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					        Vegetable Gardening                            Growing Through Knowing




      Created by Pat Patterson and Linda Renslow                      MG Training 2011
        OSU Extension Service in Lane County       1                                                  2




   THINK HOLISTICALLY                                      Sustainable Gardening




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     Live Lightly on the Earth                                  It Is about Soil
                                                       Soilless mixes & the myth of sterile medium
Do not grow old, no matter how long you live.
  Never cease to stand like curious children           Compost

before the Great Mystery into which we were            The Soil
                     born.                                Native
–Albert Einstein                                          Porosity
                                                          Amending, esp. clay & sand

                                                   5                                                  6




                                                                                                          1
                The Gardener                                Why Grow Your Own?
 The ultimate gardener is                                                      • Know quality of food
 the natural process
                                                                               • Control of plant health
 When another gardener
                                                                                 and vigor
 steps in the process is
 always changed, be it ant                                                     • Timing
 or human.                                                                     • Choice of varieties
 Can we modify & yet not
                                                                               • Save money in theory
 destroy?
                                                                               • Pleasure – re-creation
                                                                                 of self & surroundings
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            Future Generations                                          Survival


                                                                               • Weeds to Vegetable

                                                                               • The Contract




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              Record Keeping                                        Site Selection
This distinguishes the real gardener
  – 3x5 cards or garden journal or computer        •   Sunlight
  – Calendar with large spaces                     •   Air drainage
  – Notebook & pencil in garden & mailbox          •   Wind
  – Mini-max thermometer in garden                 •   Water availability
  – Soil thermometer                               •   Soil type
  – Camera optional but great                      •   Location in reference
  – Somehow to map your beds (Google map?)             to the greater area

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                                                                                                            2
  How Does My Garden Grow?                                     How Does My Garden Grow?
                  •   Light
                  •   Air                                  •   Soil interactions
                  •   Temperature                          •   Organic matter
                  •   Nutrients                            •   Heavy feeders
                  •   Water                                •   Soil builders
                  •   Organisms                            •   Avoid setbacks
                  •   Maintain Growth
                      Momentum

                                                      13                                                   14




          Plant Nutrients                                        Fertilizer: What and When
• Calcium                                                  • Seed is independent   • Sidedress if not
                             Needed in large                                         enough residual
• Magnesium                                                • P 1st 15% of life
                             amounts in addition to
                                                           • Mix some fertilizer     nutrients (building
                             NPK.
• Sulfur                                                                             blocks)
                                                             into the bottom of
                                                             planting hole for
         Remember, the nutrient barrel needs                 transplants.
         all the elements for healthy growth!



                                                      15                                                   16




  A Word about Crop Rotation                                               Deadheading
                                                           • What is the plant’s objective in life?
                                                           • What do we want the plant to do?
                                                           • How does deadheading fit in, be it flower or
                                                             food production?
                                                           • When should you not deadhead?



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                                                                                                                3
Maintain Growth Momentum                                   Plant Talk
                                          • Plants may compete or cooperate.
                                          • Plant roots exude substances which may
                                            turn away competing roots or enhance their
                                            growth.
                                          • Plant roots attract other soil life forms such
                                            as fungi, bacteria, soil mites.
                                          • Decaying plant roots also fuel the soil web

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 Plants & above ground life                                 Soil Life
            • Plants live in a world of                            • Moles to microbes, the
              chemical & sound                                       soil is alive and
              signals. Salicylic acid.                               teeming.
                                                                   • If any part of the soil
            • They constantly receive                                web is disturbed, all
              and send messages to                                   parts are disturbed.
              each other and to “bugs”                               Till as little as possible
            • Since they are rooted in                             • Type of plant
                                                                     determines biolife
              place, they must get                                   present.
              others to come to them.




                                                Building the Web of Life
                                          Life builds on organic matter
                                          Proper pH and water levels enhance life
                                          Avoid sudden shocks to the system
                                          Diversity builds a healthy web of life below
                                            and above the soil line.
                                          Diversity of nutrients and of plants

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                                                                                                  4
            Rule of nutrient availability
                                                        Feeding the Soil & the Plant
                                                     • Organic fertilizers: what & how they
                                                        work
                                                       – From natural sources with minimal
                                                         processing
                                                       – Tend to be multi-element sources
                                                       – Tend to break out more slowly than
                                                         synthetics
                                                       – Tend also to feed the soil life
                                                       – Tend to be better balanced
                                                25




               Mulching                                             Cover Crops
•   Mulches can be organic or inorganic              • Cover crops :
•   Organic mulches add to the soil system             – prevent erosion and compaction
                                                       – provide for better air and water penetration
•   Mulches prevent erosion and compaction
                                                       – hold nutrients
•   Mulches prevent most weeds                         – produce organic matter for next year
•   As they break down or are turned under,            – provide habitat for beneficial insects
    organic mulches add OM                             – reduce weed invasion
                                                       – may even be edible
                                                       – Easy weeds make a great cover crop




      Types of cover crops                            Winter Garden with Chickweed
                          • Legume cover crops
                            add nitrogen
                          • Grain cover crops add
                            large amounts of OM
                          • Small-flowered nectar
                            crops enhance
                            beneficials
                          • A mix is best

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                                                                                                             5
                  Manures                           Manure Safety
• Manures of herbivores,                • Fresh manures should always be thoroughly
  especially if mixed with                composted before use in the growing food garden.
  bedding                               • Manures may be contaminated with E. coli or
• No omnivore or carnivore                salmonella.
  manures                               • Fresh manures may also carry weed seeds,
• If applying raw manures, dig            symphylans or pathogens.
  them in in the fall. Compost          • Wear gloves when handling & practice food safety
  them first if applying to
  growing plants.
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    Always assess the true costs                      What to Grow
                                                                  •   Family preference
• Shipping                                                        •   Varies by Season
                                                                  •   Varies by Location
• Recycling                                                       •   Many other plants are
                                                                      also desirable in a
                                                                      vegetable garden.
• Diversity


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                 Rosemary                       The Variety Is the Key
                                                             • A major benefit of
                                                               starting your own seeds
                                                               is the wealth of
                                                               cultivars then available
                                                               to you at just the right
                                                               timing.


                                   35                                                         36




                                                                                                   6
                                                                                      Hybrid or Heirloom?


• For spring and winter gardening, choosing the correct
  variety is your key.
• Allow 20-25% more time than on the packet
• For summer crops follow the 20% rule because of our cool
  nights.
• Try saving seed to develop a plant best suited to your
  microclimate.

                                                         37                                                 38




      The Joy of Winter in the Greenhouse
                                                         40                                                 41
                                                              http://www.attra.org/




                  Planting Seeds                                                        Seeds Hands On
              •   Large vs. small seed                             • Seed tapes
              •   Enhancing germination                            • Germination tips
              •   Fertilizer                                       • Handling transplants
              •   Watering
              •   Indoors vs. outdoors



                                                         42                                                 43




                                                                                                                 7
              Transplants                  Cold Frames & Hot Beds
• Warm season
                                      • A cold frame is a miniature greenhouse
  plants
                                        which can be vented. It is used for
• Pricking out                          hardening off & early growing on.
• Potting on                          • A Hot bed is the same structure but heated
• Purchasing                            by manure, electrical cable or hot water
• Hardening off                         pipes. It is especially good for promoting
• Planting out                          root growth and doing cuttings.

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                                                 Mini-Greenhouses
    Cold Frame for Transplants
                                                 for Hardening Off




                                 46                                                  47




         Waiting Their Turn                      Transplanted out




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                                                                                          8
        Protected Transplants                               Companion Planting
                                                     Trap cropping
                                                     Symbiotic nitrogen fixation
                                                     Biochemical suppression
                                                     Nurse cropping
                                                     Beneficial habitats
                                                     Security through diversity



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                                                             Intensive Planting
                                                         Succession & Interplanting
                                                     Keeping each space productive is the secret.
                                                     It also will diversify your garden, make it
                                                     healthier and reduce weed & pest invasion.




                                             52                                                     53




       Intensive Plant Spacing                               Succession Planting
• Maximize space, use hexagonal spacing           Cool Season              Early spring
• Intercrop to get more than one crop per year    Warm Season              Summer
• Grow many varieties to maximize diversity       Cool Season              Fall
                                                  Winter cover             Winter
                                                   crop &
                                                   holding
                                                   pattern.


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                                                                                                         9
      Interplanting                               Bean Structure
• Long season & short season
  – carrots & radishes
• Heavy & light feeders
  – lettuce & spinach
• Tall & shade tolerant
  – Corn & squash
• N fixers & heavy feeder
  – Beans & eggplant
                               56                                  57




       Deer Fence                                 Ways to Water
                                    •   Mother Nature’s rain
                                    •   Rainbird
                                    •   Oscillating sprinkler
                                    •   Hand watering
                                    •   Furrow
                                    •   Drip

                               58                                  59




     Drip Irrigation




                               60                                  61




                                                                        10
                                                                Fine Soil over Coarse Soil
            Watering Demo
• How H2O moves in soil in contact with
  atmosphere
  – Like to like
  – Like to dissimilar
  – Rocks for drainage?

• Pore space (Macro & Micro)
  – Saturated, Gravitational water, cohesive &
    adhesive water
                                                 62                                          63




                     Later                                        Breakthrough




                                                 64                                          65




             Weed Control?                                 Wildly Successful Plants
                           • Prevent                  • Hoe, hoe, hoe!
                             competition              • Weed shifting
                           • Edibles                  • Using the weeds
                           • Beneficial insects
                           • Invasive plants
                           • Weeds as a crop

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                                                                                                  11
                      Sunchoke             Some More Choice Edible Weeds
• Helianthus tuberosus                 •   Chickweed
• perennial                            •   Amaranth
                                       •   Lambsquarter
                                       •   Purslane
                                       •   Bittercress
                                       •   Wild Mustard

                                  68                                                69




               Stinging Nettle                   Why Raised Beds?
                                       • Grow more in less space
                                       • Maintain a more stable biosystem
                                       • Raised beds are easier on your body & on
                                         your plants.
                                       • Raised beds put you in control
                                       • Garden year round

                                  70                                                71




      Raised Beds vs. Flat Rows                    Concrete Block
•   Raised beds
•   Elevated beds
•   Planting bags
•   Straw bale beds
    – As sides
    – Planting into



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                                                                                         12
                                                            Lasagna Garden
                  Straw Bale
            • Use straw bales for walls                               •   Sheet mulching
                                                                      •   No till garden
                                                                      •   Outline the area
                                                                      •   Layering
                                                                      •   Fertilizer
                                                                      •   Mulch

                                          74                                                 75




                  Put to Bed                                 Bed in January




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         Year-round Gardening                     Modifying Our Microclimate
• Variety selection
                                               Season Extenders
• Succession                                     Cold frames
  planting                                       – Hotcaps
• Timing and                                     – Cloches
                                                 – Greenhouses
  planning
                                                 Ground Treatments
                                                 – Ground cloth
                                                 – Plastic
                                                 – Mulches

                                          78                                                 79




                                                                                                  13
        Hotcap                    Tomatoes Under Fiberglass




                             80                               81




       Reemay™
                                                 Black
                                                 Plastic
                                                 Mulch




                             82                               83




Long Cloche with Row Cover
                                         Greenhouse




                             84                               85




                                                                   14
       Cooling Plants in Summer                                          Rain Protection
• Use existing shade of plants or buildings               • Keep soil covered to reduce compaction
• Evaporation                                             • Keep plants covered by low cloches to
• Use shade cloth                                           break the force of the rain, hail, snow etc.
    – Regular shade cloth on poles                        • Cover the soil with mulch, plants, or
    – Bridal netting or Reemay™                             landscape cloth.
    – Very light sheet
    – Cheesecloth

                                                     86                                                       87




          General Growing Tips                                      General Growing Tips
• Never handle wet plants                                 •   Maintain Growth Momentum
• Don’t spray or fertilize highly stressed                •   Wet at night, fungus delight
  plants                                                  •   Deep water for deep roots
• Don’t overdo supplying nitrogen                         •   Fertilize only where needed
• Be very gentle with the roots                           •   If short of water, space plants out
• Get to know your plants and soil                        •   Harvest at the proper maturity

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         Harvest & Storage Tips                                 Clean up, but not too Much
•   Cut, don’t break                                      •   Leave the garden messy for winter
•   Harvest when ready, don’t delay                       •   Remove any infested, infected plants
                                                          •   Pruning on roses, raspberries (before new growth)
•   Retarding harvest
                                                          •   Leave lots of cover for beneficials to winter
•   Speeding up harvest readiness
                                                          •   Clean any trellises, supports etc
•   Undamaged produce stores best                         •   Remove bad weeds
•   Learn the harvestable parts, i.e. pea tendrils        •   Bait for slugs and snails
    and pea pods                                          •   Patrol during winter to nip problems in the bud
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                                                                                                                   15
                        Keynotes                                                 Respect the Whole
•   Holistic View
•   Avoid Sudden Shocks
•   Maintain Growth Momentum
•   Diversity
•   Think Below Ground, Not Just Above
•   Right Plant, Right Place, Right Time

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       It Is Only Renewable, Not
                                                                                         Websites
               Replaceable
                                                                    • http://extension.oregonstate.edu/lane/
                                                                      Research gleanings, tips, trivia, photos,
                                                                      events, composting & links
                                                                    • http://plant-disease.ippc.orst.edu/
                                                                    • http://www.soilfoodweb.com
                                                                      Soil biology and compost tea
                                                                    • http://www.tilth.org/index.html
                                                                      Organic standards, events
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             Selected Bibliography                                            Bibliography Continued
                                                                    • The Beautiful Food Garden, Kate Gessert
• Pacific Northwest Guide to Home Gardening, Ray McNeilan &
  Michelle Ronnigen                                                 • The Secret Garden, David Bodanis
• Vegetable Gardening West of the Cascades, Steve Solomon           • My Weeds
• Book of Garden Secrets, Dorothy Patent & Diane Bilderback         • All the Elliott Coleman books
• Gardening for Maximum Nutrition, Jerry Minnich                    • John Jeavons "How to Grow More Vegetables Than You
• High Yield Gardening, Marjorie Hunt & Barbara Bortz                 Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can
• Seed to Seed, Suzanne Ashcroft                                      Imagine", and "Lazy-Bed Gardening: The Quick and Dirty
• Good Neighbors:Companion Planting for Gardeners, Anna Carr          Guide" (co-authored by Carol Cox).
• The Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel
                                                                    • Uncommon Vegetables (also out as Gourmet Vegetables),
• Weeds and What They Tell, Ehrenfried Pfeiffer
                                                                      Nancy Bubel
• Heirloom Vegetables, William Woys
                                                                    • Some of the great old books such as Vilmourin and Patrick
                                                               96     MacMahon for the historical references                  97




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                                                                           Fertilizers
                                                        • Synthetic fertilizers
                                                           – Tend to be incomplete
                                                           – Tend to require natural gas/electricity
                                                           – Tend to be acidifying
                                                           – Tend to be very fast release & leach
                                                           – Are usually less expensive
                                                           – Usually use less to fertilize
                                                           – Easy to disrupt soil balance

                                                   98                                                       99




                   Soil pH                                               Nitrogen
                                                        • Nitrogen is both essential and most likely to cause
• Measure of acidity (1-14)                               problems for plants and soil
• Vegetables grow best at 6-7 pH                        • Needed for green growth. Speeds decomposition
• Nutrients become available to plants in                 of OM.
  soluble form as a result of work by                   • Add N just before rapid vegetative growth, 3-6
  microorganisms (hindered if too                         weeks after seeding or transplanting. Put along
  acid/alkaline)                                          row and water in.
• Best to add lime and rock materials in the            • Slow release forms may be added at planting and
  fall                                                    will be broken out by soil life as needed.

                                                  100                                                      101




                Phosphorus                                                Potassium
• Phosphorus may be of animal origin, ie
                                                        • The original source was ashes, i.e. Pot-Ash. This
  bone meals                                              was formed by mixing ashes and hot water and
• Mined, ie rock or colloidal phosphate                   filtering. The resulting slurry was then dried. It
                                                          contained most of the minerals accumulated by the
  – Superphosphate (0-20-0 plus Ca and S) or triple       burned matter.
    superphosphate (0-45-0) are classed as              • Greensand is a mined potassium. Trace elements.
    synthetic because rock phosphate is treated with    • Potassium sulfate is mined. It is soluble.
    sulfuric acid or with phosphoric acid. Both of      • Sul-po-mag is a natural mineral salt.
    these are much more likely to cause pollution as    • Muriate of Potash (potassium chloride) is a natural
    are more soluble.                                     salt, but not allowed organically.

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                                                                                                                 17
Create Your Own Organic Matter
• Use most garden leftovers in compost
• Hauling in is feasible only if the energy cost is less
  than the value of the OM. True energy costs
  must be calculated even for organics.
• Mulches
• Cover crops
• Is the closed circle possible?




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