Consciousness

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					  Chapter 5:
Consciousness
Section 1

THE STUDY OF
CONSCIOUSNESS
  Consciousness Info on the Web
True/False Prequiz
Consciousness Games
What does it mean to be conscious?

  • Consciousness is awareness of things
    both inside and outside of ourselves.
  • Consciousness cannot be seen,
    touched, heard, or measured directly.
  • BUT you can measure its effects on
    behavior!
     Types of Consciousness

• Sensory Awareness- attentive to what is
  occurring outside yourself
• Selective Attention: focusing on a
  particular stimulus; in other words,
  directing our sensory awareness toward a
  particular outer stimulus
      Types of Consciousness

• Direct Inner Awareness: being attentive to
  things inside yourself; responding to your
  thoughts, images, emotions, or memories
  WITHOUT outer stimuli such as touch or
  smell.
• Sense of Self- the awareness of ourselves
  and our existence
        Three Other Levels of
           Consciousness
• Preconscious – ideas that aren’t in your
  awareness right now but you can recall
  them if you need them
• Unconscious – (aka the subconscious)
  hidden information that you aren’t usually
  aware of
• Nonconscious – body processes controlled
  by your mind that we aren’t aware of
Examples of Consciousness

• Tell your neighbor an example of each
 level of consciousness.

• Use the chart “Freud’s Levels of
 Consciousness” on p. 106 to help label the
 correct level of consciousness.
Critical Thinking Question

• Do you think a person can study or
 understand the consciousness of another
 person? Why or why not?
 Give specific reasons to support your
 examples.
Section 2

SLEEP AND DREAMS
  Interesting Sleep Facts
• You spend approximately 1/3 of your life
  sleeping.
• Teens need approximately 8-9 hours of sleep
  per night to perform at their optimal levels.
  Most teens get seven hours or less of sleep.
• Our natural wake-sleep cycle is 25 hours rather
  than 24, but we are on a 24 hour cycle because
  of the sunrise and sunset, clocks, etc.
What are circadian rhythms?

• Have you ever heard of biological clocks?
• Well, that’s another name for circadian
  rhythms.
• In humans, these rhythms include body
  temperature, blood pressure, and
  sleepiness and wakefulness. They occur
  every 24 hours.
The Stages of Sleep
• Sleep stages are measured in terms of
  brain-wave patterns, measured by an
  electroencephalography (EEG).
• We typically cycle through all the stages of
  sleep at least five times per night.
• Refer to p. 107 for a diagram of “The
  Stages of Sleep” from an EEG.
The Stages of Sleep
• There are five distinct sleep stages.
• Stage 1 is very light sleep that lasts only
  30- 40 minutes. You may dream vividly. If
  you are awakened, you may feel as you
  haven’t slept.
• Stage 2 is also light and lasts about 30
  minutes. It transitions you into deeper
  sleep.
The Stages of Sleep         Click to access quiz.



• Stages 3 and 4 are deep sleep. Stage 4 is
  the deepest stage, thus it is the hardest
  stage to wake up.
• Stage 5 sleep is rapid-eye movement
  (REM) sleep. Our eyes move rapidly even
  though they are closed.
• We dream more VIVIDLY in REM sleep. If
  you miss REM sleep, you will learn more
  slowly than usual.
Why do we need sleep?

• To revive the tired body
• To build up resistance to infection
• To help us recover from stress
• To help you learn more effectively
• To make better decisions
• To prevent obesity and other health issues
• To increase productivity
Interesting Dream Facts
• Dreams can be black and white or full
  color.
• We typically dream in real-time.
• REM sleep dreams are more realistic.
• By the time we are thirty, we’ve spent
  approximately two years worth of our life
  dreaming.
• Most dreams are ordinary and occur in
  ordinary places. Many are negative.
Dream Theories
• Click here for an audio presentation.
• Freudian View – Freud believed that dreams
    are “wish-fulfillments.” We dream what our heart
    wants, even if it is unacceptable to society. He
    believed dreams contain hidden meanings.
•   The Biophysical Approach- Biophysicists
    believe that dreams begin with biological activity.
    The brain continues to be active, so the brain
    tries to weave a story (the dream).
•   The biophysical approach explains why people
    tend to dream about events that took place
    earlier in the day.
    Sleep Disorders


For more information on sleep disorders, go to


Sleep Disorders Health Center
 Sleep Problems: Insomnia
• Insomnia is the inability to sleep.
• The most common type is difficulty falling
  asleep.
• People with insomnia are more likely to worry
  and have “racing minds.” They make it worse
  by TRYING to sleep.
• Insomnia often comes and goes based on the
  person’s stress levels.
• Psychologists do not recommend sleeping
  pills to cure insomnia.
 Sleep Problems: Insomnia
Psychologists recommend several ways to avoid
  insomnia:
• Tense the muscles, one at a time, and let go.
• Avoid worrying. If it persists, get up.
• Establish a regular sleep routine.
• Use pleasant images or daydreams to relax.
• Do something relaxing.
• Do not exercise in the last two hours before bed.
• Do not drink caffeine after 4 P.M.
Sleep Problems: Nightmares
• Common nightmares involve snakes or
  murderers.
• Nightmares generally occur in REM sleep.
• Upsetting events, anxiety, or depression
  can produce them.
• In the Middle Ages, people thought that
  nightmares were the work of demons sent
  to make people pay for their sins.
Sleep Problems: Night Terrors
• Night terrors are also called sleep terrors.
• They are more severe than nightmares.
• Dreamers feel their hearts racing and gasp
  for air. They may suddenly sit up, talk
  incoherently, or thrash about.
• They tend to occur during the deep sleep
  stages.
• They are most common among young
  children.
Sleep Problems: Sleepwalking
• Sleepwalkers walk in their sleep.
• They may roam almost nightly during the
  stages of deep sleep.
• They may actually respond to you but will
  not remember it.
• They need to be supervised for their own
  protection.
• They will not be violent if they are
  awakened.
Sleep Problems: Sleep Talking
• Sleep talkers talk in their sleep.
• They usually do not realize they talk in
  their sleep.
• They may actually respond to you but will
  not remember it. You can even engage
  them in a conversation!
• They will not be violent if they are
  awakened.
Sleep Problems: Sleep Apnea
• Sleep apnea is a breathing interruption that
  occurs during sleep.
• A person with sleep apnea doe not begin
  breathing until he or she sits up and gasps
  for air. They may not even know this
  happens.
• They often feel tired during the day.
• People with sleep apnea often snore.
• Sleep apnea can lead to high blood
  pressure, heart attacks, and strokes.
Sleep Problems: Narcolepsy
• Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder in
  which people suddenly fall asleep no
  matter what time it is or where they are.
• They may be wide awake one minute, and
  the next be in a REM sleep.
• This can be very dangerous.
• It can be treated using drug therapy and
  frequent naps.
Section 3

Meditation, Biofeedback, and
Hypnosis
Meditation & Biofeedback
• Meditation is a method people use to try to
    narrow their consciousness by blocking the
    stresses of the outside world. People who use
    meditation focus on repetitive, peaceful stimuli.
•   Biofeedback is a system that provides
    information about something that happens in
    the body. Using biofeedback people have
    learned to control their heart rates, blood
    pressure, and tension headaches by keeping
    muscles relaxed.
Hypnosis is Greek for      HYPNOSIS?
sleep. It is often
considered an altered
state of consciousness
during which people
respond to suggestions.

Today it is used as an
anesthetic for some
types of surgery. It is
sometimes used to help
reduce anxiety, manage
pain, or overcome fears.
It can be used to help
quit bad habits.
   Hypnosis
• A hypnotist usually asks a client to focus on
  something specific. They suggest that the
  person’s arms and legs are becoming warm,
  heavy, and relaxed or that they are becoming
  sleep. Hypnosis is not sleep; it is a trance that
  can be induced by the word sleep.
• Some people have hypnotic suggestibility. They
  are easier to hypnotize. People with vivid
  imaginations are particularly suggestible.
• If a hypnotist suggests the client will not recall
  events during the trance, the client usually will
  not be able to recall what happened.
How can we explain hypnosis?
• Freud thought people permit themselves
  to return to childish way.
• Role theory suggests people who are
  hypnotized believe what they are doing is
  real.
• The scientific basis for hypnosis is
  unknown. Therefore, it is not considered
  reliable.
Section 4

Drugs & Consciousness
Drug Classification Interactive Quiz

Let’s hope you AREN’T
  an expert on most of
  these!

Click on the above link
   to access the quiz.
Do drugs affect our consciousness?

• YES! They “alter” our consciousness.
• They cause addiction, which means our
  bodies crave them to feel normal.
• They change our moods, alter our
  perceptions, and cause us to see things
  that are not real.
• This is true of BOTH legal and illegal
  drugs!
Depressants
• Depressants are drugs that slow the
  activity of the nervous system. They can
  relax you, but they have many negative
  side effects.
• ALCOHOL is a depressant. It is involved
  in more than half of all fatal automobile
  crashes in the United States. It slows your
  reaction time and can be deadly.
• Alcohol is the most widely-used and abused
  mind-altering substance.
    Major Classes of Depressants
           Alcohol                    Narcotics
Can be lethal in either     addictive depressants
long-term or short-term      used to relieve pain or
InTOXICation means          induce sleep
poisoning your system.       Examples: morphine,
Affects your speech,        heroin, codeine
vision, balance, judgment,   Can cause depression or
and concentration            extreme lethargy
May not even realize you    Can impair judgment
are drunk                    and memory
Can cause permanent         Can even lead to coma
brain or liver damage        and death
Stimulants
• Stimulants increase
    the activity of the
    nervous system. They
    speed up the heart
    and breathing rates.
•   Stimulants include
    nicotine,
    amphetamines, and
    cocaine.
                           YES, this is a book. YUCK!
           Stimulants: Nicotine
• Most common stimulant
• Spurs the release of adrenaline
• Highly addictive
• Withdrawal symptoms include nervousness,
  drowsiness, insomnia, dizziness, sweating, etc.
• Serious health risk such as lung cancer,
  emphysema, and heart disease
• Secondhand smoke can be harmful to others
  around you.
• Smoking causes more deaths annually than car
  accidents.
Stimulants: Amphetamines
• Known for helping people stay awake
• First used in WWII to keep soldiers awake
• Also known as “speed” or “uppers”
• Highs can last for days, but crashes often
  lead to depression, even suicide.
• Amphetamines also cause restlessness,
  insomnia, loss of appetite, and irritability.
  They may even cause delusions, like
  thinking you can fly without an airplane.
  Stimulants: Cocaine
• Cocaine produces feelings of pleasure,
  reduces hunger, deadens pain, and boosts
  self-confidence. Sounds great, right? NO!
• It also causes convulsions, hallucinations,
  delusions, trembling, nausea, and headaches.
• Cocaine is highly addictive and dangerous.
• It raises the blood pressure and decreases the
  oxygen supply to the heart. It can cause
  stroke and heart attack even in an otherwise
  healthy person. An overdose is always danger,
  often fatal.
Hallucinogens
• A hallucinogen is a drug that produces
  hallucinations.
• They may cause temporary relaxation or
  feelings of pleasure, but they also cause
  panic.
• Examples are marijuana (weed or pot) and
  LSD (acid).
Marijuana
• Impairs perceptions and coordination
• Causes visual hallucinations
• Impairs memory and learning
• Causes anxiety and confusion
• Increases the heart rate and may raise
  blood pressure
• Affects judgment and consciousness
LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)

• Also known as acid
• Produces intense, often bizarre,
  hallucinations
• Unpredictable – may cause intense panic,
  fear, or confusion and lead to suicide
• Other side effects include flashbacks,
  memory loss, violent outbursts, and
  nightmares.
Treatments for Drug Abuse
• The BEST treatment is to AVOID drugs.
Others include:
1) Detoxification – removing the substance from
   the body (used with alcohol & narcotics)
2) Maintenance programs – giving controlled
   amounts of the drugs (used with narcotics)
3) Counseling – individual or group (used for
   stimulant and depressant abuse)
4) Support groups – people who share common
   experiences, concerns, or problems
   (Alcoholics or Narcotics Anonymous)