black people. Your motive is to discredit The Honorable Louis Farrakhan and
to sow the seeds of distrust in those whom love and believe in him. (Á la Willie Lynch)

Even those of you who have sought to refute the authenticity of The Willie Lynch Speech with
all of your scholarship and great intellectual acumen, in conjunction with your high academic
credentials, have yourselves carelessly published that which is not altogether true. Even though
you strongly assert that Willie Lynch is a “hoax”, yet you admit that you can only conjecture as
to its origin and its author. If one wants to attempt to win a historical debate on the basis of
                                                                                                    70


conjecture that’s their prerogative, however, when one purports to put forth a program for the
liberation of an oppressed people, then it becomes an unacceptable disservice.

Let us be crystal clear; for it is most certainly clear to me that this whole attack on Willie Lynch
is in actuality an attack on The Honorable Louis Farrakhan. It was written on the pages of
prophecy, which by the way is history written in advance, more than 2000 years ago that unless
the authorities and the “powers that be” stop The Honorable Louis Farrakhan the whole world
will go after him, meaning they will follow him; and that prophecy is now being fulfilled. It is
too late for them to stop Louis Farrakhan, however, it is not too late for us to accept the
Minister’s guidance and follow his lead. The Honorable Louis Farrakhan is leading us out of the
mental trap that Willie Lynch fashioned and fastened centuries ago. We, the masses, trust
Farrakhan. Willie Lynch taught that distrust is stronger than trust. Therefore, this attack on the
Willie Lynch Speech is a last gasp and a feeble attempt at trying to divide us and separate us
from our guide so that the enemies of us all can get a chance to kill him and kill our rise along
with him. It is written that they wanted to kill him but they feared the people. No, no, no—you
cannot fool us today and you cannot create distrust in The Honorable Louis Farrakhan who has
earned our trust. The only thing you can do is to expose yourself.

As for us, we support The Honorable Minister Louis Farrakhan with our lives and our property.
This is the time of the fire. There is safety on the inside of the circle of a movement of unity,
The Millions More Movement; don’t be caught on the outside looking in.

Your Brother,
Rahim Muhammad
71


FULL TEXT OF THE WILLIE LYNCH WRITINGS11

Prefaced by Commentary on Willie Lynch “handbook” by
Frederick Douglas




The following treatise, to the knowledgeable, will be the missing link that has been sought to
explain how we were put into the condition that find ourselves in today. It confirms the fact that
the slave holder tried to leave nothing to chance when it came to his property; his slaves. It
demonstrates, how out of necessity, the slave holder had to derive a system for perpetuating his
cash crop, the slave, while at the same time insulating himself from retribution by his unique
property.

A careful analysis of the following "handbook" will hopefully change the ignorant among our
people who say "Why study slavery?" Those narrow minded people will be shown that the
condition of people is due to a scientific and psychological blue print for the perpetuation of the
mental condition that allowed slavery to flourish. The slaveholder was keenly aware of the
breeding principles of his livestock and the following treatise demonstrates that he thoroughly
used those principles on his human livestock as well, the African Slave, and added a debilitating
psychological component as well.

It was the interest and business of slaveholders to study human nature, in particular, with view to
practical results, and many of them attained astonishing proficiency in this direction. They had to
deal not with earth, wood, and stone, but with men, and by every regard they had, for their own
safety and prosperity, the need to know the material on which they were to work.

Conscious of the injustice and wrong they were every hour perpetuating and knowing what they
"The following treatise, to the knowledgeable, will be the missing link that has been sought to
explain how we were put into the condition that find ourselves in today. It confirms the fact that

11
     http://www.northtulsa.com/willielyn.htm#top
                                                                                                    72


the slave holder tried to leave nothing to chance when it came to his property; his slaves. It
demonstrates, how out of necessity, the slave holder had to derive a system for perpetuating his
cash crop, the slave, while at the same time insulating himself from retribution by his unique
property.

Conscious of the injustice and wrong they were every hour perpetuating and knowing what they
themselves would do if they were the victims of such wrongs. They were constantly looking for
the first signs of the dreaded retribution. They watched, therefore, with skilled and practiced
eyes, and learned to read, with great accuracy, the state of mind and heart of the slave, through
his stable face. Unusual sobriety, apparent abstraction, sullenness, and indifference, indeed any
mood out of the common way afforded ground for suspicion and inquiry. Let's Make A Slave" is
a study of the scientific process of man breaking and slave making. It describes the rationale and
results of the Anglo Saxon's ideas and methods of insuring the master/slave relationship."

Frederick Douglas
73


"LET'S MAKE A SLAVE"
By Willie Lynch
The Origin and Development of a Social Being Called "The Negro"
Let us make a slave. What do we Need?

First of all we need a black nigger man, a pregnant nigger woman and her baby nigger boy.
Second, we will use the same basic principle that we use in breaking a horse, combined with
some more sustaining factors. We reduce them from their natural state in nature; whereas nature
provides them with the natural capacity to take care of their needs and the needs of their
offspring, we break that natural string of independence from them and thereby create a
dependency state so that we maybe able to get from them useful production for our business and
pleasure.

CARDINAL PRINCIPLE FOR MAKING A NEGRO For fear that our future generations may
not understand the principle of breaking both horses and men, we lay down the art. For, if we are
to sustain our basic economy we must break both of the beasts together, the nigger and the horse.
We understand that short range planning in economics results in periodic economic chaos, so
that, to avoid turmoil in the economy, it requires us to have breadth and depth in long range
comprehensive planning, articulating both skill and sharp perception. We lay down the following
principles for lang range comprehensive economic planning: Both horse and niggers are no good
to the economy in the wild or natural state.

     1. Both must be broken and tied together for orderly production.
     2. For orderly futures, special and particular attention must be paid to the female and the
        youngest offspring.
     3. Both must be crossbred to produce a variety and division of labor.
     4. Both must taught to respond to a peculiar new language.
     5. Psychological and physical instruction of containment must be created for both.

We hold the above six cardinals as truths to be self-evident, based upon following discourse
concerning the economics of breaking and tying the horse and nigger together...all inclusive of
the six principles laid down above. NOTE: Neither principles alone will suffice for good
                                                                                                    74


economics. All principles must be employed for the orderly good of the nation. Accordingly,
both a wild horse and a wild or natural nigger is dangerous even if captured, for they will have
the tendency to seek their customary freedom, and, in doing so, might kill you in your sleep. You
cannot rest. They sleep while you are awake and are awake while you are asleep. They are
dangerous near the family house and it requires too much labor to watch them away from the
house. Above all you cannot get them to work in this natural state. Hence, both the horse and the
nigger must be broken, that is break them from one form of mental life to another, keep the body
and take the mind. In other words, break the will to resist.

Now the breaking process in the same for the horse and the nigger, only slightly varying in
degrees. But as we said before, you must keep your eye focused on the female and the offspring
of the horse and the nigger. A brief discourse in offspring development will shed light on the key
to sound economic principle. Pay little attention to the generation of original breaking but
concentrate on future generations. Therefore, if you break the female, she will break the
offspring in its early years of development and, when the offspring is old enough to work, she
will deliver it up to you. For her normal female protective tendencies will have been lost in the
original breaking process. For example, take the case of the wild stud horse, a female horse and
an already infant horse and compare the breaking process with two captured nigger males in their
natural state, a pregnant nigger woman with her infant offspring. Take the stud horse, break him
for limited containment. Completely break the female horse until she becomes very gentle
whereas you or anybody can ride her in comfort. Breed the mare until you have the desired
offspring. Then you can turn the stud to freedom until you need him again. Train the female
horse whereby she will eat out of your hand, and she will train the infant horse to eat of your
hand also.

When it comes to breaking the uncivilized nigger, use the same process, but vary the degree and
step up the pressure so as to do a complete reversal of the mind. Take the meanest and most
restless nigger, strip him of his clothes in front of the remaining niggers, the female, and the
nigger infant, tar and feather him, tie each leg to a different horse faced in opposite directions, set
him a fire and beat both horses to pull him apart in front of the remaining niggers. The nest step
is to take a bullwhip and beat the remaining nigger male to the point of death in front of the
75


female and the infant. Don't kill him. But put the fear of God in him, for he can be useful for
future breeding.

THE BREAKING PROCESS OF THE AFRICAN WOMAN Take the female and run a series of
tests on her to see if she will submit to you desires willingly. Test her in every way, because she
is the most important factor for good economic. If she shows any signs of resistance in
submitting completely to your will, do not hesitate to use the bull whip on her to extract that last
bit of bitch out of her. Take care not to kill her, for in doing so, you spoil good economics. When
in complete submission, she will train her offspring in the early years to submit to labor when
they become of age. Understanding is the best thing.

Therefore, we shall go deeper into this area of the subject matter concerning what we have
produced here in this breaking of the female nigger. We have reversed the relationship. In her
natural uncivilized state she would have a strong dependency on the uncivilized nigger male, and
she would have a limited protective dependency toward her independent male offspring and
would raise female offspring to be dependent like her. Nature had provided for this type of
balance. We reversed nature by burning and dependent like her. Nature had provided for this
type of balance. We reversed nature by burning and pulling one civilized nigger apart and bull
whipping the other to the point of death--all in her presence. By her being left alone, unprotected,
with male image destroyed, the ordeal cased her to move from her psychological dependent state
to a frozen independent state. In this frozen psychological state of independence she will raise
her male and female offspring in reversed roles. For fear of the young male's life she will
psychologically train him to be mentally weak and dependent but physically strong. Because she
has become psychologically independent, she will train her female offspring to be psychological
independent as well. What have you got? You've got the nigger woman out front and the nigger
man behind and scared. This is perfect situation for sound sleep and economics. Before the
breaking process, we had to be alert and on guard at all times. Now we can sleep soundly, for out
of frozen fear, his woman stand guard for us. He cannot get past her early infant slave molding
process. He is good tool, now ready to be tied to the horse at a tender age. By the time a nigger
boy reaches the age of sixteen, he is soundly broken in and ready for a long life of sound and
efficient work and the reproduction of a unit of good labor force.
                                                                                                     76


Continually, through the breaking of uncivilized savage niggers, by throwing the nigger female
savage into a frozen psychological state of independency, by killing the protective male image,
and by creating a submissive dependent mind of the nigger male slave, we have created an
orbiting cycle that turns on its own axis forever, unless a phenomenon occurs and re shifts the
positions of the male and female savages. We show what we mean by example. We breed two
nigger males with two nigger females. Then we take the nigger males away from them and keep
them moving and working. Say the nigger female bear a nigger female and the other bears a
nigger male. both nigger females, being without influence of the nigger male image, frozen with
an independent psychology, will raise him to be mentally dependent and weak, but physically
strong...in other words, body over mind. We will mate and breed them and continue the cycle.
That is good, sound, and long range comprehensive planning.

WARNING: POSSIBLE INTERLOPING NEGATIVES Earlier, we talked about the non-
economic good of the horse and the nigger in their wild or natural state; we talked out the
principle of breaking and tying them together for orderly production, furthermore, we talked
about paying particular attention to the female savage and her offspring for orderly future
planning; then more recently we stated that, by reversing the positions of the male and female
savages we had created an orbiting cycle that turns on its own axis forever, unless phenomenon
occurred, and re shifted the positions of the male and female savages.

Our experts warned us about the possibility of this phenomenon occurring, for they say that the
mind has a strong drive to correct and re correct itself over a period of time if it can touch some
substantial original historical base; and they advised us that the best way to deal with
phenomenon is to shave off the brute's mental history and create a multiplicity of phenomenon or
illusions so that each illusion will twirl in its own orbit, something akin to floating balls in a
vacuum. This creation of a multiplicity of phenomenon or illusions entails the principles of
crossbreeding the nigger and the horse as we stated above, the purpose of which is to create a
diversified division of labor. The result of which is severance of the points of original
beginning's for each spherical illusion. Since we fell that the subject matter may get more
complicated as we proceed in laying down our economic plan concerning the purpose, reason,
and effect of cross-breeding horses and niggers, we shall lay down the following definitional
terms for future generations.
77


     1. Orbiting cycle means a thing turning in a given pattern.
     2. Axis means upon which or around which a body turns.
     3. Phenomenon means something beyond ordinary conception and inspires awe and
        wonder.
     4. Multiplicity means a great number.
     5. Sphere means a globe.
     6. Cross-breeding a horse means taking a horse and breeding it with an ass and you get a
        dumb backward ass, long headed mule that is not reproductive nor productive by itself.
     7. Cross-breeding niggers means taking so many drops of good white blood and putting
        them into as many nigger women as possible, varying the drops by the various tone that
        you want, and then letting them breed with each other until cycle of colors appear as you
        desire.

What this means is this: Put the niggers and the horse in the breeding or, mix some asses and
some good white blood and what do you get? You got a multiplicity of colors of ass backwards,
unusual niggers, running, tied to backwards ass long headed mules, the one productive of itself,
the other sterile. (The one constant, the other dying. We keep nigger constant for we may replace
the mule for another tool) both mule and nigger tied to each other, neither knowing where the
other came from and neither productive for itself, nor without each other.

CONTROLLED LANGUAGE Cross-breeding completed, for further severance from their
original beginning, we must completely annihilate the mother tongue of both the nigger and the
new mule and institute a new language that involves the new life's work of both. You know,
language is a peculiar institution. It leads to the heart of people. the more a foreigner knows
about the language of another country the more he is able to move through all levels of that
society. Therefore, if the foreigner is an enemy of the country, to the extent that he knows the
body of the language, to that extent is the country vulnerable to attack or invasion of a foreign
culture. For example, you take the slave, if you teach him all about your language, he will know
all your secrets, and he is then no more a slave, for you can't fool him any longer and having a
fool is one of the basic ingredients of and incidents to the making of the slavery system.
                                                                                                                 78


By The Black ArcadeArcade Liberation Library; 1970 (recompiled and reedited by Kenneth T.
Spann


More History on Lynches
Thomas Lynch immigrated from Scotland in 1677. The Lynchs were one of the “14 Tribes of Galway.” 14 Families
joined together in the 14th century to build a wall around Galway. (Lynch & Athy were two of the 14) These
families held power until the upheavels of the 1600s. (Source T. Whit Athey)
1757- INVENTORY BOOK 1751-53 p III Col. Th. Lynch is deceased, and his daughter has married
Gilson Clapp, died, leaving two children: Elizabeth Clapp, d in infancy and Mary Clapp. The
appraisers were Thomas Lynch, Andrew Johnson and Allard Bellin dated 25 Jan.
member of the Commons House of Assembly. He also served as a Justice




Some Historic Families of South Carolina by Frampton E. Ellis, Atlanta, GA, 1905. pp. 29-30.
He was Grandfather of the Signer of the Declaration of Independence.
He was in Georgetown SC.
He moved the family to the ancestral home of Hopsewee plantation just south of Georgetown.
He suffered a stroke in 1776 in Philadelphia serving in the Second Continental Congress. He could not sign the
Declaration of Ind. and at 26 his son signed...in his place.



Shown born SC on GenCircles.com




BIOGRAPHY OF THE SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE by John Sanderson
published by R.W. Pomeroy Philadelphia 1823



LYNCH FAMILIES OF THE SOUTHERN STATES Lineages and Court Records Compiled by Lois
Davidson Hined Edited and Published by Dorothy Ford Wulfeck 51 Park Ave. Naugatuck, Conn.
06770 1966



THE LYNCHES From Ireland to Eastern NC In the Counties of: Craven, Johnston, Dobbs, Wayne
by Frances Lynch Deans
served as a member of the Commons House
He received a 600-acre grant on the South shore of the Cooper River by the Provi
79

1677- He came to Carolina and received a Land Grant of 600 acres as ordered by the
Council 30 Apr 1677. In May, 1679, a further grant was made of 100 acres of land marked and
builded on by the said Lynch allready...His name is spelled Johna and Jonah in early records.



He summerized the resons which induced him to emigrate-still in possession of his descendants.



Name of first wife not known...and second was mother of children.
He was a prosperous planter of rice and a member of the Carolina Legislature. SC.
1678- PROVINCE REGISTER for 1675-1696 p 76 Archives Dept 11 Jan 1678-- 2 calendars in use-
Jonah Lynch and Richard Conard, arbitrators; deal between John Smyth, Robert Smyth of Charles
Town,SC and their father, Henry Smyth of Hartford in England
1681- ORDINARY REGISTER p 84 Jonah Lynch appointed appraiser of the estate of Richard Banks 30
Jul 1681
1682-GRANT Jun 22 to Jonah Lynch 78- acres on SS of eastern branch of Cooper River (Provincial
Grants by the Proprietors)



ORDINARY REGISTER or PRIVINCE REGISTER 1675-1696 p 321 Jonah Lynch is deceased, widow Margaret
appointed administratrix. Her bond, dated 5 Feb 1681-2 surities John Collins and Johnson Lynch, gentleman.



They were all in the Berkeley County area of South Carolina (Charleston Lodi Palmer”



Name: Sarah Lynch Born: ABT 1700 at: Charles Town & Prince George Parish, SC Married: at: Died: at:
Spouses: James Belin Sr http://www.fdu.com/family/tree/fam05375.htm shows Sara a child-but date of birth after
Father’s death.


REPRINT



There are slave cemeteries on the Lynches plantations.
                                                                                                                               80


Index

                               “                                                                 F
“Lynch's Castle, 20                                               Fredrick Douglass, 50, 51, 54
“Willie Lynch Speech”, 7, 9                                       Fruit of Islam, 7
“Willie Lynch”, 9, 28, 46
                                                                                                 G
                               A
                                                                  Galway, Ireland, 12, 20
African, 7, 10, 14, 15, 28, 31, 33, 34, 36, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52,   George Washington, 53
    59, 60, 65, 66, 74                                            Greek, 9, 64, 65, 68, 69
Allah, 6, 8, 10, 57
Anthropology, 55
Antigua, 11, 13, 16
                                                                                                 H
April Lee Hatfield, 27, 30                                        Hatfield. See April Lee Hatfield
Archives, 14, 81                                                  Henry Box Brown, 34
archivists, 11, 13, 14                                            Henry Brown, 35
aristocracy, 34                                                   Hernan’ Cortes’, 62
Aristotle, 63                                                     Historians, 28, 31, 47, 59
Atlantic slave trade, 5                                           Holy Qur’ân, 57
Aztecs, 62, 63                                                    Homer, 63, 69
                                                                  Hon William Matthew, 17
                               B                                  Honorable Elijah Muhammad, 5, 7, 32, 51, 54, 56, 59
                                                                  Honorable Louis Farrakhan, 6, 9, 11, 71
Barbados, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 48                              Horace, 69
Bartolomé de Las Casas, 60
Black Madonna, 67
Brooke M. Black, 54
                                                                                                 J
                                                                  J.A. Rogers, 32
                               C                                  Jakob Ludwig Grimm, 9
                                                                  Jamaica, 33, 34, 37, 65
Captain Lynch, 33                                                 James River, 28
Caribbean, 8, 12, 16, 26, 30, 51, 66, 67                          John P. Schmal, 63
Caribbean Islands, 8, 26
Chesapeake, 28, 30
                                                                                                 K
Chesapeake Bay, 28
Classical Europe, 63                                              Kenneth T. Spann, 50, 80
Colony, 27
Creole, 14, 15, 66
Creoles, 50, 58
                                                                                                 L
Crusades, 67                                                      Last Will and Testament, 32
cultural anthropologists, 11, 58                                  Latin, 9, 68, 69
                                                                  Leo Strauss, 64
                              D                                   Leroy, 67
                                                                  Lexicologists, 70
Declaration Of Independence, 5                                    Lynch, 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23,
Deeds, 16                                                            24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42,
divide and conquer, 56, 59, 63                                       46, 49, 50, 51, 53, 57, 59, 68, 70, 71, 73, 75, 81
                                                                  Lynch Law, 20
                               E                                  Lynch Plantation, 12
                                                                  Lynch's Castle (16th C.: National Monument),, 20
Elijah Muhammad, 5, 7, 56, 66
Elizabeth Lynch, 46
Encyclopedia, 27, 28, 51, 61
                                                                                                M
Equiano. See Olaudah Equiano                                      Manu, 9, 10, 11, 14, 27, 28, 32, 49, 51, 56
81

Margaret A. Harris, 58                                          S
Mexica of Tenochtitlán, 63
Million Man March, 7, 10          Sally Hemings, 55
Moctezuma, 63                     savages, 7, 62, 78, 79
Moors, 59                         Sir Francis Drake, 59, 60
Mulatto, 33, 34, 36               Sir John Hawkins, 59, 60
                                  Sir Lynch, 33
                                  Skin Color, 65
                             N    Spanish Christians, 59
Nation Of Islam, 10               Spanish Inquisition, 62
Negro, 9, 75                      Spanish Jews, 61
New Spain, 62                     Spanish Maroons, 50, 58
Nicene Council, 67                St Eustatius, 24
Nicolo’ Machiavelli, 69           St. Eustatius, 27


                             O                                  T
Olaudah Equiano, 48, 49           The Millions More Movement, 72
Olmec, 62                         THE MILLIONS MORE MOVEMENT, 58
one-drop rule, 46                 The Willie Lynch Letter, 6
Origin, 17, 20, 75                Thomas Jefferson, 55
Original people, 7                Thomas Lynch III, 24
Ottoman Empire, 59                Thomas Lynch, Jr, 23, 24


                             P                                  V
Perpetual Slaves, 51              Vincent Carretta, 49
Plantation, 12, 27, 36            Virgil, 69
plantations, 32, 33, 56, 66, 82   Virginia, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 51, 66
Popes, 62                         Virginia Black Code of 1705, 29
primary sources, 46
Prof. Manu Ampim, 9, 10                                         W
Provenance, 52, 54
                                  Walsh, Lorena S, 66
                                  West Indian, 12, 14, 15, 24, 31, 33, 48
                             Q    West Indies, 8, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 32, 59,
Quadroon, 33                         61
                                  Western Hemisphere, 7, 62
                                  William Lynch, 5, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 25, 26, 31, 32, 34,
                             R       36, 37, 40, 46
                                  William T. Hagan, 54
     , 63, 65
msicar
                                  Wills, 16, 47
Racism, 59, 63
                   82


Thanks to Allah.

				
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