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					Western Music - A Short History by James L. Zychowicz

Music in the Western Culture is the result of various influences, including the formalization of improvised traditions; the growth of notation; the development of tuning systems; the treatment of text; innovative approaches to form; the role of patronage; the absorption of various cultures into the style; the growth of technology; investigations of performance practice; and various other factors. Western music also benefits from various dualities: sacred and secular traditions; monophonic and polyphonic textures; conservative and progressive tendencies; popularism and elitism; canon and noncanonic works; and other polarities. The western tradition is complicated by these various influences and perspectives, and formal musicological study often becomes a point of departure for other, more individualized investigations of music.

The western tradition of music has its origins in the chant tradition of the early Christian era. The monophonic music of chant dominated the middle ages, and included the composition of sequences and tropes. In the high middle ages, organum emerged, thus introducing polyphonic textures into liturgical music. By the thirteenth century, the motet became a seminal polyphonic composition and included liturgical and secular texts as well as a chant cantus firmus. In the Ars Nova of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, secular music was composed polyphonically, and resulted in elaborate contrapuntal devices and notational practices. In the fifteenth century the early Renaissance polyphony showed evidence of a new style influenced on fauxbourdon and based on previously improvised traditions. At this time textures grew from a reliance on lower voices to treble-dominated textures. Renaissance motets and madrigals have their origins in the music of the Netherlands composers (Obrecht, Ockeghem, Busnois, Binchois) and the idiom culminates in the work of Josquin Desprez. With the late Renaissance, more national and secular music emerged, as found with the English madrigal and the French chanson. The late sixteenth-century music included attempts to return to Greek drama. The latter resulted in the formulation of monody for declaiming music which was at the core of early opera (Caccini, Peri) and became a vehicle for composers like Monteverdi to take forward the nascent genre of opera. Italian opera (opera seria, opera buffa) soon dominated the early baroque style of the seventeenth century, which extended to the composition of oratorios on sacred subjects. In France opera soon took root, and a national style evolved starting with Lully. In the seventeenth_century instrumental music developed on its own, treble_dominated texture of vocal music was supported by the basso continuo tradition of accompaniment. Works for instruments included keyboard suites (Froberger, Kerll) and sonatas, organ music (Frescobaldi), including various partitas and fugues, and trio sonatas (Corelli, et al.) for various combinations of instruments. Music for orchestra included sinfonias and concertos, including the concerto grosso. The high baroque music of the eighteenth century was dominated by the genius of Bach and Handel. Bach composed music for almost every genre except opera; he left a corpus of liturgical music, including cantatas, that show the influence of the Reformation on musical style. Handel, as a German- born composer who studied in Italy and worked many years in England, shows the international aspects of the baroque style. Like Bach, he wrote in almost every genre, including opera seria and oratorio. While Bach and Handel yet composed, a style change was taking place in the early eighteenth century. Rococo preferences moved toward simpler harmonies and more transparent textures, as well as a tendency toward instrumental music (C.P.E. Bach, J.C. Bach, Joseph Haydn). Later in the century, the Classic style of Haydn and Mozart dominated the music of Western Europe, with the symphony, sonata, and string quartet predominating, and the sonata principle at the core of musical structure. The opera seria of Handel and his generation gave way to opera buffa, as found with Mozart and others. The bel canto tradition in opera seria metamorphosed with Mozart and emerged later in the operas of Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini.

The classical style may be seen to culminate in the music of Beethoven, who is perceived as the link between the classic and romantic style. This distinction is important for the so-called common practice era from ca. 1725 to 1900, that is the period of the defining tradition of western music. Beethoven contributed to almost every genre of music at the time, including piano sonata, string quartet, and symphony. He expanded the symphony with regard to form, orchestration, texture, and aesthetics, contributing programmatic elements to an otherwise self-contained style. As the link to the romantic era that dominated the nineteenth century, Beethoven is a point of departure for many of the trends that existed in the era. The so-called Romantic style includes the growth of a number of varied and often antithetical influences. These include the development of the symphony as a genre; program music and the ideal of absolute music; grand opera; lieder; character pieces for piano; the piano sonata; national musical style; and the expansion of tonality and harmonic practice. The early Romantic composers include Schubert, Weber, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin; among the later ones are Liszt, Wagner, Brahms, and Verdi. With Wagner romantic opera expanded in terms of the orchestra, the scope of subject matter, the demands on voices, and the overall length. As a controversial figure, Wagner influenced the musical establishment, such that affinities were aligned with him and the music of the future, or with more conservative trends that reached back to Beethoven. Wagner's harmonic and timbral idiom was critical for the late romantic efflorescence at the end of the century that led to the so_called end of tonality as it was generally understood in the nineteenth century. With Wagner, the dominance of the Austro-German tradition in nineteenth-century music became apparent. The extended harmonic and formal practices of Mahler, Richard Strauss, Schönberg, and others preceded the freer treatment of dissonance in the twelve-tone music of the New Viennese School of Schönberg, Berg, and Webern. At the same time, the Impressionism of the French composers Debussy and Ravel were based on non-functional harmonic principles. Composers like Bartók introduced folk elements into music. Twentieth-century music includes many different styles and tendencies, including

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neoclassicism (Stravinsky); expressionism (Berg, Webern); serialism (Boulez); electronic music (Stockhausen); aleatoric music and indeterminacy (Cage); and minimalism (Reich, Glass).

At the same time, the rediscovery of the past has resulted in an explosion of interest in the authentic music of past cultures. Similarly, the eclecticism of twentieth-century culture touches upon the growth of ethnomusicology and the perspectives it offers to studies of more traditional western music. Rock music Rock music is a genre of popular music often, though not necessarily, employing electric guitar, bass guitar, and drums. Many styles of rock music also use keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, mellotron, and synthesizers. Other instruments sometimes utilized in rock include saxophone, harmonica, violin, flute, French horn, banjo, melodica, and timpani. Also, less common stringed instruments such as mandolin and sitar are used. Rock music usually has a strong back beat, and often revolves around the guitar, either solid electric, hollow electric, or acoustic. Rock music has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll and rockabilly, which evolved from blues, country music and other influences. According to Allmusic, "In its purest form, Rock & Roll has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody. Early rock & roll drew from a variety of sources, primarily blues, R&B, and country, but also gospel, traditional pop, jazz, and folk. All of these influences combined in a simple, blues-based song structure that was fast, danceable, and catchy." In the late 1960s, rock music was blended with folk music to create folk rock, blues to create blues-rock and with jazz, to create jazz-rock fusion, and with electrical instrument ambiance to create psychedelic rock. In the 1970s, rock incorporated influences from soul, funk, and latin music. Also in the 1970s, rock developed a number of subgenres, such as soft rock, glam rock, heavy metal, hard rock, progressive rock,

and punk rock. Rock subgenres that emerged in the 1980s included New Wave, hardcore punk and alternative rock. In the 1990s, rock subgenres included grunge, Britpop, indie rock, and nu metal. A group of musicians specializing in rock music is called a rock band or rock group. Many rock groups consist of a guitarist, lead singer, bass guitarist, and a drummer, forming a quartet. Some groups omit one or more of these roles and/or utilize a lead singer who plays an instrument while singing, sometimes forming a trio or duo; others include additional musicians such as one or two rhythm guitarists and/or a keyboardist. More rarely, groups also utilize stringed instruments such as violins or cellos, and/or horns like saxophones, trumpets or trombones. The 1950s & early 1960s Rock and roll Main article: Rock and roll Rock and roll evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to the rest of the world. Its immediate origins lay in a mixing together of various popular musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues, gospel music, and country and western. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, and is credited with first using the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music. There is much debate as to what should be considered the first rock & roll record. One leading contender is "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (in fact, Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in 1951. Four years later, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" (1955) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture. Rolling Stone magazine argued in 2004 that "That's All Right (Mama)" (1954), Elvis Presley's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record[2]. But, at the same time, Big Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle & Roll", later covered by Haley, was already at the top of the Billboard R&B charts. Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis and Gene Vincent. The 1950s saw the growth in popularity of the electric guitar, and the development of a specifically rock and roll style of playing through such exponents as Berry, Link Wray, and Scotty Moore. It also saw major developments in recording technology such as multitrack recording developed by Les Paul, and the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek. All these developments were important influences on later rock music. The social effects of rock and roll were worldwide and massive. Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. In addition, rock and roll may have helped the cause of the civil rights movement because both African American teens and white American teens enjoyed the music. However, by the early 1960s, much of the initial musical impetus and social radicalism of rock and roll had become dissipated, with the growth of teen idols, an emphasis on dance crazes, and the development of lightweight teenage pop music. Early British rock Main article: British rock In the United Kingdom the trad jazz movement brought visiting blues music artists to Britain, While BAC was developing the Concorde, Lonnie Donegan's 1955 hit "Rock Island Line" was a major influence, and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout the country, including John Lennon's the Quarry Men. Britain developed a major rock and roll scene, without the race barriers which kept "race records" or rhythm and blues separate in the U.S. Cliff Richard had the first British rock 'n' roll hit with "Move It", effectively ushering in the sound of British rock. At the start of the 1960s, his backing group The Shadows was one of a number of groups having success with surf music instrumentals. And while rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop and schmaltzy ballads, at clubs and local dances British rock groups, heavily influenced by blues-rock pioneers like Alexis Korner, were starting to play with an intensity and drive seldom found in white American acts.

The Who performing in 2007 (on left: Roger Daltrey, on right: Pete Townshend), with Zak Starkey (drums) and John "Rabbit" Bundrick (keyboards)

The Rolling Stones in the 1960s. From left: Jagger, Jones, Richards, Wyman and Watts. By the end of 1962, the British rock scene had started with groups like the Beatles drawing on a wide range of American influences including soul music, rhythm and blues and surf music. Initially, they reinterpreted standard American tunes, playing for dancers doing the twist, for example. These groups eventually infused their original rock compositions with increasingly complex musical ideas and a distinctive sound. In mid-1962 The Rolling Stones started as one of a number of groups increasingly showing blues influence, along with The Animals and The Yardbirds. In late 1964, The Kinks, The Who and The Pretty Things represented the new Mod style. Towards the end of the decade, British rock groups began to explore psychedelic musical styles that made reference to the drug subculture and hallucinogenic experiences. 1960s Garage rock Main article: Garage rock The British Invasion spawned a wave of imitators that played mainly to local audiences and made inexpensive recordings, a movement later called garage rock. Some music from this trend is included in the compilation album Nuggets. Some of the better known bands of this genre include The Sonics, Question Mark & the Mysterians, and The Standells. 1960s Surf music Main article: Surf music The rockabilly sound influenced a wild, mostly instrumental sound called surf music, though surf culture saw itself as a competing youth culture to rock and roll. This style, exemplified by Dick Dale and The Surfaris, featured faster tempos, innovative percussion, and reverb- and echo-drenched electric guitar sounds. In the UK, British groups included The Shadows. Other West Coast bands, such as The Beach Boys and Jan and Dean slowed the tempos down and added lush harmony vocals to create what became known as the "California Sound"... Rock as a counterculture movement (1963–1974)

Main article: Counterculture In the late 1950s the US beatnik counterculture was associated with the wider anti-war movement building against the threat of the atomic bomb, notably CND in Britain. Both were associated with the jazz scene and with the growing folk song movement. Folk rock Main articles: Bob Dylan and Folk rock The folk scene was made up of folk music lovers who liked acoustic instruments, traditional songs, and blues music with a socially progressive message. The folk genre was pioneered by Woody Guthrie. Bob Dylan came to the fore in this movement, and his hits with Blowin' in the Wind and Masters of War brought "protest songs" to a wider public. The Byrds, playing Bob Dylan's Mr. Tambourine Man, helped start the trend of folk rock, and helped stimulate the development of psychedelic rock. Dylan continued, with his "Like a Rolling Stone" becoming a US hit single. Neil Young's lyrical inventiveness and wailing electric guitar attack created a variation of folk rock. Other folk rock artists include Simon & Garfunkel, Joan Baez, The Mamas & the Papas, Joni Mitchell, Bobby Darin and The Band. In Britain, Fairport Convention began applying rock techniques to traditional British folk songs, followed by groups such as Steeleye Span, Lindisfarne, Pentangle, and Trees. Alan Stivell in Brittany had the same approach. Psychedelic rock Main article: Psychedelic rock Psychedelic music began in the folk scene, with the Holy Modal Rounders popularizing the term in 1964. With a background including folk and jug band music, bands like the Grateful Dead and Big Brother & the Holding Company became two famous bands of the genre. The Fillmore was a regular venue for groups like another former jug band, Country Joe and the Fish, and Jefferson Airplane. Elsewhere, The Byrds had a hit with Eight Miles High. The 13th Floor Elevators titled their album The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. The music increasingly became associated with opposition to the Vietnam War. In England, Pink Floyd had been developing psychedelic rock since 1965 in the underground culture scene. In 1966 the band Soft Machine was formed. Donovan had a folk music-influenced hit with Sunshine Superman, one of the early psychedelic pop records. In August 1966 The Beatles released their Revolver album, which featured psychedelia in "Tomorrow Never Knows" and in "Yellow Submarine", along with the memorable album cover. The Beach Boys responded in the U.S. with Pet Sounds. From a blues rock background, the British supergroup Cream debuted in December, and Jimi Hendrix became popular in Britain before returning to the US. 1967 was the year when the psychedelic scene truly took off. Many pioneering records came out including the first album from The Doors and Jefferson Airplane's highly successful Surrealistic Pillow. The Beatles' groundbreaking album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was released in June, and by the end of the year Pink Floyd's The Piper at the Gates of Dawn, Cream's Disraeli Gears and even The Rolling Stones's Their Satanic Majesties Request. As the Summer of Love reached its peak, the Monterey Pop Festival went underway headlining the top bands of the genre including Jefferson Airplane and also introducing Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix to the mainstream. The culmination of rock and roll as a socially-unifying force was seen in the rock festivals of the late '60s, the most famous of which was Woodstock in 1969 which began as a three-day arts and music festival and turned into a "happening", as hundreds of thousands of youthful fans converged on the site. Psychedelic rock enjoyed a modest revival in the mid-1980s as prominent bands like Echo and the Bunnymen and R.E.M. incorporated sounds lifted from earlier groups like The Doors and The Byrds into

the burgeoning post-punk scene. Additionally, the collectively-titled Paisley Underground bands of Los Angeles epitomized the role played by Sixties psychedelia and folk-rock in American New Wave. Glam rock Main article: Glam rock Glam rock emerged out of the English Psychedelic and art rock scene of the late 1960s, defined by artists such as T. Rex (band), Roxy Music, Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel, and David Bowie, also with origins in the theatrics of groups such as The Cockettes, performers such as Lindsay Kemp, and acts such as Syd Barrett's Pink Floyd (as represented in David Bowie's cover of See Emily Play) and Eddie Cochran (as represented by T. Rex's cover of Summertime Blues). The commonly accepted origin of Glam rock was when Tyrannosaurus Rex - a band produced by Tony Visconti and championed by the legendary John Peel - frontman/singer changed the band's name to T. Rex, releasing the number 1 UK single Ride A White Swan in December of 1970, ushering in Glam rock and the band as a pop phenomenon. Following soon after were other notable acts such as Slade and Roxy Music, and eventually David Bowie's Ziggy Stardust persona, who brought Glam rock its relatively novel and modest popularity in America, and leading to American artists such as Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, New York Dolls, Jobriath, and Alice Cooper adopting Glam or Glam-influenced styles. However, Glam rock's legend is distinctly British, where it was a culture phenomenon and its stars were among the biggest stars in pop culture circa 1971 through 1974. Glam itself was a nostalgic mesh of various styles, both visual art and music, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamor, to 1950s pin-up sex appeal and rock n' roll teenage rebellion, to pre-war Cabaret theatrics, to Victorian literary and Symbolist styles, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology (such as Bowie's references to Aleister Crowley's "starman" in his song of the same name, and themes of reincarnation and self-invention in T. Rex's Cosmic Dancer). Glam is most noted for it's sexual and gender ambiguity and androgyny, and use of theatrics. Throughout glam rock's popularity, many bubble-gum acts - such as Elton John, Slade, Gary Glitter, and Alvin Stardust - adopted raunchier and more sexual takes on Glam style. Other previously famous acts such as The Rolling Stones and Lou Reed re-invented themselves in a glam fashion, often to great success (including Reed's only #1 hit single, Walk On the Wild Side). However, glam's success in America, where mass audiences had trouble understanding its hybrid of high art and pop in favor of less challenging acts such as Led Zeppelin and Tony Orlando (on opposite sides of the spectrum), was modest at best, with artists such as T. Rex and Roxy Music having only a fraction of the success they had in the UK. However, glam went on to influence many other genres, including punk, new wave, goth, jangle pop, college rock, and grunge, with artists as diverse as Siouxsie Sioux, Steve Kilbey, Johnny Rotten, Billy Corgan, Peter Murphy (who's band Bauhaus covered T. Rex's Telegram Sam and Bowie's Ziggy Stardust), and Adam Ant citing glam artists as key influences. Glam has since enjoyed sporadic modest revivals courtesy bands such as Chainsaw Kittens and Louis XIV (band). Progressive rock Main article: Progressive rock Progressive rock bands went beyond the established rock music formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and musical forms. Some bands such as Eric Burdon & The Animals, Pink Floyd, The Moody Blues, Procol Harum, The Who and Deep Purple experimented with new instruments including wind sections, string sections, and full orchestras. Many of these bands moved well beyond the formulaic three-minute rock songs into longer, increasingly sophisticated songs and chord structures. With inspiration from these earlier artists, referred to as "proto-prog", it flowered into its own genre, initially based in the UK, after King Crimson's 1969 genre-defining debut album, In the Court of the Crimson King. Progressive rock bands borrowed musical ideas from classical, jazz, electronic, and experimental music. Progressive rock songs ranged from lush, beautiful songs to atonal, dissonant, and complex songs. Few achieved major mainstream success, but large cults followed many of the groups. Pink Floyd, Yes, Marillion, Rush, Jethro Tull, Genesis, and a few less notable others were able to work in hit singles to their otherwise complex and untraditional albums to garner a larger audience. Main article: Krautrock

By the late-1960s, German audiences began listening to progressive rock bands from Britain and the United States. During this period, avant-garde musicians in Germany were playing electronic classical music. These German avant-garde musicians adapted their electronic instruments for a style of music that blended progressive rock and psychedelic rock sounds. By the early 1970s, German progressive rock (later called krautrock) bands were blending jazz (Can) and Asian music (Popol Vuh). The music by bands such as Kraftwerk influenced the development of techno and other related genres. Main article: Italian rock In Italy progressive rock was also popular in the 1970s. Some Italian progressive rock bands were Premiata Forneria Marconi, Le Orme, Banco del Mutuo Soccorso and Area International Popular Group. Main article: Pakistani rock Although Pakistan has a long history of rock music producing legendary bands such as Junoon and Strings it was only in the 90s that progressive rock made its mark on Pakistani rock scene. One of the bands is Mizraab from the city of Karachi who started of in 1996 with their first album An Abstract Point of View. Then Panchi in 1999. Failing to leave an impact with their first albums Mizraab launched their third album Mazi Haal Mustaqbil in 2004 which proved a great success. Pakistani progressive rock is slowly gaining popularity and more bands are making this kind of music. Main article: Indian rock There are a few rock bands in India, like Silk Route or Euphoria. The music is mainly targeted at young adults and is gaining more acceptance in recent years. Main article: Russian rock Rock music first appeared in Russia in the 1970s-80s, mainly in the form of progressive rock. In the USSR, rock music was officially prohibited as western influence, so there weren't any rock groups which released official albums. However, there were a lot of underground groups, which performed "flat concerts" - "kvartirniks". Such popular bands as Akvarium and Kino were voyagers of Russian rock. They often used flutes, clarinets, cellos, violins, fortepianos, saxophones and other instruments which are peculiar to progressive rock. In 1986, the split album Red Wave featuring four popular Russian rock bands - Kino, Akvarium, Alisa and Strange Games was released in the United States. Main article: Music of Turkey#Pop-rock, Rock In Turkey progressive rock began to grow with Barış Manço in the mid-1970s. His symphonic-progressive rock album 2023, released in 1975, is one of the most important albums in Turkey. He made a contribution to the other genres of rock music with his other albums and became a famous rock star in Turkey. Soft rock Main article: Soft rock Rock music had a short-lived "bubble gum pop" era, of soft rock, including groups such as The Partridge Family, The Cowsills, The Osmonds, and The Archies. Other bands or artists added more orchestration and created a popular genre known as soft rock. Performers included Barry Manilow, Neil Diamond, Olivia Newton-John, Elton John, Billy Joel, Gerry Rafferty and Eric Carmen, and groups such as Bread, The Carpenters, Electric Light Orchestra, Fleetwood Mac, The Eagles, England Dan & John Ford Coley, Bread, Chicago and Tina Turner. The mid to late 70s Hard rock and heavy metal Main article: Hard rock

Judas Priest headlined the Sweden Rock Festival in June 2008.

Iron Maiden's (from left to right): Steve Harris, Dave Murray, Janick Gers, Adrian Smith. A second wave of British and American rock bands became popular during the early 1970s. Bands such as Grand Funk Railroad, The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Queen, Alice Cooper, Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Status Quo, Aerosmith, Black Sabbath, The Who, and Uriah Heep played highly amplified, guitar-driven hard rock. Hard Rock fell into caricature and imitation in the late 1970s. Many practitioners released albums closer to progressive rock or disco. A few bands including Kiss, Black Sabbath, Queen, AC/DC, Led Zeppelin, Aerosmith and Rush maintained large followings and there were occasional mainstream hits such as Blue Öyster Cult's "(Don't Fear) The Reaper". Music critics overwhelmingly disliked the genre. This began to change in 1978 following the release of Van Halen's self-titled debut album. The album helped to usher in an era of more commercialized rock and roll, based out of Los Angeles, California. After the glam side of metal started to end, bands like Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer, and Anthrax returned to the original metal scene. Arena rock Main article: Arena rock

Led Zeppelin live at Chicago Stadium, January 1975. The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Grand Funk Railroad and The Who began the practice of live performances for large audiences in stadiums and arenas. The growing popularity of metal and progressive rock led to more bands selling out large venues. Entertainment companies marketed a series of arena rock bands, such as Journey, Boston, Styx, REO Speedwagon, Heart, and Foreigner in the late 70s. Corporate rock has many of the same characteristics with respect to mega-sales of albums and superstar level bands.[3] This music is frequently referred to a "classic rock" or sometimes "guitar rock"

Bands carried on driving the development of technology for large scale concerts, notably The Who, Led Zeppelin, Peter Frampton, Pink Floyd and Queen. Day On The Green was the name of an arena-style concert series in Oakland, California, presented by Bill Graham and his company Bill Graham Presents. Held at the Oakland Coliseum Stadium, these events happened beginning in 1973 and continued on into the early 1990s. Another Arena Rock band is U2, which has made one of the more extravagant Arena Rock experiences: the Zoo Tv Tour, which combined the latest technology of the early 90's with the unique U2 sound and a big number of TV's and giant screens.

Punk rock Main article: Punk rock

The Clash, performing in 1980

UK punks, circa 1986 Punk rock started off as a reaction to the lush, producer-driven sounds of disco, and against the increasing commercialism of hard rock and arena rock. Early punk borrowed heavily from the garage band ethic: played by bands for which expert musicianship was not a requirement, punk was stripped-down, threechord music that could be played easily. Many of these bands also intended to shock mainstream society. Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone stated, "In its initial form, a lot of 1960s stuff was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bad rock 'n' roll".[4] While the Ramones were often regarded as the first punk band,[5][6] they had many contemporaries from the same era in the New York scene. Artists like Patti Smith, The Heartbreakers, and Television played the same fast paced, stripped-down, style of rock, and often played shows along with the Ramones at burgeoning club CBGB's. While sounding different from than many other punk bands to come the Velvet Underground was also influential to the early punk movement. In 1976 the Ramones, along with British punk band the Sex Pistols, went on a tour of the United Kingdom. The tour was widely credited for inspiring the first wave of English punk bands such as The Clash, The Damned, and The Buzzcocks. In England, the music became a more violent and political form of expression, represented with the Sex Pistols first two singles "Anarchy in the U.K." and "God Save the Queen". Despite an airplay ban on the BBC, the records rose to the top chart position in the UK. Many in the original punk rock scene claimed that the Sex Pistols and other popular punk bands of the time were compromising a newly emerging underground DIY ethic of punk rock. This phenomenon was the origin of the phrase "Punks Not Dead." The Exploited wrote a song entitled 'Punks Not Dead' which immortalized

the saying and claimed that even with the advent of more popular punk rock that hardcore punk was now emerging to raise the level of aggression in punk and take it underground once again. Other bands, like The Clash, were less nihilistic, more overtly political and idealistic. As the Sex Pistols toured America, they spread their music to the West Coast. Before, punk was mostly an East Coast phenomenon in the US, with scenes in New York and Washington D.C.. In the late '70s, California punk bands such as the Dead Kennedys, X, Fear, the Germs, Circle Jerks and Black Flag, gained greater exposure. Punk's next evolution saw its rise in the underground movement of hardcore punk, a subgenre that originated in North America around 1980. The new sound was generally thicker, heavier and faster than earlier punk rock. Notable bands in this subgenre include Black Flag, Minor Threat and Bad Brains, among numerous others. The songs are usually short, fast and loud, covering topics ranging from apathy, boredom, politics, personal freedom, violence, social alienation, straight edge, war, and the hardcore subculture itself. Hardcore spawned several fusion genres and subgenres, some of which had mainstream success, such as skate punk, melodic hardcore and metalcore. Since punk rock's initial popularity in the 1970s and the renewed interest created by the punk revival of the 1990s, punk rock continues to fight to remain an underground form of anti-corporate expression. This has resulted in several evolved strains of hardcore punk, such as D-beat (a distortion-heavy subgenre influenced by the UK band Discharge), anarcho-punk (such as Crass), grindcore (such as Napalm Death), and crust punk. The latter of which is a politicized fusion of hardcore and extreme metal which has arguably become a dominant voice for the modern political punk movement. Crust punk is typified by bands such as Doom, Amebix, Nausea, and Behind Enemy Lines. These strains remain largely unrecognizable to the majority of the general public and tend to focus on issues such as anarchism, freeganism, animal rights, sexism, and racism. New Wave Main article: New Wave music Punk rock attracted devotees from the art and collegiate world and soon bands sporting a more literate, arty approach, such as Talking Heads, and Devo began to infiltrate the punk scene; in some quarters the description New Wave began to be used to differentiate these less overtly punk bands. If punk rock was a social and musical phenomenon, it garnered little in the way of record sales (small specialty labels such as Stiff Records had released much of the punk music to date) or American radio airplay, as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and albumoriented rock. Record executives, who had been mostly mystified by the punk movement, recognized the potential of the more accessible New Wave acts and began aggressively signing and marketing any band that could claim a remote connection to punk or New Wave. Many of these bands, such as The Cars and the Go-Go's were essentially pop bands dressed up in New Wave regalia; others, including the Police and the Pretenders managed to parlay the boost of the New Wave movement into long-lived and artistically lauded careers. Between 1982 and 1985, influenced by Kraftwerk, David Bowie, and Gary Numan, New Wave went in the direction of such New Romantics as Duran Duran, A Flock of Seagulls, Culture Club, Talk Talk and the Eurythmics, sometimes using the synthesizer to replace all other instruments. This period coincided with the rise of MTV and led to a great deal of exposure for this brand of synth-pop. Some rock bands reinvented themselves and profited too from MTV's airplay, for instance Golden Earring, who had a second round of success with "Twilight Zone", but in general the times of guitar-oriented rock were over. Although many "Greatest of New Wave" collections feature popular songs from this era, New Wave more properly refers to the earlier "skinny tie" rock bands such as the Knack or, more famously Blondie. Post-punk Main article: Post-punk Alongside New Wave, post-punk developed as an outgrowth of punk rock. In a way was tied to punk rock. Sometimes thought of as interchangeable with New Wave, post-punk was typically more challenging, arty, and abrasive. The movement was effectively started by the debut of Public Image Ltd., Psychedelic Furs,

and Joy Division and was soon joined by bands such as Siouxsie & the Banshees, The Fall, Gang of Four, and Echo & the Bunnymen. Predominantly a British phenomenon, the genre continued into the 1980s with some commercial exposure domestically and overseas, but the most successful band to emerge from post-punk was Ireland's U2, which by the late 1980s had become one of the biggest bands in the world. Rock diversifies in the 1980s In the 1980s, popular rock diversified. This period also saw the New Wave of British Heavy Metal with bands such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard gaining popularity. The early part of the decade saw Eddie Van Halen achieve musical innovations in rock guitar, while vocalists David Lee Roth (of Van Halen) and Freddie Mercury (of Queen as he had been doing throughout the 1970s) raised the role of frontman to near performance art standards. Concurrently, pop-New Wave bands remained popular, with performers like Billy Idol and The Go-Go's gaining fame. American heartland rock gained a strong following, exemplified by Bruce Springsteen, Bob Seger, Donnie Iris, John (Cougar) Mellencamp and others. Led by the American folk singer-songwriter Paul Simon and the British former prog rock star Peter Gabriel, rock and roll fused with a variety of folk music styles from around the world; this fusion came to be known as "world music", and included fusions like aboriginal rock. Also, more extreme forms of rock music began to evolve; in the early eighties, the harsh and aggressive thrash metal attracted large underground audiences and a few bands, including Metallica and Megadeth, went on for mainstream success. The Animals had their reunion in 1983. Glam metal Main article: Glam metal

Twisted Sister were typical of the glam metal look with the use of long teased up hair, accessories, metal studs and leather, and makeup during their live performances. One genre that was widely popular in the 1980s (c.1983) was glam metal. Taking influence from various artists such as Aerosmith, Queen, Kiss, Alice Cooper, Sweet and the New York Dolls, the earliest glam metal bands to gain notability included: Mötley Crüe, W.A.S.P., Ratt and Quiet Riot. They became known for their debauched lifestyles, teased hair and use of make-up and clothing. Their songs were bombastic and often defiantly macho, with lyrics focused on sex, drinking, drugs, and the occult. In 1987 a second wave of glam metal acts emerged including Bon Jovi, L.A. Guns, Poison and Faster Pussycat. Guns N' Roses emerged from this scene with strong commercial success, though they had a harder edged punk rock influence than most other "glam" bands, thus are not always categorized with them. Guns N' Roses were formed from L.A. Guns and another band, Hollywood Rose. Instrumental rock See also: Instrumental rock

Joe Satriani live on February 4, 2005. Instrumental rock was also popularized during this period with Joe Satriani's release of Surfing with the Alien. Many guitarists, feeling constrained by the style of music performed by their respective bands, began releasing solo albums that showcased their guitar skills. Guitarists such as: Steve Vai, Paul Gilbert, Vinnie Moore, Tony MacAlpine, Eric Johnson, Yngwie Malmsteen, Buckethead and Steve Morse have all greatly contributed to the genre.

One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. relied on college radio airplay, constant touring, and a grassroots fanbase to break into the musical mainstream. Alternative rock and the indie movement Main article: Alternative rock The term alternative rock was coined in the early 1980s to describe rock artists which didn't fit into the mainstream genres of the time. Bands dubbed "alternative" could be most any style not typically heard on the radio; however, most alternative bands were unified by their collective debt to punk. Important bands of the 1980s alternative movement included R.E.M., Sonic Youth, The Smiths, the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, The Cure, and countless others. Artists largely were confined to independent record labels, building an extensive underground music scene based around college radio, fanzines, touring, and word-of-mouth. Although these groups never generated spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the 80s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the 1990s. Notable styles of alternative rock during the 1980s include jangle pop, gothic rock, college rock, and indie pop. The next decade would see the success of grunge in the US and Britpop in the UK, bringing alternative rock into the mainstream. Alternative goes mainstream (early–mid 1990s) Grunge Main article: Grunge music By the 1990s, rock was dominated by slick and commercial glam metal, hair metal and arena rock artists. MTV had arrived and promoted this excessive focus on image and style. Disaffected by this, in the mid1980s, bands in Washington state (particularly in the Seattle area) formed a new style of rock music which sharply contrasted the mainstream rock of the time. The developing genre came to be known as "grunge", a term meaning "dirt" or "filth". The term was perhaps seen as appropriate due to the dirty sound of the music and the unkempt appearance of most musicians. Grunge fused elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a single sound, and made heavy use of guitar distortion, fuzz and feedback. The lyrics were typically apathetic and angst-filled, and often concerned themes such as social alienation and entrapment, although it was also known for its dark humor and parodies of commercial rock. Bands such as Green River, Soundgarden, the Pixies, the Melvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre, with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade. However grunge remained largely a local phenomenon until 1991, when Pearl Jam’s hit album, Ten was released followed shortly by Nirvana‘s Nevermind that was more successful. Both bands were more melodic than their predecessors and were instant sensations worldwide, but they refused to buy in to corporate promotion and marketing

mechanisms. During 1991 and 1992, other grunge bands such as Soundgarden, Alice in Chains and Candlebox gained a wider audience. Commercial rock and metal faded almost completely from the mainstream. While grunge itself can be seen as somewhat limited in range, its influence was felt across many geographic and musical boundaries; many artists who were similarly disaffected with commercial rock music suddenly found record companies and audiences willing to listen, and dozens of disparate acts positioned themselves as alternatives to mainstream music; thus alternative rock emerged from the underground. This helped pave the way for bands such as the Smashing Pumpkins and Stone Temple Pilots who were initially stereotyped as grunge but later enjoyed commercial and critical success independent of the genre. In early April 1994, grunge took a sudden shift in popularity with the death of Nirvana's frontman Kurt Cobain. The death of Alice in Chains' frontman Layne Staley in 2002 contributed to the final demise of the grunge genre[citation needed]. Although grunge bands continued to release albums, the genre began to decline in popularity and, by the end of the decade, many grunge bands had split up, stopped touring, or had changed their musical direction. Britpop Main article: Britpop While the American mainstream was focused on grunge, post-grunge, and hip hop, numerous British groups launched a 1960s revival in the mid-90s, often called Britpop, with bands such as Suede, Oasis, Supergrass, Manic Street Preachers, Pulp and Blur among the front-runners. These bands drew on myriad styles from the 80s British rock underground, including twee pop, shoegazing and space rock as well as traditional British guitar influences like the Beatles and glam rock. For a time, the Oasis-Blur rivalry was similar to the Beatles-Rolling Stones rivalry, or the Nirvana-Pearl Jam rivalry in America. While bands like Blur tended to follow on from the Small Faces and The Kinks, Oasis mixed the attitude of the Rolling Stones with the melody of the Beatles. The Verve and Radiohead, though not Britpop but at the forefront of the British revival of the rock, took inspiration from performers like Elvis Costello, Pink Floyd and R.E.M. with their progressive rock music, manifested in Radiohead's most heralded album, OK Computer. Many of these bands became very successful (although Britpop's popularity in America was short, with the exception of Oasis), and for a time Oasis was given the title "the biggest band in the world" thanks to an album selling some 19 million copies worldwide, but the movement slowed down after numerous band breakups, publicity disasters in the United States and slightly less popular support. The Verve disbanded after on-going turmoil in the band between singer Richard Ashcroft and guitarist Nick McCabe. Radiohead has since gone in a more experimental, less radio-friendly direction, beginning with their critically wellreceived album Kid A. As a consequence, they have been subject to reduced general popularity, but still sell well and In Rainbows is thought to have gained good international sales. Of the major Britpop bands, only Manic Street Preachers, Oasis, Supergrass and Radiohead are still active. Indie rock Main article: Indie rock By the mid-90s, the term "alternative music" had lost much of its original meaning as rock radio and record buyers embraced increasingly slick, commercialized, and highly marketed forms of the genre. At the end of the decade, hip hop music had pushed much of alternative rock out of the mainstream, and most of what was left played pop punk and highly polished versions of a grunge/rock mishmash. Many acts that, by choice or fate, remained outside the commercial mainstream became part of the indie rock movement. Indie rock acts placed a premium on maintaining complete control of their music and careers, often releasing albums on their own independent record labels and relying on touring, word-ofmouth, and airplay on independent or college radio stations for promotion. Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompasses a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge influenced bands like The Cranberries, Superchunk to do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco. Currently, many countries have an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with much less popularity than commercial bands, just enough of it to survive inside the respective country, but virtually unknown outside them.

Success of hybrid genres Pop punk Main article: Pop punk One result of the 70s punk explosion was pop punk. Championed by bands such as the Buzzcocks and the Ramones, the genre was never as commercially successful as the name may have suggested, but its influence can be still be heard in many artists today; the fusion of pop melodies, rapid-fire playing of instruments, and the raw and visceral lyrics and sound of punk rock is apparent in everyone from Nirvana to Oasis. Today, pop punk is used to describe modern rock bands with a heavy pop influence such as Green Day and Fall Out Boy are common examples of the sub-genre, while Blink-182 and Sum 41 brought the subgenre to new commercial heights in the late nineties to early 2000s. Post-grunge Main article: Post-grunge In the wake of Cobain's death a new style of music called post-grunge evolved. Similar to the relationship between pop punk and punk rock, post-grunge differed from grunge in its more radio-friendly poporiented sound. After Australia's Silverchair achieved international success with their debut album Frogstomp record labels began to actively search for the "next Nirvana". Former Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl's new band the Foo Fighters helped further popularize the genre, and other bands such as Bush, Seether, Creed, Collective Soul, Everclear and Live helped cement post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable sub-genres of the late nineties. Female solo artist Alanis Morissette also found success while being labeled under the post-grunge tag. In 1995 her album Jagged Little Pill became a major hit by featuring blunt, revealing songs such as "You Oughta Know". Combining the confessional, female-centered lyrics of artists such as Tori Amos with a post-grunge, guitar-based sound created by producer Glen Ballard, it succeeded in moving the introspection that had become so common in grunge to the mainstream. The success of Jagged Little Pill influenced successful more pop-oriented female artists during the late 90s including Fiona Apple, Jewel and Liz Phair. Nu metal and rap rock Main article: Rap rock Main article: Nu metal In 1990, Faith No More broke into the mainstream with their success of the single 'Epic', which combined heavy metal with rap. This paved ways for bands like Rage Against the Machine and later Limp Bizkit, Korn, System Of A Down and Slipknot. This brought a fresh sound by combining rap and rock with much success. Later in the decade this style, which contained a mix of grunge, metal, and hip-hop, became known as rap rock and spawned a wave of successful bands like Linkin Park and P.O.D.. Many of these bands also considered themselves a part of the similar genre nu metal. Present day (2000–present) Internet influence In the early 2000s the entire music industry was shaken by claims of massive theft of music rights using file-sharing tools such as Napster, resulting in lawsuits against private file-sharers by the recording industry group the RIAA. During much of the 2000s, rock has not featured as prominently in album sales in the US as in other countries such as the UK and Australia. By contrast to those countries, hip hop music has dominated the US single charts, with artists such as the Game, Snoop Dogg, Kanye West, Nelly, Eminem and Jay-Z. According to a recent study by Teenage Research Unlimited, hip hop is the most popular format of music

among adults from ages 18-34 in the United States. R&B acts like Mariah Carey, Usher and Alicia Keys are very popular on the pop charts, although with the exception of Carey, none of these acts, rap or R&B, sell as many albums as rock did. Nearly all of the best selling albums of all time are still rock [citation needed]. The biggest factor that has affected the production and distribution of rock music is the rise of paid digital downloads in the 2000s. During the 90s, the importance of the buyable music single faded when Billboard allowed singles without buyable, album-separate versions to enter its Hot 100 chart (charting only with radio airplay). The vast majority of songs bought on paid download sites are singles bought from their albums; songs that are bought on a song-by-song basis off artist's albums are considered sales of singles, even though they have no official buyable single. Garage rock revival Main article: Garage rock revival After existing in the musical underground, garage rock saw a resurgence of popularity with the garage rock revival. Bands like The White Stripes, The Strokes, The Vines, The Libertines and The Hives all released successful singles and albums. This wave is also sometimes referred to as back-to-basics rock because of its raw sound. Post-punk revival Main article: Post-punk revival Additionally, the retro trend has led to a Post-punk revival with bands like The Hives, The Libertines, The Killers, Bloc Party, Franz Ferdinand, Interpol, and Editors, which were often heavily influenced by 1990s bands such as Radiohead and Nirvana, as well as the punk genre, and post-punk bands such as Joy Division. Social impacts Main article: Social effects of rock and roll The influence of rock and roll is far-reaching, and has had significant impact worldwide on fashion and film styles. Its impact has been positive as well, with the trend of many rock stars facilitating charity events such as Live Aid. Saving the World is becoming a more and more common phrase associated with rock music today. There are also spiritual aspects tied to rock music. Songwriters like Pete Townshend have explored these in their work. The common usage of the term rock god acknowledges the religious quality of the adulation some rock stars receive. ____________________________________________________________________________________

"Indian Classical Music” The term "Indian Classical Music" refers to two related, but distinct, traditions rooted in antiquity. Both are very much alive in India today. The North Indian style is known as "Hindustani", while the South Indian tradition is referred to as "Carnatic". This page deals mainly with Hindustani Classical Music, about which I know a little bit. While I also appreciate Carnatic music, I do so as an outsider. What is Hindustani Classical Music? Like any kind of music, it is hard to say in a few words. But let me try, in case the reader is totally unfamiliar with this music. The basic scale of Hindustani music is similar to the western 12-note scale. The main difference is that the Hindustani scale is not tempered. Thus, the intervals between consecutive notes are not equal. Indeed, they can be varied slightly to suit the particular raga that is being performed. The same note, in different ragas, may have slightly differing positions. The notes themselves have names as in Western music, and here they are:

Hindustani: Western:

Sa Do

Re Re

Ga Mi

Ma Fa

Pa So

Dha La

Ni Si

These seven notes are like the white keys on a piano keyboard. There are intervals between them: to be precise, there are five intermediate notes. The one between Sa and Re is called "Komal Re" (like Re flat), between Re and Ga is "Komal Ga" (like Mi flat), between Pa and Dha is "Komal Dha" (like La flat), and between Dha and Ni is "Komal Ni" (like Si flat). That accounts for four notes. The fifth lies between Ma and Pa but it is called "Tivra Ma", like Fa sharp. The final result is shown here: Sa Komal Re Re Komal Ga Ga Ma Tivra Ma Pa Komal Dha Dha Komal Ni Ni

The four notes marked "Komal" and the one marked "Tivra" correspond to the black notes on a piano keyboard. What, then, is a Raga? It is most simply described as a subset of these notes, usually from five to eight notes, together with a set of rules to combine them effectively and create a particular mood. Each Raga has a name. It also has a character, which can be devotional, erotic, bold and valorous, or tragic, to name some examples. And a Raga usually comes with a time of day when it is best performed, usually specified as a 3 hour interval (6 AM to 9 AM, 9 AM to noon, etc.). Some Ragas are related to seasons, for example the Malhar ragas are performed mainly in the monsoon season, and then they can be sung at any time. Given a Raga, there exist several compositions, more or less like songs (with words), which obey the rules of that Raga and effectively convey its mood. It is common for the words to assist in conveying the mood. For example, monsoon-related Ragas will have compositions that describe the gathering clouds, the falling raindrops, the lightning and thunder, and the accompanying erotic mood (if you've never been to India you may wonder about this one, but it is so). A vocal musician will sing the notes of the raga in various combinations, then recite the composition and perform variations on it, often switching to a faster composition after some time. The whole thing can last an hour, or even two, and it is never monotonous because different types of variations are introduced at different stages. The success of the performance depends on how effectively the musician builds up the desired mood. Some Ragas are considered "light" in that they have less richness of structure, and are performed for shorter durations like 10-15 minutes. That's more or less all I have to say about it here, but in practice this music is too fantastic for words, and needs to be experienced. For me personally, this music has gone a long way towards opening up the sublime aspects of the world we live in. __________________________________________________________ The evolution of Indian music-ITC SRA Sitar, sarod, tabla, sarangi or dhrupad, khayal, ghazal or raga, tala, gharana- these are known the world over today. They represent Hindustani Art Music - in reality, a part of Indian Classical music. Indian music has developed through very complex interactions between different peoples of different races and cultures over several thousand years. In a musical tradition in which improvisation predominates, and written notation, when used, is skeletal, the music of past generations is irrevocably lost. However, references to music in ancient texts, aesthetic formulations, and depictions and written discussions of musical instruments can offer clues. In rare instances an ancient musical style may be preserved in an unbroken oral tradition. For example, musical notes or the structure of a raga, as we know them today, must have had their origins in the Samavedic times. For most historical eras and styles, surviving treatises explaining musical scales and modes, provide a particularly important means of recapturing at least a suggestion of the music of former times. Tracing the musical theory of the past makes clear the position of the present musical system

The Chronology

For any discussion of cultural matters pertaining to India the following rough chronological sequence or historical periodization is useful.

2500 BC - 1500 BC 1500 BC - 500 BC 500BC - 200BC 200 BC - 300 AD 300 AD - 600 AD 600 AD - 1200 AD 1200 AD - 1700 AD 1700 AD onwards

The Indus Valley Civilization Little is known of the musical culture of the Indus Valley civilization of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. Some musical instruments, such as the arched or bow-shaped harp and several varieties of drums, have been identified from the small terracotta figures and from the pictographs on the seals that were probably used by merchants. Further, the famous bronze statuette of a dancing girl, probably representing a class of temple dancers, clearly indicates the presence of music. Evidence of Rudra-worship during this period has also been found. Rudra was later to become popular as Shiva- the supreme deity of dance, drama and music. Vedic Literature The Indus Valley civilization died with the arrival of the Aryans, who descended into India from the northwest in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. An important aspect of Aryan religious life was the bard-priest who composed hymns, in praise of the gods, to be sung or chanted at sacrifices. This tradition was continued in the Aryans' new home in northern India until a sizable body of oral religious poetry had been composed. This body of chanted poetry grew to massive proportions, and the best of the poems were compiled as an anthology called Rigveda, which was then canonized. The hymns of the Rigveda, the oldest Veda, are addressed to the elements of nature personified as deities, and are prayers for protection from calamities and for attainment of prosperity - material as well as spiritual. The Rigveda came into being between 1500 BC and 500 BC. It was not committed to writing, but the text and the chanting formula were carefully handed down by word of mouth from one generation to the next, up to the present period. The poems in the Rigveda are arranged according to the priestly families who chanted and, presumably, had composed the hymns. The Yajurveda and the Samaveda were composed after the Rigveda The Yajurveda, with portions in prose, is a manual, describing the procedures to be followed in the sacrifice. The Samaveda contains hymns to be sung by those who did the chanting. It is this Veda which is specifically connected with music in India. A fourth Veda, the Atharvaveda, replete with magical chants and incantations, was accepted as a Veda considerably later and is quite unrelated to the other three. The Vedas are considered to be revealed literature. Sages and seers (rishis) with extraordinary powers directly 'saw and received them' - hence their unique authority and influence. In order to ensure the purity

of the Vedas, the slightest change was forbidden, and there has been virtually no change in these texts for about 3,000 years. Each Veda has two parts: texts of the mantras and Brahmanas, which consist of rituals and related examples. Moreover, to each Brahmana is attached an Upanishad as well as an Aranyaka, both having a philosophical content. The rishis, to whom the hymns of the Vedas appeared as revelations, are the authors of those hymns. The seven Rishis (saptarshis) are referred to in the Shatapatha Brahmana as Goutama, Bharadwaja, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Vashistha, Kashyapa and Atri. The seven Rishis are represented in the sky by the seven stars of the Great Bear. The richas or the hymns were often composed on the spur of the moment.

Vedic Music Vedic religion was based on performing sacrifices in order to propitiate the gods. Music formed an important part of the rituals, which structured the sacrifice. In fact, singing, instrumental music and dance were described as divine in Vedic literature; it was believed that they propitiated deities. Vedic music is the earliest instance of the deep relationship between religion and music in India. Many features of this music later percolated in various ways and in different proportions into different kinds of Indian music, including Hindustani Art music. The Rigveda relied on recited hymns (richa). The musical chanting of the Samaveda employed more notes (finally settling on seven notes), and is said to be the source of the later secular and classical music. In fact, the word sama itself is a compound expression and includes two entities: the first component 'sa' refers to hymns, i.e. richa, and the second component, 'ma' refers to the musical notes. Vedic music also included instrumental music of various types. Music was used mainly for two functions: to propitiate deities and to accompany sacrificial offerings. Both solo and choral music were in vogue. Four major forms of music were prevalent in Sama-gayan, taken as a whole. Each kind of music effected different changes in Vedic mantras as were perceived to be necessary by the concerned musician. The veena, tunav, dundubhi, bhoomi-dundubhi and talav were the prominent instruments - representing the four major instrumental categories, autophones, membranophones, aerophones and chordophones. The singing of sama was accompanied by the veena in accordance with a procedure that connected bodymovements, gestures and correct intonation in singing. Seated properly, the singer was to touch the middle phalanx of the fingers of the right palm with the right thumb according to the pitch of the note intended. A disciple learnt this procedure by imitating his preceptor in pitch, intonation as well as in finger movements. Soma No Vedic ritual was complete without the drinking of a sacred intoxicating liquor called soma. Soma was an integral part of Vedic sacrifices After first being offered as a libation to the gods, the remainder of the soma was consumed by the officiating priests (Brahmins). Soma-ras (soma juice) raised to the status of a deity in Rigveda, was endowed with hallucinatory effects and extraordinary powers to heal diseases. Soma drinking was held legitimate only after attaining a certain status in social and spiritual matters. The Shiksha literature As the early Indian music was based on ritual and mantra, correct pronunciation was of great significance. Often, even a slight mispronunciation signified 'death' instead of 'life'! And yet, music makers in the Sama-gayan did not hesitate to bring about changes in the words of the mantras they sang! Freedom was so liberally enjoyed that rules were made to regularise these deviations because they added to the quality of music produced. Shiksha is the first branch of Vedic learning. It deals with the science of correct pronunciation of vowels, consonants and syllables. Basically six aspects are dealt with: Varna (syllable), Swara (notes), Matra (duration), Bala (articulation), Sama (a kind of balance in the total utterance) and Santana (the spacing of the words). Some of the well-known Shikshas are Paniniya, Yagnyvalkya Vashisthi, Katyayani, Manduki and Naradiya, the last being associated with the sage, Narada.

Guru-Shishya Parampara Music in India has been passed on in a tradition best described as Guru-Shishya Parampara (preceptordisciple tradition). This method has occupied an important place in Indian culture. A guru is regarded as the metaphysical father of his disciple and is ranked higher than biological parents. The Gurukul (guru's dynasty or family) system dates back to the Vedic period. In the gurukul system of education, a pupil or shishya, after his initiation (sacred thread ceremony), lived in the house of his guru, or teacher, and studied the Vedas and other subjects under his guidance, for a period of 12 years. Gurus were expected to teach everything they knew to the disciple. The institution was accessible only to the upper classes. The gurukuls were well supported by kings who considered it their duty to make them financially viable. There were four kinds of gurus: Acharya, Pravakta, Shrotriya and Adhyapak. It is from the samhita period that we have names of Acharyas such as Angiras, Garga, Atri, Brihaspati and Vasishtha. There were two types of shishyas: one, who paid fees to the Guru was known as acharya-bhaga; the other, who learnt by performing domestic chores in the guru's house, was described as dharma-shishya. The Gurukul was the direct precedent of the concept of gharana in Hindustani music. Of course, in a gharana the learning was confined to the scholastic and the performing arts, and there was no religious teaching.

Ramayana and music The first Indian epic, Ramayana, was composed by the sage Valmiki. It was written in shloka form. The word shloka refers to a particular kind of metrical composition known for its brevity, easy tempo and lilting rhyme. From the lavish use of musical metaphors in the epic, it is evident that the precise concept of music or sangeet had been adequately established and appreciated. For example, when Rama describes Kishkindha, Sugreeva's kingdom, to Laxmana, he refers to the lute-like resonance of the bees, the rhythmic croaking of frogs and the mridang-like sounds of clouds. Rama was an expert in gandharva, the 'classical' music of the time. The term Marga sangeet is also used in the epic to denote the accepted and prestigious mode of music. There were three important features of Marga Sangeet. It was created and propagated by Brahma and other deities. It was not meant for entertainment. It was presented before the Gods to please them. The epic tells us that musical instruments were collectively mentioned as atodya. Four major types of instruments were identified. A wide variety of instruments were used such as the Veena, Venu, Vansha, Shankha, Dundubhi, Bheri, Mridang, Panav and Pataha. The knowledge of music was widespread. Ravana the demon-leader was proficient in music. So was Sugreeva, the monkey-leader. Occasions of festival music were known as samaj. There were professional classes of musicians such as Bandi, Soota, Magadha and others, whose repertoire included songs in praise of heroes, their deeds, their clans or dynasties. Ramayana, as an oral epic, was also propagated according to the musical norms perfected in the oral tradition. This was the pathya mode of music making, ideal for narration. This was the form employed by Rama's sons Kush and Lava, when they sang a narrative song in Rama's praise at his court accompanied by only a lute. Even today, the story of Rama, when traditionally narrated in India in different languages and regions, follows the norms laid down by the ancient Sage. The use of technical terms in popular literature signifies that knowledge in the concerned field of study is widespread in society. Musical terms such as pramana, laya, tala, samatala , kala , matra and shamya regularly feature in the epic.

Pathya sangeet Pathya in Indian musicology describes a special mode of making music. Bharata laid down six main features of Pathya: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) seven notes (saptaswara) three basic locations for tone-production (sthanas) four fundamental ways of empowering tonal arrangements (varnas) two basic intonation modes (kakus) six embellishments (alankaras) six aspects (angas).

Pathya sangeet was not expected to entertain. Its aim was to inform and instruct. Even today wandering musicians create Pathya sangeet.

Mahabharata and music Krishnadvaipayana Vyasa composed the epic Mahabharata in 24000 shlokas. There is less about music in the Mahabharata than in the Ramayana. Possibly human life had become more complex and problemridden during the time of the Mahabharata, leaving less time for music. Mahabharata used the term gandharva instead of sangeet. The epic therefore referred to a more specific kind of music. Musicology, or the science of music was called gandharvashastra. Superhuman beings called Gandharvas were the expert practitioners of this music. Both gandharvas and their consorts, the apsaras‚ were experts in singing, playing musical instruments and dancing. Arjuna, one of the heroes in the Mahabharata had learnt these musical arts from Chitrasen gandharva. Kings maintained their own music schools to train princesses and their maids-in-waiting in the performing arts. The names of the seven basic musical notes (shadja) have been clearly mentioned in the Mahabharata, which was composed around 400 BC. The epic therefore bears testimony to the long living tradition of Indian Classical music. The use of music in festivals and other social occasions brings out the importance given to music in human life. There were, in fact, many classes of professional musicians like the gandharvas who catered to various musical and cultural needs.

Music in Buddhist literature Valuable insights into the evolution of music can also be gained from Buddhist literature and sculpture in India and in the countries to which the religion spread. In basic religious texts like Thergatha and Therigatha language was used in a way conducive to music making. Jatakas are stories written in Pali around 300 BC about the previous births of Buddha. The jatakas describe Buddhist monks singing and dancing to the accompaniment of instruments like the veena, vepamei, tunak and panak. They contain a wealth of material of musicological interest. Sculptures based on Buddhist lore are a major source of information on music. Sculptures in Bharhut (200-150 BC) and Sanchi confirm that music flourished during the Buddhist period in spite of theological opposition. The opposition was because music was seen as a distraction. Music in Jain sources Jain literary sources interpret the prevalent music in important periods in Indian cultural history. Both Buddhist and Jain sources often focus on those strata of society otherwise not described in Sanskrit texts. Hence it is critical to examine the Jain sources. At the same time, many terms are clearly derived from the Sanskrit tradition indicating an overall musical continuity. For example, the Sthanangsootra lists the merits and demerits of vocalists. Interestingly, these nearly

tally with Naradiya-shiksha. Jain texts list many instruments not mentioned elsewhere. Rayappasenaijja lists instruments in 18 classes. In all 63 instruments are itemised- bhambha, mukund, machal, kadamb and many others. Buddhist and Jain texts cover a wider gamut than the Sanskrit texts and very often include instruments used in folk music.

Harivamsha, Chhalikya and Hallisaka Harivamsha is a volume of 16,374 shlokas appended to the great epic Mahabharata between 200 BC and 500 AD to complete the epic. Harivamsha is important because it describes two forms that may have inspired many composite genres in Indian cultural expression - the Chhalikya, a genre of songs in the ancient Gandharva mode of music making, and the Hallisaka dance. Music and Natyashastra With its historical and deep-rooted religious tradition, Indian mythology holds music to be of Divine Origin. Narada was the first sage to whom the laws of music were revealed; Tumburu was the first singer; Saraswati was the goddess of music and learning; and Bharata was the first to draw up rules for theatre, of which music was a major and integral part. Natyashastra, or the Science of Theatre, a treatise on dramaturgy, is said to have been authored by Bharata sometime between 200 BC and 200 AD. Natyashastra devotes itself mainly to theatre, dance and music. It also touches on the related areas of cultural life of India. It is the foundation on which Indian philosophical thinking squarely rests. It is composed in prose and verse, though verse predominates. The chapters on music contain descriptions of various classes of instruments. Gandharva music, the techniques of playing musical instruments and the rules for talas are explained. Natyashastra also defines the Rasa theory. The theory states that "Rasa arises from a (proper) combination of the vibhavas (the Stimulants), the anubhavas (the physical Consequents) and the vyabhicharibhavas (the Transient Emotional States)". Natyarasa is the primary emotion generated by the interaction of the various bhavas. It is presented by the appropriate modulation of the voice, the movements of the body and the involuntary reactions that favourably impact the aesthetic sensibility of the spectator. This theory of Rasa enunciated by Bharata and interpreted by his major commentator Abhinavagupta(10th century), has interested the followers of both the scholastic and the performing traditions in India for the last 2000 years. It has provided an invaluable aesthetic framework for the literary arts (chiefly poetry, fiction and drama), the performing arts (mainly dance, theatre and music), the fine arts (basically painting and sculpture), and the combined arts (like architecture). The Gupta period The period of the Gupta kings shone in literary excellence. It is often described as the Golden Age of culture, arts and learning in ancient India. Kalidasa, who was in the court of Vikramditya (380-413 AD), epitomises the artistic accomplishments of the Gupta period. He was a lyrical poet and a writer of epics and plays. The poem 'Meghadoot', the epic 'Raghuvamsha' and the play 'Shakuntala' are some of his creative masterpieces that adorn the Indian literary tradition. The numerous references to music and dance in Kalidasa's works show the importance accorded to music in man's life during his period. Kalidasa's works mention musical instruments like the Parivadini vina, Vipanchi vina, Pushkar, Mridang, Vamshi and Shankha, different types of songs like the Kakaligeet, Streegeet and Apsarogeeti, technical terms like Murchana, Swarasaptaka and Tana and qualities of voice like Kinnarkanthi and Valguvagam. Vatsyayana wrote his famous manual, Kamasutra (400 AD) during this period. In it, he lists 64 'Kala's or arts essential to refined living, which include singing, playing musical instruments and dancing. The Buddhist monk, Fa-Hien, travelled far and wide in the country for several years during the Gupta period. He noted his impressions about the remarkable prevalence of music in social life.

The Gupta king Harshavardhan (606-648 AD), was himself a singer. There are references to music making in his plays, 'Nagananda', 'Ratnavali' and 'Priyadarshika'. A story in the 'Panchatantra' (fifth century), one of the most celebrated compilations of fables ever produced by mankind, also refers to music. The tradition of Indian art music flourished in four kinds of performing spaces: sacrificial areas, temple precincts, stages and platforms and princely courts. The character of each of these spaces determined the pitch, volume and timbre of music. The music associated with the sacrificial hall was mainly the mantras, which were recited as well as sung. The words, their enunciation and their appropriateness for the ritual were the supreme considerations. Musical instruments were employed, but their role was secondary. In the closed or semi-closed structures of temple-spaces, the effects of echo and reverberation were felt. The effect of instrumental and vocal timbres was more pronounced. Hence these were developed. This comes through in the number of instruments used, and the individual capacity of each to produce a greater variety of sounds. From the Gupta age onwards varied musical genres were practised within the temples. The courtyard of the temple allowed another kind of music-making called the samaj. Visiting artists were also allowed to perform in these soirees. Yet another format that evolved in the temple space was the ghata-nibandhan, which was collective dance and music. Temple-spaces have thus fostered art, folk, religious and popular music. The stage or the platform was a space, which was a necessary and important part of an auditorium or a theatre. Natyashastra elaborately described three kinds of theatre, differing in their size and shape. Music from the stage had to be heard as well as seen; hence the skilful used of stage space was necessary. Bharata's detailed instructions about the kutapa or the orchestra bring out the close relationship between the kind of music performed and the quality of stage space. The princely court was the most organised performing space. All kinds of music were rendered from the princely court as all the external conditions could be controlled. Delicate effects and subtle nuances could be conveyed. There was also a much better interaction between the stage performer and the audience. Music in Puranas A Purana traditionally treats five subjects: the primary creation of the universe, secondary creation after periodic annihilation, the genealogy of gods and saints, grand epochs, and the history of the royal dynasties. Into this core subject a Purana incorporates other religious accretions like customs, ceremonies, sacrifices, festivals, caste duties, donations, construction of temples and idols, and places of pilgrimage. Stories in the Puranas highlight the universal theme of the receiving of musical knowledge as a divine boon. The Puranas also bring out the prestige that music was accorded in human and social life. The Puranas were passed on from one generation to the next through the oral tradition. It is believed that all the major Puranas were in circulation by 100 AD. They were gradually compiled and consolidated between 400 AD and 1000 AD. Of the 18 Puranas, three dwell at some length on music. The Vayupurana is regarded as a very early purana that originated around 300 AD. It refers to music as gandharva. The music of this Purana deals with the rituals performed during the different phases of a sacrifice. The Markandeyapurana is one of the smallest puranas. It came into being between 400 and 500 AD. Through a dialogue between Saraswati and Ashvatara, a king of Nagas or serpents, it offers interesting insights into music. Saraswati offers a boon to the King who desires nothing but the knowledge of the musical notes or swaras. The Vishnudharmottarapurana, which is traced to 400-500 AD, touches on almost all the arts, although having very little original material. It devotes one chapter each to Geet and Vadya.

Dattilam: gandharvashastra: moving towards raga The music of ragas, as we know it today, is the culmination of a long process of development in musical

thinking that aimed to meaningfully organise melodic and tonal material. A landmark step towards the evolution of the raga was taken when sama-gayan gave way to gandharva gaan as the mainstream of the sacred music of India. Dattilam, dated roughly 400 AD, is the main text for this music. This text discusses parent tonal frameworks (grama), the 22 micro-tonal intervals (srutis) placed in one octave-space, the process of sequential re-arrangement of notes (murchana), and the permutations and combinations of note-sequences (tanas). Dattilam also describes the 18 jatis which are the fundamental melodic structures for the jati-gayan. The jatis have ten basic characteristics, which closely resemble the structuring and elaboration of the contemporary raga in Hindustani music. The names of some jatis like andhri, oudichya may reflect their regional origins, as do the names of many Hindustani ragas today, e.g. Sorath, Khamaj, Kanada, Gauda, Multani and Jaunpuri. Jati-gayan was entirely pre-composed. However, Hindustani music stressed improvisation which completely changed its nature. But the approach and concepts of Dattilam made the transition from samamusic to the contemporary raga-music significant and smooth.

The Deshi in music Brihaddeshi (The Great Treatise on the Regional), by Matanga was the first work to describe music in the period after Bharata, before the advent of Islam began to influence music. Matanga probably hailed from south India. Brihaddeshi is the first major and available text to describe the raga, which has been the central concept in Indian art music for centuries. It also introduced the sargam, or notation in the names of notes. In Matanga's discussion of musical scales and micro-tonal intervals he clarifies what Bharata had said in the Natyashastra. One of Matanga's major contributions is his scholarly focus on the regional element in music. 'Deshi' has to be understood in contrast to 'Margi' music, which is sacred and pan-Indian in its scope. According to Matanga, "Deshi is that which is sung voluntarily and with delight and pleasure by women, children, cowherds and kings in their respective regions". Deshi music captured the flavour of a range of human emotions from different regions. Through notes it was formalised into ascending and descending scales. Ragas, talas and tala-music The present system of Indian music stands on two important pillars: raga and tala. Raga is the melodic form while tala is the rhythm underlying music. Together, raga and tala distinguish Indian music from many other musical systems of the world. The rhythm of music is explored through beats in time. Melody evolved as the raga through several processes; the tala resulted from a similar evolution in rhythm. Thus raga, which means colour or passion, became a framework to create music based on a given set of notes (usually five to seven) and characteristic rhythmic patterns. The basic constituents of a raga can be written down in the form of a scale (in some cases differing in ascent and descent). By using only these notes, by emphasizing certain degrees of the scale, and by going from note to note in ways characteristic to the raga, the performer sets out to create a mood or atmosphere (rasa) that is unique to the raga in question. The idea of the tala is embedded in the concept of time. In Hindustani music it is the artist who bestows quality on Time. A musician marks the beginning of his tala whenever he wants. He also creates his divisions in time. He thus creates the first beat. The flow of time is now released, channelled and directed. The artist then creates a beat to mark the first division or segment. With this first division in time the flow becomes comprehensible. The artist subsequently puts in successive and equidistant strokes. He thus makes available to us the matra, a measure to compute musical time. The duration between two matras is known as the tempo. The release of the time flow and the determination of the measure to compute it are the primary requirements to make a tala. Cyclical and repetitive time-patterns composed of groups of long and short duration time divisions are talas, as we know them today. In every tala in Hindustani art music clapping (tali), tapping of fingers and waving of the palm (khali or kal) are analogous. These weave a pattern of sound and silence. Ancient

treatises enumerate 108 talas. However, contemporary performances are normally restricted to about 15 talas. Talas gain life and body when instruments play their role. Instrumental sounds, when expressed onomatopoeically, formulate sound syllables. These sound syllables, when fitted suitably to the taladivisions, create thekas, the tala-expression that is actually played and heard in Hindustani music. Thus the talas function as accompanying entities in Hindustani music and dance. They also serve as the basis for solo renditions in rhythm music. The Muslim Political Backdrop in India Hindustani art music began to evolve after pre-medieval Indian music passed through certain stages of transformation and development till the beginning of the 11th century. Many Indian and non-Indian cultures took an active part in this transformation. Around the 9th century, the Sufis secured a firm foothold in India with their great love for music and acceptance of many indigenous customs. The followers of Nizamuddin Chishti (1324 AD) included the 'Basant' and 'Rang' celebrations in their religious practices. Similarly during the time of Kaikubad (12871290 AD), both Farsi and Hindi songs found a place in performances. The advent of Islam at the end of the 12th century brought Persian music and culture with it. The attitude of the Muslim rulers toward Hinduism varied. Some like Aurangzeb (1658-1707) were strongly anti-Hindu. Others like the great Akbar (1556-1605) were well-disposed towards their Hindu subjects. Muslim India had a long, complex and eventful cultural history. Ultimately it became an inextricable part of the Indian cultural ethos. The Delhi Sultanate : Amir Khusro In 1262, when he was nine years old, Amir Khusro began to compose poetry. He composed almost half a million verses in Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Braj Bhasha, Hindawi and Khadi Boli. He is supposed to have enriched or invented qawali, qasida, qalbana, naqsh and many others forms of music. Varying degrees of secularity permeated these musical forms. The zeelaph and sarparda ragas are also associated with Amir. Khusro lived for 70 years. During 60 of those years, that is, between 1265 and 1325, Khusro spent time in the courts of as many as ten different Muslim rulers. Each court he stayed in was culturally active and different from the others. Khusro's stay in Multan brought him in contact with Persian music, while his visit to Bengal exposed him to the music of the Vaishnavite tradition. During his time at the ruler Kaikubad's court, Avadh-based music and musicians secured a firm footing in Delhi. Three Khilji monarchs became his patrons successively. Each signalled a musico-cul-tural change. Jalaluddin, the first Khilji, was enthusiastic about secular music. Allauddin Khilji worked with Sufi saints through Khusro, and was instrumental in introducing diverse musical elements in Delhi. The number of different patrons that Khusro had, and the places he worked in, enabled him to get exposed to and assimilate diverse musical influences. Khusro is said to have created a new system of musicology, called 'Indraprastha Mata' or 'Chaturdandi Sampradaya' . He also brought into circulation the two specific musical genres of 'tarana' and 'kaul', which complemented the prevalent array of musical forms. Neither, however, was novel to the Indian musical scene. This only reinforced the fact that Khusro's Indianisation of the Islamic musical tradition complemented the Hindu tradition. Sangeet Ratnakara The medieval age was characterised by an impressive and varied musical expression. There was an abundance of musical instruments. Drums and rhythm-instruments, in particular. Were widely used. Sharangdeva (1210-1247 AD), the author of the famous Sangeet Ratnakara, explains the construction and the techniques of playing 14 kinds of drums. This musicological treatise is so highly regarded that the two important systems of art music in India, Hindustani and Carnatic, try to trace their basic concepts to it. The mention of names of ragas like the turushka todi and the turushka gaud in this text show the percolation of the Islamic influence into Indian music.

Ratnakara emphasised the ever changing nature of music, the increasing role of regional influences on it, and the increasing complexity of musical material that needed to be systemised time and again. Sharangdeva is firmly tethered to the prevalent musical practices of his time. His stress is consistently on the 'lakshya', the music 'in vogue' as against ancient music. Raja Mansingh Raja Mansingh Tomar of Gwalior (1486-1516 AD) was the driving force behind introducing and consolidating Dhrupad, a genre of Hindustani music that enjoys esteem even today. He replaced traditional Sanskrit songs by Hindi songs. He is also credited with composing three volumes of songs: (i) Vishnupadas (songs in praise of lord Vishnu), (ii) Dhrupads, and (iii) Hori and Dhamar songs associated with Holi. Mansingh's support gave pride of place to these genres. He also thus related music to the lives and language of the laymen. He was a generous patron of the arts. Both Hindu and Muslim musicians were employed in his court. With the talent available in his court he initiated a major project to systematise the prevalent music. It was this project that resulted in the creation of that comprehensive treatise on music in Hindi, 'Mankutuhal'. The Bhakti movement This was a devotional movement emphasising the intense emotional attachment of a devotee towards his personal god. The term 'Bhakti' is first used around 800 BC in Pali literature. The devotional fervour of the Alwars and the Nayanars, the saints who lived in South India between the 5th and the 10th centuries, also travelled north. In due course 'Bhakti' became a widespread Hindu religious movement and way of life, inspiring copious volumes of superb religious poetry and art. The 'Bhakti' cult spread to the north in the 14th and 15th centuries, where it resonated with the Rama and Krishna devotional cults. Theoreticians like Ramanujacharya and Ramananda and saint-poets like Kabir and Tulsidas belonged to the Rama tradition. Vallabhacharya and his contemporary Sri Chaitanya spearheaded two separate Krishna cults in the 17th century. The Vallabha cult directly contributed to the theory and practice of music. This impacted Hindustani Art Music as well through Ashtachap, Pushti and Haveli sangeet. By the 15th century, large parts of the areas under the sway of Hindustani Art Music were well ahead in linguistic and literary development. Using the regional language, Braj, Avadhi or whatever, as the vehicle, saint-composers were able to reach to people in social strata otherwise impervious to the influence of art and music. In the Bhakti movement as in Hindustani Art Music, songs and composite presentations, using elements of speech, dance and drama, played a major role in propagating ideas in art and music. The works of composers like Jayadeva (11th century), Vidyapati (1375 AD), Chandidas (14th-15th century), Bhakta Narasimha (1416-1475 AD) and Meerabai (1555-1603 AD) are ready cases in point. The Bhakti movement remains an isolated example of a collective use of the structures and stylistic features of art music. Ashtachap, Pushti and Haveli sangeet Vallabhacharya propounded the Shudhadvaita Vedanta (pure non-dualism) or Pushtimarga (the road to grace). His sect was known as the 'Rudra Sampradaya'. The Vallabhacharya cult revived an older stream of music. The religious and musical procedures of the cult were systematized by Vallabhacharya's son Goswami Vitthalnathji (1516-1698 AD). The 'Ashtachap' stream of music was thus established (1607-8 AD). It was named after the eight musical acharyas or preceptors who composed the music of the cult. The legendary Tansen too came under its influence. 'Haveli sangeet' was the temple music practised by the 'Pushti Margi Sampradaya'. Nathadwara in Rajasthan was the main seat of this Vaishnava devotional cult. The cult has created a rich historical tradition of temple-based music described as 'Haveli sangeet'. 'Haveli' is a temple visualised as a palace that the deity chooses to live in.

The musical history of the post-Ashtachap period of Pushti-sangeet coexists with many developments in Hindustani Art Music The advent of the Dhrupad, Khayal and Tappa, the dissociation of dance from music, and the shift from the pakhawaj to the tabla, all happened during this period. Tansen Tansen, the legendary musician of Akbar's court, had his early training in the school founded by Raja Mansingh Tomar of Gwalior. Among the many works attributed to him are a treatise named the 'Ragamala', many 'Dohas' describing the 'lakshanas' or the attributes of ragas, 'Sangeet Saar', and 'Shri Ganesh Stotra'. According to some scholars, Tansen reduced the 4000 ragas and raginis of his time into a system of 400. He also reduced 92 talas to 12. He is said to have created many ragas like 'Miyan Malhar' and 'Miyan ki todi'. Tansen's Senia gharana divided into two streams. His elder son Bilaskhan headed the Rabab-players gharana and his second son Suratsen the sitar-players gharana.

The Mughals - Music in Akbar's court During the Mughal period, and especially under Akbar's reign, temple music took a back seat and Darbar Sangeet came into being. Music was composed mainly to eulogise patrons. Information about music in Akbar's court comes from the "Ain e Akbari" of Abul Fazl (1551-1602 AD). Abul was a courtier in Akbar's darbar. There were numerous musicians in the court, Hindus, Iranis , Kashmiris and Turanis, both men and women. The musicians were divided into seven orders. There was one for each day of the week. Headed by the legendary Tansen, there were 19 singers, three who chanted and several instrumental musicians. The main instruments were the sarmandal, bin, nay, karna and tanpura. The musicians came from far and wide, and the music was rich and varied. Akbar's court was witness to a complete fusion of the Persian and Indian music systems. Muslim influence on music India in the sixteenth century was politically and geographically fragmented. There were also multiple cultural forces at work. More than nine rulers vied with each other to promote their own respective court cultures. Commoners were allowed freedom in matters like religion. In various courts a sophisticated court culture evolved and crystallised. This enabled the emergence of a chunk of art or classical music distinct from devotional or folk music. This court music exhibited a great deal of Muslim influence. The Kitab-e-nauras of Ibrahim Adil Shah-II (1580-1626 AD) of Bijapur vividly describe the court music of this period. The work reflects the confrontation between the prevalent and flourishing musical traditions in the South and the one taking shape under Muslim influence. Ibrahim Adil Shah was the moving spirit behind the famous Ragamala painting, pictorially representing the musical modes. Jehangir (1605-27 AD) was genuinely interested in music and generously patronised the art. His 'Jehangirnama' describes in detail the music enjoyed by his court. Aurangzeb (1618-1707 AD) was a puritan unfavourably disposed to music. But he patronised one major effort to shed light on the music current in his times. He enabled the publication of 'Ragadarpana'. This was Fakirullah Saifkhan's translation into Persian, in 1665-6 AD, of Raja Mansingh's 'Mankutuhal' written two centuries earlier. It was not a complete translation of 'Mankutuhal'. But it contained the history of music between the times of Mansingh and Aurangzeb. It also describes the art music of the 17th century. The Modern Period Music in India, and especially art music, went through a metamorphosis for four centuries from the sixteenth, to result in the Hindustani music of today. This modern period saw an increasing number of musicological works in Persian, Urdu, Hindi and other regional languages, instead of Sanskrit. All these tell us the story of how Hindustani Art Music, as we know it today, evolved and took shape. From the beginning of the nineteenth century many Indian scholars began to publish material on Hindustani music in English as well as in regional languages. This was a welcome addition to the works of the early British Indologists.

The modern period saw the birth of many of the musical forms dominant today, like Khayal and thumri. With the central Mughal power in Delhi weakening after Aurangzeb's death, there was a quick succession of emperors. One of them was the legendary Muhammadshah Rangile (1716-1748 AD). He was a loving and generous patron to many musicians. It was in his court that Nyamatkhan, popularly known as Sadarang, invented a new genre, the Khayal. The nineteenth century saw the birth of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah's pageants, jogia jashan. In these pageants the king, his palace maids and his subjects paraded as yogis. These presentations of Krishna-lore sowed the seeds of Modern Hindustani Theatre. The thumri form of romantic and devotional music also became popular in the 19th century. The prototype of the thumri is traced to the 'Chhalikya' presentation in the Harivamsha (400 AD). The Chhalikya genre combined song and dance with dramatic gestures. Ramnidhi Gupta, or Nidhubabu (1741-1839 AD), gave us the Bengali tappa, a new genre. This assimilated the features of the Tappa in Hindustani music and the lilting rhythm of Bengali music. Nidhubabu's compositions were in Bengali and were secular in content. They were different from the usual devotional model of singing about love through mythological pairs, usually Radha and Krishna. Another musical stalwart of the 19th century was Sourendramohan Tagore, (1840-1915 AD). The mission of his life was to make Hindustani music international in its appeal and reach. In the early 20th century, two people revolutionised Indian music: Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Pandit Vishnu Narayana Bhatkhande V. D. Paluskar (1872-1931 AD) introduced the first music colleges. He gave an entirely new perspective to the education and propagation of music. It was his efforts that elevated music and musicians in the social hierarchy! V.N.Bhatkhande (1860-1937 AD) pioneered the introduction of an organised musical system reflecting current performance practices. The historical tradition of music in India was completely disrupted during the medieval times. Since then, music in India has changed so considerably that no correlation or correspondence was possible between Sanskrit musicological texts and the music practised in modern times. It was Bhatkhande who bridged this enormous gulf. He successfully undertook the arduous task of restating the musicological framework underlying contemporary musical performance. He did extensive musicological fieldwork across the length and breadth of the country. He meticulously collected data on music, and documented and analysed performing traditions. His literature on music remains unparallelled even today and is essential for a systematic study of Hindustani Art Music. It elucidates his views on grammatical structures, historical evolution, performance norms and aesthetic criteria relevant to Hindustani music. He classified a total number of 1800 compositions from the major gharanas accessible to him, dividing them in ten thaats according to his codification. Gharanas The term gharana is derived from the Hindi word 'ghar'. This in turn can be traced to the Sanskrit word 'griha', which means 'family' or 'house'. The gharana concept gained currency only in the nineteenth century when the royal patronage enjoyed by performers weakened. Performers were then compelled to move to urban centres. To retain their respective identities, they fell back on the names of the regions they hailed from. Therefore, even today, the names of many gharanas refer to places. Some of the gharanas well known for singing khayals are : Agra, Gwalior, Patiala, Kirana, Indore, Mewat, Sahaswan, Bhendibazar and Jaipur. A gharana also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology. This ideology sometimes changes substantially from one gharana to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music. For instance, the leisurely development of ragas as well as the premium placed on emotional content of music narrows the choice of ragas available to the Kirana gharana founded by Ustad Abdul Karim Khan (1872-1937 AD). The Agra gharana, founded by Ghagge Khudabux (born in 1800 AD) has a rich repertoire of varied types of musical compositions. The followers of the gharana sang many rare ragas. The treatment of each new raga is always as detailed as that of any known raga. The Jaipur gharana founded by Ustad Alladiya Khan (1855-1945 AD), is well known for its penchant for rare ragas. They are its staple fare. The music made by the gharana is replete with intricate patterns. The gharana seems to concentrate solely on khayal.

There are also gharanas for thumris. In the Benaras thumri, the words in the text of a song are musically embellished to bring out their meaning. The Lucknow gharana presents intricately embellished and delicate thumris that are explicit in their eroticism. The principal feature of the thumri of the Patiala gharana is its incorporation of the tappa from the Punjab region. It is with this tappa element that the gharana makes its impact, departing from the khayal-dominated Benaras thumris and the dance-oriented Lucknow thumris. The concept of hereditary musicians was not confined to vocal music alone. Hence there are also gharanas in instrumental music. The gharanas of the tabla are Lucknow, Delhi, Ajrada, Punjab, Benaras and Farukkabad, among others. The gharanas of the pakhawaj, an instrument established earlier than the tabla, are not named after places but after their main protagonists like Kudau Singh and Panse. Intricacies of Indian classical music. The Raga system is unique for Hindustani Classical Music. A Raga has a specific melodic structure with arrangement of notes. Certain essential features are extremely necessary to establish a Raga. In the Hindustani Classical Music sphere, Ragas are many and each has its distinctive qualities. Besides there is a broad time cycle which is followed while rendering a Raga. By the definition which is normally used to define a Raga, the most prominent feature which stands out is that a Raga should 'colour' or please the minds of the listeners. Thaat According to Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936), one of the most influential musicologists in the field of North Indian classical music in the twentieth century, each one of the several traditional ragas is based on, or is a variation of, ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks. The ten thaats are Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi; if one were to pick a raga at random, it should be possible to find that it is based on one or the other of these thaats. For instance, the ragas Shree and Puriya Dhanashri are based on the Poorvi thaat, Malkauns on the Bhairavi, and Darbari Kanada on the Asavari thaat. It is important to point out that Bhatkande's thaat-raga theory is hardly infallible, but it is nevertheless an important classificatory device with which to order, and make sense of, a bewildering array of ragas; and it is also a useful tool in the dissemination of the music to students. It is worth noting that almost all the thaats mentioned above are also ragas; and yet a thaat is a very different musical entity from a raga, and in this difference may lie, crucially, a definition of what a raga is or is not. A thaat is a musical scale, conceived of as a Western musical scale might be, with the seven notes presented in their order of ascent (arohan). For instance, Asavari is presented, and notated, as Sa Re Ga (flat or komal) Ma Pa Dha (flat) Ni (flat) in ascent, or arohan. This is, however, only the skeletal musical structure of the raga Asavari, an abstraction that is to be found nowhere but on the printed page or inside a textbook; the raga Asavari, in reality, and in exposition, is a very different thing. It goes straight from Re to Ma, and comes down to touch Ga, as it ascends; having touched Ni later, it returns to Pa, and, touching the upper Sa, returns to Dha and Pa again and again. Arohan and avarohan are, thus, inextricably and inseparably intermingled in the structure of this raga. The raga, then, is not a musical scale in the Western sense; it is a characteristic arrangement or progression of notes whose full potential and complexity can be realised only in exposition, and not upon the printed page. A condensed version of this characteristic arrangement of notes, peculiar to each raga, may be called the pakad, by which a listener hears the phrase Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Ga, none of these notes being flat or sharp. Repeated in a recital, they will know that they are listening to the raga Gaud Sarang. Two ragas may have identical notes and yet be very different ragas; for example, two ragas mentioned earlier, Shree and Puriya Dhanashri, have exactly the same notes, but are unmistakably different in structure and temperament. The first can be identified by its continual exploration of the relationship of the note Re to the note Paa; while the repetition of the phrase Ma Re Ga Re Ma Ga, a phrase that would be inadmissible in the first raga, is an enduring feature of the latter. Certain arrangements of notes, then, are opposite to particular ragas and taboo to all others. A simple and abstract knowledge, thus of the notes of a raga or the thaat on which it is based, is hardly enough to ensure a true familiarity or engagement with the raga, although it may serve as a convenient starting point. Thaat familiarity can only come from a constant exposure to, and critical engagement, with raga's exposition. Bilawal

Raga Bilawal is derived from Bilawal Thaat. It is a morning Raga, and uses all the seven notes in the ascending and descending order. All notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Bilawal Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Marwa Raga Marwa is derived from Marwa Thaat. It is a dusk/ early evening Raga which uses six notes in the ascent and in the descent. Pancham is not used. Marwa uses Tivra (sharp) Madhyam and Komal (flat) Rishabh. All other notes are Shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Marwa Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Bhairav Raga Bhairav belongs to Bhairav Thaat. It is an early morning Raga, using all seven notes in the ascent and in the descent. Rishabh and Dhaivat are komal (flat) and the other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Bhairav Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat.

Poorvi Raga Poorvi belongs to Poorvi Thaat. It is a Sandhiprakash Raga, and is rendered at dusk, that is the time when the day ends. It uses all seven notes in the ascent and the descent. Rishabh and Dhaivat are komal (flat), Madhyam is both shuddha and tivra while Gandhar and Nishad are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Poorvi Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat.

Bhairavi Raga Bhairavi belongs to Bhairavi Thaat. It is a late morning Raga, and traditionally is the last raga performed at a session. Shuddh Bhairavi uses all the seven notes in the ascending and descending order, Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat and Nishad being komal (flat) and Madhyam being shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Bhairavi Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat.

Todi Raga Todi belongs to Todi Thaat. It is a morning Raga, and uses all seven notes in the ascent and descent. Rishabh, Gandhar and Dhaivat are komal (flat), Madhyam is Tivra while Nishad is Shuddha. The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Todi Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Asavari Raga Asavari belongs to Asavari Thaat. It is a late morning Raga, and uses all seven notes, five in the ascent and seven in the descent. Gandhar, Dhaivat and Nishad are komal (flat) and the other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Asavari Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Kalyan Raga Kalyan belongs to Kalyan Thaat. It is an evening Raga. It uses all the seven notes, five of them in the ascent and seven of them in the descent. It uses tivra (sharp) Madhyam and all other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Kalyan Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Khamaj Raga Khamaj belongs to Khamaj Thaat. It is rendered in the late evening and uses all seven notes, six in the ascent and seven in the descent. It uses both komal (flat) and shuddha (full) Nishad, and all other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Khamaj Thaat.

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat. Kafi

Raga Kafi belongs to Kafi Thaat. Usually it is rendered in the late evening and uses all the seven notes in the ascending and descending order. Gandhar and Nishad are komal (flat) and all other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Kafi Thaat

The lyrics and an interpretation of the bandishes in this section are now available when you select the audio clip against each raga under a thaat.

Hindustani classical music Music of India Bhajan · Filmi · Folk · Hip hop · Ghazal Pop · Qawwali · Rock Timeline · Samples Genres Awards Festivals Classical (Carnatic · Hindustani) Bollywood · Punjabi · Tamil Sangeet Natak Akademi Thyagaraja Aradhana Cleveland Thyagaraja Aradhana Sruti The Music Magazine "Jana Gana Mana"

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Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andhra Pradesh · Arunachal Pradesh · Assam Bihar · Chhattisgarh · Goa · Gujarat · Haryana Himachal Pradesh · Jammu · Jharkhand Karnataka · Kashmir · Kerala Madhya Pradesh · Maharashtra · Manipur Meghalaya · Mizoram · Nagaland · Orissa Punjab · Rajasthan · Sikkim · Tamil Nadu Tripura · Uttar Pradesh · Uttaranchal West Bengal Hindustani Classical Music (Hindi: हिन्दस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत, Urdu: ‫ )ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت‬is the Hindustani or ु

erstwhile North Indian style of Indian classical music. Originating in the Vedic period, it is a tradition that has been evolving from the 12th century AD, in what is now northern India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, and also Nepal and Afghanistan, and is today one of the two main parts of Indian classical music, with the other one being the Carnatic music, which represents the music of South India. Characteristics The tradition was born out of a cultural synthesis from several musical streams: the vedic chant tradition dating back to approximately one millennia BCE[1], the equally ancient Persian tradition of Musiqi-e assil, and also existent folk traditions prevalent in the region. The terms North Indian Classical Music or Shāstriya Sangeet are also occasionally used.

It is traditional for performers who have reached a distinguished level of achievement, to be awarded titles of respect; Hindus are usually referred to as Pandit and Muslims as Ustad. An interesting aspect of Hindustani music going back to sufi times, is the tradition of religious neutrality: Muslim ustads singing Hindu bhajans, or vice versa. Around the 12th century, Hindustani classical music diverged from the principle which eventually came to be identified as Carnatic classical music. The central notions in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or raga, sung to a rhythmic cycle or tala. The tradition dates back to the ancient Samaveda, (lit. sāma=ritual chant), which deals with the norms for chanting of srutis or hymns such as the Rig Veda. These principles were refined in the Natyashastra by Bharata (2nd-3d c. CE) and the Dattilam (probably 3d-4th c. AD)[2]. In medieval times, many of the melodic systems were fused with ideas from Persian music, particularly through the influence of sufi composers like Amir Khusro, and later in the Moghul courts. Noted composers such as Tansen flourished, along with religious groups like the Vaishnavites. After the 16th century, the singing styles diversified into different gharanas patronized in different princely courts. Around 1900, Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande consolidated the musical structures of Hindustani Classical music into a number of thaats. In the 20th century, Hindustani classical music has become popular across the world through the influence of artistes like Ravi Shankar, Ali Akbar Khan and many others. Indian classical music has 7 basic notes Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni, with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a 12-note scale. Unlike the 12-note scale in Western music, the base frequency of the scale is not fixed, and intertonal gaps (temper) may also vary; however with the gradual replacement of the sarangi by the harmonium, an equal tempered scale is increasingly used. The performance is set to a melodic pattern called a raga (also spelled as raag) characterized in part by specific ascent (Arohana) and descent (Avarohana) sequences, which may not be identical. Other characteristics include King (Vadi) and Queen (Samavadi) notes and a unique note phrase (Pakad). In addition each raga has its natural register (Ambit) and glissando (Meend) rules, as well as features specific to different styles and compositions within the raga structure. Performances are usually marked by considerable improvisation within these norms. History Music was first formalized in India in connection with preserving the sruti texts, primarily the four vedas, which are seen as apaurasheya (lit. un-created by man). Not only was the text important, but also the manner in which they had been enunciated by the immortals. Prosody and chanting were thus of great importance, and were enshrined in the two vedangas (bodies of knowledge) called Shiksha (pronunciation, chants) and Chhandas (prosody); these remained a key part of the brahminic educational system till modern times. The formal aspects of the chant are delineated in the Samaveda, with certain aspects, e.g. the relation of chanting to meditation, elaborated in the Chandogya Upanishad (ca. 8th c. BC). Priests involved in these ritual chants were called Samans and a number of ancient musical instruments such as the conch (shankh), lute (veena), flute (bansuri), trumpets and horns were associated with this and later practices of ritual singing.

Maharajah Swathi Thirunal of Travancore Kingdom, South India, was a prolific composer of Hindustani and Carnatic songs Sanskritic Tradition The Samaveda outlined the ritual chants for singing the verses of the Rig veda, particularly for offerings of Soma. proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes, which were named, in descending order, as Krusht, Pratham, Dwitiya, Tritiya, Chaturth, Mandra and Atiswār. These refer to the notes of a flute, which was the only fixed frequency instrument. This is why the second note is called pratham (lit. first, i.e. note when only first hole is closed). Music is dealt with extensively in the Valmiki Ramayana; Narada is an accomplished musician, as is Ravana; Saraswati with her veena is the goddess of music. Gandharvas are presented as spirits who are musical masters, and the gandharva style looks to music primarily for pleasure, accompanied by the soma rasa. In the Vishnudharmottara Purana, the Naga king Ashvatara asks to know the svaras from Saraswati. The most important text on music in the ancient canon is Bharata's Natya Shastra, composed around the 3rd c. CE. The Natya Shastra deals with the different modes of music, dance, and drama, and also the emotional responses (rasa) they are expected to evoke. The scale is described in terms of 22 micro-tones, which can be combined in clusters of 4, 3, or two to form an octave. While the term raga is articulated in the Natya Shastra (where its meaning is more literal, colour, as in the mood), it finds a clearer expression in what is called jati in the Dattilam, a text composed shortly after or around the same time as Natya Shastra. The Dattilam is focused on gandharva music, and discusses scales (swara), defining a tonal framework called grama in terms of 22 micro-tonal intervals (sruti[3]) comprising one octave. It also discusses various arrangements of the notes (murchhana), the permutations and combinations of note-sequences (tanas), and alankara or elaboration. Dattilam categorizes melodic structure into 18 groups called jati, which are the fundamental melodic structures similar to the raga. The names of the jatis reflect regional origins, e.g. andhri, oudichya. Music also finds mention in a number of texts from the Gupta period; Kalidasa mentions several kinds of veena (Parivadini, Vipanchi), as well as percussion instruments (Mridang), the flute (Vamshi) and conch (Shankha). Music also finds mention in Buddhist and Jaina texts from the earliest periods of the Christian era. Narada's Sangita Makarandha treatise circa 1100 CE is the earliest text where rules similar to the current Hindustani classical music can be found. Narada actually names and classifies the system in its earlier form before the advent of changes as a result of Persian influences. Jayadeva's Gita Govinda from the

12th century was perhaps the earliest musical composition presently known sung in the classical tradition called Ashtapadi music. In the 13th century, Sharngadeva composed the Sangita Ratnakara, which has names such as the turushka todi (Turkish todi), revealing an influx of ideas from the Islamic influx. This text is the last to be mentioned by both the Carnatic and the Hindustani traditions, and is often thought to date the divergence between the two. Medieval Period: Persian influence The advent of Islamic rule under the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire over northern India caused considerable cultural interchange. Increasingly, musicians received patronage in the courts of the new rulers, who in their turn, started taking increasing interest in local music forms. The initial generations may have been rooted in a cultural traditions outside India, gradually, they adopted many aspects from their kingdoms which retained the traditional Hindu culture. This helped spur the fusion of Hindu and Muslim ideas to bring forth new forms of musical synthesis like qawwali and khayal. The most influential musician from the Delhi Sultanate period was Amir Khusrau (1253-1325), sometimes called the father of Hindustani classical music[4]. A prolific composer in Persian, Turkish, Arabic, as well as Braj Bhasha, he is credited with systematizing many aspects of Hindustani music, and also introducing the ragas Zeelaf and Sarparda. He created the genre of the qawwali, which fuses Persian melody and beat on a dhrupad like structure. A number of instruments (such as the sitar) were also introduced in his time. Amir Khusrau is sometimes credited with the origins of the khayal form, but the record of his compositions do not appear to support this. It is possible that the word khayal was a corruption of qawwali, but it is more likely that it has a separate etymology (the Arabic word khyal means mood or capriciousness). The compositions by the court musician Niyamat Khan (Sadarang) in the court of Muhammad Shah 'Rangiley' bear a closer affinity to the modern khyal, and suggests that 'Sadarang' may have been the father of modern day 'Khayal'. Much of the musical forms innovated by these pioneers merged with the Hindu tradition, composed in the popular language of the people (as opposed to Sanskrit) in the work of composers like Kabir or Nanak. This can be seen as part of a larger Bhakti tradition, (strongly related to the Vaishnavite movement) which remained influential across several centuries; notable figures include Jayadeva (11th century), Vidyapati (1375 AD), Chandidas (14th-15th century), and Meerabai (1555-1603 AD). As the Mughal Empire came into closer contact with Hindus, especially under Jalal ud-Din Akbar, music and dance also flourished. Particularly, the legendary musician Tansen is recognized as having introduced a number of innovations, ragas as well as particular compositions. Legend has it that upon his rendition of a night-time raga in the morning, the entire city fell under a hush and clouds gathered in the sky, or that he could light fires by singing raga Deepak, which is supposed to be composed of notes in high octaves. At the royal house of Gwalior, Raja Mansingh Tomar (1486-1516 AD) also participated in the shift from Sanskrit to the local idiom (Hindi) as the language for classical songs. He himself penned several volumes of compositions on religious and secular themes, and was also responsible for the major compilation, the Mankutuhal (book of curiosity), which outlined the major forms of music prevalent at the time. In particular, the musical form known as dhrupad saw considerable development in his court and remained a strong point of the Gwalior gharana for many centuries. After the dissolution of the Mughal empire, the patronage of music continued in smaller princely kingdoms like Lucknow, Patiala, Banaras, giving rise to the diversity of styles that is today known as gharanas. Many musician families obtained large grants of land which made them self sufficient, at least for a few generations (e.g. the Sham Chaurasia gharana). Meanwhile the Bhakti and Sufi traditions continued to develop, and interact with the different gharanas and groups. Modern era In the 20th century, the power of the maharajahs and nawabs declined, and so did their patronage. With the expulsion of Wajid Ali Shah to Calcutta after 1857, the Lucknavi musical tradition came to influence the music of renaissance Bengal, giving rise to the tradition of Ragpradhan gan around the turn of the century.

In the early 20th century, Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar emerged as an extremely talented musician and organizer (despite having been blinded at age 12). His books on music, as well as the Gandharva Mahavidyalaya music school that he opened in Lahore in 1901 helped foster a movement away from the closed gharana system. Paluskar's contemporary (and occasional rival) 'Chaturpandit' Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande recognized the many rifts that had appeared in the structure of Indian classical music. He undertook extensive research visits to a large number of gharanas, Hindustani as well as Carnatic, collecting and comparing compositions. Between 1909 and 1932, he brought out the monumental Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi (4 vols)[5], which suggested a transcription for Indian music and described the many traditions in this notation. Finally, it consolidated the many musical forms of Hindustani Classical music into a number of thaats, a system that had been proposed in the Carnatic tradition in the 17th century. The ragas as we know them today were consolidated in this landmark work, although there are some inconsistencies and ambiguities in Bhatkande's system. In modern times, the government-run All India Radio, Bangladesh Betar and Radio Pakistan helped to bring the artists in front of the public, countering the loss of the patronage system. The first star was Gauhar Jan, whose career was born out of Fred Gaisberg's first recordings of Indian music in 1902. With the advance of films and other public media, musicians started to make their living through public performances. With exposure to Western music, some of these melodies also started merging with classical forms, especially in the stream of popular music. A number of Gurukuls, such as that of Alauddin Khan at Maihar, flourished. In more modern times, corporate support has also been forthcoming (e.g. the ITC Sangeet Research Academy). Principles of Hindustani music The rhythmic organization is based on rhythmic patterns called Taal. The melodic foundations are "melodic modes", or "Parent Scales", known as Thaats, thaats are part of "musical personalities" called Ragas or Raags. Thaats - and so Ragas - may consist of up to seven scale degrees, or swara. Hindustani musicians name these pitches using a system called Sargam, the equivalent of Western movable do solfege:

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Sa = Do Re = Re Ga = Mi Ma = Fa Pa = So Dha = La Ni = Ti Sa = Do

Both systems repeat at the octave. The difference between sargam and solfege is that re, ga, ma, dha, and ni can refer to either "Pure" (Shuddha) or altered "Flat" (Komal) or "Sharp" (Tivra) versions of their respective scale degrees. As with movable do solfege, the notes are heard relative to an arbitrary tonic that varies from performance to performance, rather than to fixed frequencies, as on a xylophone. The fine intonational differences between different instances of the same swara are sometimes called śruti. The three primary registers of Indian classical music are Mandra, Madhya and Tara. Since the octave location is not fixed, it is also possible to use provenances in mid-register (such as Madra-Madhya or Madhya-Tara) for certain ragas. A typical rendition of Hindustani raga involves two stages:

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Alap: a rhythmically free improvisation on the rules for the raag in order to give life to the raga and shape out its characteristics. The alap can be further divided into the alap, jod and jhala. Bandish or Gat: a fixed, melodic composition set in a specific raga, performed with rhythmic accompaniment by a tabla or pakhavaj. There are different ways of systematizing the parts of a composition. For example: o Sthaayi: The initial, Rondo phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition. o Antara: The first body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition.

o o

Sanchaari: The third body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition, seen more typically in Dhrupad Bandishes Aabhog: The fourth and concluding body phrase or line of a fixed, melodic composition, seen more typically in Dhrupad Bandishes.

There are three variations of Bandish, regarding tempo:

o o o
Vocal music

Vilambit Bandish: A slow and steady melodic composition, usually in Largo to Adagio speeds. Madhyalaya Bandish: A medium tempo melodic competition, usually set in Andante to Allegretto speeds. Drut Bandish: A fast tempo melodic composition, usually set to Allegretto speed, and onwards.

Hindustani classical music is primarily vocal-centric, insofar as the musical forms were designed primarily for vocal performance, and many instruments were designed and evaluated as to how well they emulate the human voice. Types of compositions The major vocal forms-cum-styles associated with Hindustani classical music are Dhrupad, Khayal, Tarana and Thumri. Other forms include Dhamar, Trivat, Chaiti, Kajari, Tappa, Tap-Khayal, Ashtapadis, Dadra, Ghazal and Bhajan. Of these, some forms fall within the crossover to folk or Semi-Classical or Light Classical music, as they often do not adhere to the rigorous rules and regulations of 'pure' Classical Music. Dhrupad Main article: Dhrupad Dhrupad is a yet older style of singing, traditionally performed by male singers. It is performed with a tanpura and a Pakhawaj as instrumental accompaniments. The lyrics, which sometimes were in Sanskrit centuries ago, are presently often sung in Brajbhasha, a medieval form of Hindi that was spoken in the Mathura area. The Rudra Veena, an ancient string instrument, is used in instrumental music in the style of Dhrupad. Dhrupad music is primarily devotional in theme and content. It contains recitals in praise of particular deities. Dhrupad compositions begin with a relatively long and acyclic Alap, where the syllables of the following mantra is recited: "Om Anant tam Taran Tarini Twam Hari Om Narayan, Anant Hari Om Narayan". The alap gradually unfolds into more rhythmic Jod and Jhala sections. This is followed by a rendition of Bandish, with the pakhawaj as an accompaniment. The greatest of Indian musicians, Tansen sung in the Dhrupad style. A lighter form of Dhrupad, called Dhamar, is sung primarily during the festival of Holi. Dhrupad was the main form of northern Indian classical music until two centuries ago, but has since then given way to the somewhat less austere, khyal, a more free-form style of singing. Since losing its main patrons among the royalty in Indian princely states, Dhrupad ran the risk of becoming extinct in the first half of the twentieth century. Fortunately, the efforts by a few proponents from the Dagar family have led to its revival and eventual popularization in India and in the West. Some of the best known vocalists who sing in the Dhrupad style are the members of the Dagar lineage, including the late Senior Dagar brothers, i.e. Us. Nasir Moinuddin Dagar and Us. Nasir Aminuddin Dagar, the late Junior Dagar brothers, i.e. Us. Nasir Zahiruddin and Us. Nasir Faiyazuddin Dagar, Us. Wasifuddin Dagar, Us. Fariduddin Dagar, Us. Sayeeduddin Dagar. Other leading exponents include the Gundecha brothers (i.e. Ramakant and Umakant Gundecha), Dr. Ritwik Sanyal and Pt. Uday Bhawalkar, who have received training from some of the Dagars. Leading vocalists outside the Dagar lineage include the Mallik family.

Khayal Main article: Khayal Khayal is a form of vocal music in Hindustani music, adopted from medieval Persian music and based on Dhrupad music. Khayal, literally meaning "Thought" in Hindi/Urdu originally from Arabic, Khyal, is special as it is based on improvising and expressing emotion. A Khayal is a 4 to 8 lined lyric set to tune. The lyric is of an emotional account possibly from poetic observation. Khayals are also more popularly depicting emotional significance between two lovers, a situation evoking intense feeling, or situations of ethological significance in Hinduism and Islam. Th importance of the Khayal's content is for the singer to depict, through music in the set raga, the emotional significance of the Khayal. The singer improvises and finds inspiration within the raga to depict the Khayal. The origination of Khayal is controversial, yet it is accepted that this style was based on Dhrupad gayaki and influenced by Persian music. Many argue that Amir Khusrau created the style in the late 16th century. This form was popularized by Mughal Emperor Mohammad Shah, through his court musicians. Some wellknown composers of this period were Sadarang, Adarang, and Manarang. "Kaisku Marwa Jaayal Hamaraa More darawa nayan ghar kan warahe, Mohammad Shah ke Sadarangile, Prem Piya la Chapate Apne, Huntara Tana Mana Waarune" - Mohammad Shah This Khayal bandish in raga Bibhas was popularized by D.V. Paluskar. It is interesting how this bandish mentions three names -- Mohammad Shah, Sadarang, and Prem Piya. Later performers include D. V. Paluskar, Amir Khan, Faiyaz Khan, Vinayak Rao Patwardhan, Pt. Shankar Rao Vyas, Pt.Narain Rao Vyas, Ut.Nazakat Ali And Ut. Salamat Ali Khan, Pt.Eknath Sarolkar, Pt.Kashinath Pant Marathe, Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Smt. Kesarbai Kerkar, Mogubai Kurdikar, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit, Pt. Gajananrao Joshi, Pt. Ram Marathe, Pt. Ratnakar Pai, Pt. Kumar Gandharva, Pt. Jitendra Abhisheki, Pt. A. Kanan, Pt. Basavaraj Rajaguru and Mallikarjun Mansur. Some of the present day vocalists are Rashid Khan, Pandit Jasraj, Bhimsen Joshi, Gangubai Hangal, Pt. Yeshwantbua Joshi, Girija Devi, Kishori Amonkar, Satyasheel Deshpande, Ustad Iqbal Ahmad Khan, Dr. Ishwarchandra Karkare,Dr. Rajshekhar Mansur, Pt Ulhas Kashalkar, Pt. Arun Bhaduri, Malini Rajurkar, Pt. Ajoy Chakrabarty, Prabakar Karekar, Alka Deo Marulkar, Aslam Khan, Sanjeev Abhyankar, Shruti Sadolikar, Ashwini Bhide, Padma Talwalker, Arati Ankalikar-Tikekar, Maya Motegaonkar, Chandrashekar Swami, Pt. Venkatesh Kumar, Mashkoor Ali Khan,Vidushi Subhra Guha,Pt. Parameshwar Hegde, Indrani Choudhury, Pandit Ganapathi Bhatt, Pt.Madhav Gudi, Bhawani Angiras, Smt. Shashwati Mandal Paul, Pandit Nagaraj Havaldar, Pt. Somanath Mardoor, Pt.Panchakshariswamy Mattigatti, Pt. Shivanand Patil, Sandipan Samajpati, Manjiri Asanare-Kelkar, and Sanjeev Chimmalgi. Tappa Tappa is a form of Indian classical vocal music whose specialty is its rolling pace based on fast, subtle, knotty construction. The arrangement of words, with the help of tone vibrations performed in an exquisite vocal style, create a charming atmosphere. It originated from the folk songs of the camel riders of Punjab and developed as a form of classical music by Mian Ghulam Nabi Shori or Shori Mian (1742 - 1792), a court singer of Asaf-Ud-Dowlah, Nawab of Awadh. Among the prominent living performers of this style are Pt. Laxmanrao Kr. Pandit of Gwalior, Shamma Khurana, Pt. Manvalkar of Gwalior, Smt. Girija Devi of Benaras, Dr. Ishwarchandra R. Karkare of Gwalior, Pt. Jayant Khot of Gwalior. Tarana Main article: Tarana

Another vocal form, Tarana are medium-to-fast paced songs that are used to convey a mood of elation and are usually performed towards the end of a concert. They consist of a few lines of poetry with rhythmic syllables or bols set to a tune. The singer uses these few lines as a basis for fast improvisation. In some sense the tarana can be compared to the Tillana of Carnatic music, although the latter is primarily associated with dance. Thumri Main article: Thumri Thumri is a semiclassical vocal form said to have begun with the court of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, 18471856. There are three types of thumri: Punjabi, Lucknavi and poorab ang thumri. The lyrics are typically in a proto-Hindi language called Braj bhasha and are usually romantic. Prominent recent performers of this genre are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan and Barkat Ali Khan, Girija Devi, Siddheshwari Devi, Begum Akhtar, Shobha Gurtu and Pandit Channulal Mishra. Ghazal Ghazal is an originally Persian form of poetry. In the Indian sub-continent, Ghazal became the most common form of poetry in the Urdu language and was popularized by classical poets like Mir Taqi Mir, Ghalib, Zauq and Sauda amongst the North Indian literary elite. Vocal music set to this mode of poetry is popular with multiple variations across Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Turkey, India, Bangladeshand Pakistan. Ghazal exists in multiple variations, including folk and pop forms but its greatest exponents sing it in a semi-classical style. Instrumental music Although Hindustani music clearly is focused on the vocal performance, instrumental forms have existed since ancient times. In fact, in recent decades, especially outside South Asia, instrumental Hindustani music is more popular than vocal music, perhaps because the lyrics in the latter are not comprehensible due to unfamiliarity with the language. Still, complexity of Indian classical music could not be expressed in writing. Though some western scholars did record compositions in Staff notation system, Indian musicians used Pt. Bhatkhande system. Though more accurate, this relies on Devanagari script rather than symbols and hence is cumbersome at times. A new notation system has been proposed which uses symbols and offers instantaneous comprehension like Staff notation system. It is with standardization of a notation system that hitherto unknown compositions would see the light of day.[6] A number of musical instruments are associated with Hindustani classical music. The veena, a string instrument, was traditionally regarded as the most important, but few play it today and it has largely been superseded by its cousins the sitar and the sarod, both of which owe their origin to Persian influences. Other plucked/struck string instruments include the surbahar, sursringar, santoor, and various versions of the slide guitar. Among bowed instruments, the sarangi, esraj (or dilruba) and violin are popular. The bansuri (bamboo flute), shehnai, harmonium, and samvadini are important wind instruments. In the percussion ensemble, the tabla and the pakhavaj are the most popular. Various other instruments (including the Bulbul tarang and the piano) have also been used in varying degrees. Some representative performers (these lists are by no means comprehensive nor are intended to be):

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Veena: Dabir Khann, Birendra Kishore Roy Chowdhury, Zia Mohiuddin Dagar, Bahauddin Dagar, Asad Ali Khan, Suvir Misra, Jeff Lewis Vichitra Veena: Dr. Lalmani Misra, Pt. Gopal Krishna, Dr. Gopal Shankar Misra, Radhika Budhkar Sitar: Imdad Khan, Enayet Khan, Wahid Khan, Mushtaq Ali Khan, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Vilayat Khan, Nikhil Banerjee, Shujaat Khan, Manilal Nag, Purnendu Shekhar Sengupta (Kanu Babu), Rais Khan, Abdul Halim Jaffer Khan, Imrat Khan, Shahid Parvez, Indranil Bhattacharya, Santosh Banerjee, Kalyani Roy, Budhaditya Mukherjee, Sanjoy Bandopadhyay, Kartik Seshadri, Shriram Umdekar, Purbayan Chatterjee, Indrajit Banerjee, Sri Jagdeep Singh Bedi

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Sarod: Allauddin Khan, Brij Narayan, Hafiz Ali Khan, Radhika Mohan Moitra, Timir Baran, Ali Akbar Khan, Jatin Bhattacharya, Buddhadev Das Gupta, Vasant Rai, Sharan Rani, Dhyanesh Khan, Aashish Khan, Ustad Amjad Ali Khan, Mukesh Sharma, Rajeev Taranath Surbahar: Imdad Khan, Wahid Khan, Enayet Khan, Annapurna Devi, Imrat Khan, Sri Jagdeep Singh Bedi Shehnai: Bismillah Khan, Ali Ahmed Khan Bansuri: Pannalal Ghosh, Nityanand Haldipur, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Raghunath Seth, Bari Siddiqui, Deepak Ram Santoor: Shivkumar Sharma, Tarun Bhattachrya, Bhajan Sopori, Omprakash Chaurasiya, Smt Shruti Adhikari Sarangi: Ram Narayan, Bundu Khan, Ustad Sultan Khan, Abdul Latif Khan Esraj: Ashesh Bandopadhyay, Ranadhir Roy Violin: Parur Sundaram Iyer, V. G. Jog, Gajananrao Joshi, N. Rajam, Allaudin Khan, L. Shankar, L. Subramaniam, Kala Ramnath, Sisir Kana Dhar Choudhury Harmonium: Pt. Gyan Prakash Gosh, Ustad Zamir Ahmed Khan, Ustad Bhure Khan Samvadini: Pt. Manohar Chimote, Pt.Rajendra Vaishampayan, Pt. Jitendra Gore Tabla: Ahmed Jan Thirakwa, Gyan Prokash Ghosh, Shyamal Bose, Shashanka Bakshi, Shankar Ghosh, Anindo Chaterjee, Chatur Lal, Shamta Prasad, Kanthe Maharaj, Alla Rakha, Arup Chattopadhyay, Anokhelal Misra, Keramatullah Khan, Kishen Maharaj, Zakir Hussain, Aban E. Mistry, Yogmaya Shukla,Shubhankar Banerjee, Subrata Bhattacharya, Debashis Choudhury, Samar Saha. Guitar, slide (modified), or mohan veena: Brij Bhushan Kabra, Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, Dr. Kamala Shankar, Debashish Bhattacharya, Nalin Mazumdar of Allahabad

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Prominent performers There have been many great exponents of Hindustani music. Some of them are Allauddin Khan,Vasant Rai, Girija Devi, Vilayat Khan, Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Faiyaz Khan, Sharafat Hussain Khan, Abdul Karim Khan, Vasantrao Deshpande, Amir Khan, Gokulotsavji Maharaj, D. V. Paluskar, Salamat Ali Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Omkarnath Thakur, Bismillah Khan, Gangubai Hangal, Bhimsen Joshi, Kishori Amonkar, Kumar Gandharva, Gundecha Brothers, Jasraj, Ravi Shankar, Nityanand Haldipur, Nikhil Banerjee, Ali Akbar Khan, Pannalal Ghosh, Vijay Raghav Rao, Hariprasad Chaurasia, Zakir Hussain, Shruti Sadolikar-Katkar, Rajan and Sajan Mishra, Ulhas Kashalkar, Malini Rajurkar, Prabha Atre, Shivkumar Sharma, Dhondutai Kulkarni, Manjiri Vaishampayanand Annapurna Devi. See also

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Indian classical music Carnatic music Music of Pakistan Raga Thaat Swara Tala

References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ^ Excerpts from Bharatiya Sangeet Vadya - Swar in Sam Veda- Articles OMENAD ^ A Study of Dattilam: A Treatise on the Sacred Music of Ancient India, 1978, p 283, Mukunda Lāṭha, Dattila ^ The term sruti literally means "that which is heard". One of its senses refers to the "received" texts of the vedas, here it means notes of a scale ^ MusicalNirvana - Amir Khusro Dehlavi ^ Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi (4 volumes, Marathi) (1909-1932). Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. Sangeet Karyalaya (1990 reprint).Originally in Marathi, this book has been widely translated. ^ "Ome Swarlipi" in an article by Dr. Ragini Trivedi in Bhāratīya Shāstrīya Sangīt: Shāstra, Shikshan Va Prayōg. (Sahitya Sangam, Allahabad: 2008)

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ITC Sangeet Research Academy Ragavani, An Online Journal on Indian Classical Music and Dance Imagination Concept in Indian Classical Music Patiala Gharana Classical Music Academy of Pakistan Indian Classical Music for the Subtle system or the chakras Comprehensive reference on raagas Patrick Moutal Indian Music Page Online Tanpura Recordings (Very good tanpura recordings that are long in length. I have checked the tuning of the tanpura recordings with the program Finale Notepad. I found that the C# sa-pa is out of tune, but everything else is fine. I recommend using the Sa-Pa versions for better practice. Sa-Ma tunings are good for Ragas without a Pa or where the Ma is a important note. There is also a link on this page to more tanpura recordings. On the linked page, all the tanpura recordings starting with the name Shruti are out of tune according to Finale Notepad. All the ones that say 1 min or 8 min are in tune. All the recordings on this website are Sa-Pa.) Indian Music Research Material by Scholars Rajan Parrikar's Indian Music Articles Chandra and David Courtney's Indian Music Info Site Omenad, A website for Online Indian Music Education Musical Nirvana, A Site with biographies of musicians. Also info about instruments, Ragas and much more. Music India Online, a site to listen to Indian music and read articles SwarGanga, Indian classical music site. Has a raga and tala database with other interesting features A Dhrupad Site, giving information about Dhrupad and the Gundecha Brothers Sarangi, A site with Indian music clippings. The clippings are of Vocal or Sarangi. The Site has also articles, videos, and a gallery Films Division, A site with Indian music documentaries. Search under the category "Music of India" and will get a listing of many videos to watch Ragapedia, an online music notation editor for Sargam notation which also will create high quality western notation and midi from Sargam Raga-Rupanjali. Ratna Publications: Varanasi. 2007. A collection of Compositions of Sangeetendu Dr. Lalmani Misra by Dr. Pushpa Basu. din, a software musical instrument for performing Indian classical music live tanarang.com , a website dedicated to Hindustani Classical Music which contains information about various Raags and contains various bandishes to listen.

http://www.artindia.net/hindustani.html


				
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posted:6/23/2009
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