Persia - 1 Ancient History Dr Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones “When the

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Persia - 1 Ancient History Dr Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones “When the Powered By Docstoc
					       Ancient History                                    Dr Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones

                            “When the Medes Came.”
                         Persia – the Threat from the East

   Pomeroy et al. pp. 122-126.

Rulers of the Achaemenid Dynasty

   •   Achaemenes of Anshan.
   •   Teispes of Anshan, his son.
   •   Cyrus I of Anshan, his son.
   •   Ariaramnes of Persia, son of Teispes and co-ruler of Cyrus I.
   •   Cambyses I of Anshan, son of Cyrus I.
   •   Arsames of Persia, son of Ariaramnes and co-ruler of Cambyses I
   •   Cyrus II the Great, son of Cambyses I, ruled from c.550 - 530 BC.
   •   Cambyses II, his son, ruled 530 - 521 BC.
   •   Smerdis, his alleged brother, ruled 521 BC
   •   Darius I, his brother-in-law and grandson of Arsames, ruled 521 -486 BC.
   •   Xerxes I, his son, ruled 486 -465 BC
   •   Artaxerxes I, his son, ruled 464 - 424 BC.
   •   Xerxes II, his son, ruled 424 - 423 BC.
   •   Sogdianus, his half-brother and rival, ruled 424 - 423 BC.
   •   Darius II, his half-brother and rival, ruled 424 - 404 BC.
   •   Artaxerxes II, his son, ruled 404 - 358 BC.
   •   Artaxerxes III,his son, ruled 358 - 338 BC
   •   Arses, his son, ruled 338 - 336 BC
   •   Darius III Codomannus, great-grandson of Darius II, ruled 336 -330 BC

Document 1. Xenophanes of Colophon (late C6th BC):
     Such things should be said besides the fire in the wintertime when a man reclines
     full-fed on a soft couch, drinking the sweet wine and munching chick peas – such

       things as “Who and from where are you? And how old are you? What age were
       you when the Medes came?”

Document 2. Darius the Great’s Bisitun Inscription:

       I am Darius the Great King, King of Kings, King in Persia, King of countries, son
       of Hystaspes, grandson of Arsames, an Achaemenid. … Saith Darius the King:
       By the favour of Ahuramazda I am King; Ahuramazda bestowed the kingdom
       upon me. … Saith Darius the King: These are the countries which came unto me;
       by the favor of Ahuramazda I was king of them: Persia, Elam, Babylonia,
       Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, (those) who are beside the sea, Sardis, Ionia, Media,
       Armenia, Cappadocia, Parthia, Drangiana, Aria, Chorasmia, Bactria, Sogdiana,
       Gandara, Scythia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Maka: in all, twenty three countries.
       Saith Darius the King: These are the countries which came unto me; by the favour
       of Ahuramazda they were my subjects; they bore tribute to me; what was said
       unto them by me either by night or by day, that was done.

       Document 3. Darius’ Persepolis Inscription:
       By the favour of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I got into my
       possession along with this Persian people, which felt fear of me and bore me
       tribute : Elam, Media, Babylonia, Arabia, Assyria, Egypt, Armenia,
       Cappadocia, Lydia, the Greeks who are of the mainland and those who are by
       the sea, and countries which are across the sea, Sagartia, Parthia, Drangiana,
       Aria, Bactria, Sogdia, Chorasmia, Sattagydia, Arachosia, Hinduš, Gandara,
       Scythians, Maka.

Document 4. Herodotus (1.134):
     [Persians] most of all hold themselves in honour, then those that dwell next to
     themselves, then those next to them, and so on, so that there is progression in
     honour relating to distance. They hold least in honour those whose habitation
     is furthest from their own. This is because they rank themselves to be the best
     in mankind of everything and that others have a hold on virtue in proportion to
     their nearness; those who live furthest away are most base.

The Achaemenid Empire