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					                                 Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                   § 1910.262

                                   (6) Guillotine-type cutters. (i) Each                   cordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this
                                 guillotine-type cutter shall be equipped                  section.
                                 with a control which requires the oper-                     (iii) Mechanical lifting devices shall
                                 ator and his helper, if any, to use both                  be provided for placing and removing
                                 hands to engage the clutch.                               rolls from the machine.
                                   (ii) Each guillotine-type cutter shall                    (10) Control panels. The requirements
                                 be equipped with a nonrepeat device.                      of paragraph (k)(22) of this section
                                   (iii) Carriers shall be provided and                    shall apply.
                                 used for transportation of guillotine-                      (11) Roll-type embosser. The nipping
                                 type cutter knives.                                       point located on the operator’s side
                                   (7) Rotary cutter. (i) On single-knife                  shall be guarded by either automatic or
                                 machines a guard shall be provided at a                   manually operated barrier guards
                                 point of contact to the knife.                            interlocked with the drive.
                                   (ii) On duplex cutters the protection                     (12) Sorting and counting tables. (i) Ta-
                                 required for single-knife machines                        bles shall be smooth and free from
                                 shall be provided for the first knife,                    splinters, with edges and corners
                                 and a hood shall be provided for the                      rounded.
                                 second knife.                                               (ii) Paddles shall be smooth and free
                                   (iii) Safe access shall be provided to                  from splinters.
                                 the knives of a rotary cutter by means                      (13) Roll splitters. The nip point and
                                 of catwalks with nonslip surfaces, rail-                  cutter knife shall be guarded by either
                                 ings, and toeboards in accordance with                    automatic or manually operated bar-
                                 paragraph (b)(3) of this section.                         rier guards.
                                                                                             (m) Materials handling—(1) Hand
                                   (iv) A guard shall be provided for the
                                                                                           trucks. No person shall be permitted to
                                 spreader or squeeze roll at the nip side
                                                                                           ride on a powered hand truck unless it
                                 on sheet cutters.
                                                                                           is so designed by the manufacturer. A
                                   (v) Electrically or manually operated
                                                                                           limit switch shall be on operating han-
                                 quick power disconnecting devices with
                                                                                           dle—30 degrees each way from a 45-de-
                                 adequate braking action shall be pro-
                                                                                           gree angle up and down.
                                 vided on all operating sides of the ma-
                                                                                             (2) [Reserved]
                                 chine within easy reach of all opera-
                                                                                             (3) Cartons. The carton-stitching ma-
                                 tors.
                                                                                           chine shall be guarded to prevent the
                                   (vi) The outside slitters shall be                      operator from coming in contact with
                                 guarded.                                                  the stitching head.
                                   (8) Platers. (i) A guard shall be ar-                     (4) [Reserved]
                                 ranged across the face of the rolls to                      (5) Unloading cars. Flag signals, de-
                                 serve as a warning that the operator’s                    rails, or other protective devices shall
                                 hand is approaching the danger zone.                      be used to protect men during switch-
                                   (ii) A quick power disconnecting de-                    ing operations. The blue flag policy
                                 vice shall be installed on each machine                   shall be invoked according to para-
                                 within easy reach of the operator.                        graph (c)(9)(i) of this section.
                                   (9) Finishing room rewinders. (i) The
                                 nipping points of all drum winders and                    [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40
                                                                                           FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49751, Oct. 24,
                                 rewinders located on the operator’s
                                                                                           1978; 49 FR 5323, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32015,
                                 side shall be guarded by either auto-                     Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9241, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR
                                 matic or manually operated barrier                        1285, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 33467, June 18, 1998]
                                 guards of sufficient height to protect
                                 fully anyone working around them.                         § 1910.262 Textiles.
                                 The barrier guard shall be interlocked                       (a) Application requirements—(1) Appli-
                                 with the drive mechanism to prevent                       cation. The requirements of this sub-
                                 operating above jog speed without the                     part for textile safety apply to the de-
                                 guard in place.                                           sign, installation, processes, operation,
                                 A zero speed switch should be installed                   and maintenance of textile machinery,
                                 to prevent the guard from being raised                    equipment, and other plant facilities in
                                 while the roll is turning.                                all plants engaged in the manufacture
                                   (ii) A nonskid surface shall be pro-                    and processing of textiles, except those
                                 vided in front of the rewinder to pre-                    processes used exclusively in the manu-
                                 vent an employee from slipping in ac-                     facture of synthetic fibers.

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                                 § 1910.262                                                           29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–03 Edition)

                                   (2) Standards incorporated by reference.                thick foundation material, usually
                                 Standards covering issues of occupa-                      made of textile fabrics, through which
                                 tional safety and health which are of                     are pressed many fine, closely spaced,
                                 general application without regard to                     specially bent wires.
                                 any specific industry are incorporated                      (9) Comber. A comber is a machine for
                                 by reference in paragraphs of this sec-                   combing fibers of cotton, wool, etc. The
                                 tion and made applicable to textiles.                     essential parts are a device for feeding
                                 All such standards shall be construed                     forward a fringe of fibers at regular in-
                                 according to the rules of construction                    tervals and an arrangement of combs
                                 set out in § 1910.5.                                      or pins which, at the right time, pass
                                   (b) Definitions applicable to this sec-                 through the fringe. All tangled fibers,
                                 tion—(1) Belt shifter. A belt shifter is a                short fibers, and neps are removed and
                                 device for mechanically shifting a belt                   the long fibers are laid parallel.
                                 from one pulley to another.                                 (10) Combing machinery. Combing ma-
                                   (2) Belt shifter lock. A belt shifter lock              chinery is a general classification, in-
                                 is a device for positively locking the                    cluding combers, sliver lap machines,
                                 belt shifter in position while the ma-                    ribbon lap machines, and gill boxes,
                                 chine is stopped and the belt is idling                   but excluding cards.
                                 on the loose pulleys.                                       (11) Cutter (rotary staple). A rotary
                                   (3) Calender. A calender in essence                     staple cutter is a machine consisting of
                                 consists of a set of heavy rollers                        one or more rotary blades used for the
                                 mounted on vertical side frames and                       purpose of cutting textile fibers into
                                 arranged to pass cloth between them.                      staple lengths.
                                 Calenders may have two to ten rollers,                      (12) Exposed to contact. Exposed to con-
                                 or bowls, some of which can be heated.                    tact shall mean that the location of an
                                   (4) Embossing calender. An embossing                    object, material, nip point, or point of
                                 calender is a calender with two or more                   operation is such that a person is liable
                                 rolls, one of which is engraved for pro-                  to come in contact with it in his nor-
                                 ducing figured effects of various kinds                   mal course of employment.
                                 on a fabric.                                                (13) Garnett machine. A Garnett ma-
                                   (5) Cans (drying). Drying cans are hol-                 chine means any of a number of types
                                 low cylindrical drums mounted in a                        of machines for opening hard twisted
                                 frame so they can rotate. They are                        waste of wool, cotton, silk, etc. Essen-
                                 heated with steam and are used to dry                     tially, such machines consist of a
                                 fabrics or yarn as it passes around the                   lickerin; one or more cylinders, each
                                 perimeter of the can.                                     having a complement worker and strip-
                                   (6) Carbonizing. Carbonizing means the                  per rolls; and a fancy roll and doffer.
                                 removing of vegetable matter such as                      The action of such machines is some-
                                 burns, straws, etc., from wool by treat-                  what like that of a wool card, but it is
                                 ment with acid, followed by heat. The                     much more severe in that the various
                                 undesired matter is reduced to a car-                     rolls are covered with garnett wire in-
                                 bon-like form which may be removed                        stead of card clothing.
                                 by dusting or shaking.                                      (14) Gill box. A gill box is a machine
                                   (7) Card. A card machine consists of                    used in the worsted system of manufac-
                                 cylinders of various sizes—and in cer-                    turing yarns. Its function is to arrange
                                 tain cases flats—covered with card                        the fibers in parallel order. Essentially,
                                 clothing and set in relation to each                      it consists of a pair of feed rolls and a
                                 other so that fibers in staple form may                   series of followers where the followers
                                 be separated into individual relation-                    move at a faster surface speed and per-
                                 ship. The speed of the cylinders and                      form a combing action.
                                 their direction of rotation varies. The                     (15) Interlock. An interlock is a device
                                 finished product is delivered as a sliv-                  that operates to prevent the operation
                                 er. Cards of different types are: The re-                 of machine while the cover or door of
                                 volving flat card, the roller-and-clearer                 the machine is open or unlocked, and
                                 card, etc.                                                which will also hold the cover or door
                                   (8) Card clothing. Card clothing is the                 closed and locked while the machine is
                                 material with which many of the sur-                      in motion.
                                 faces of a card are covered; e.g., the                      (16) Jig (dye). A dye jig is a machine
                                 cylinder, doffer, etc. It consists of a                   for dyeing piece goods. The cloth, at

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                                 Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                   § 1910.262

                                 full width, passes from a roller through                  picker waste cleaners, thread extrac-
                                 the dye liquor in an open vat and is                      tors, shredding machines, roving waste
                                 then wound on another roller. The op-                     openers, shoddy pickers, bale breakers,
                                 eration is repeated until the desired                     feeders, vertical openers, lattice clean-
                                 shade is obtained.                                        ers, horizontal cleaners, and any simi-
                                   (17) Kier. A kier is a large metal vat,                 lar machinery equipped with either
                                 usually a pressure type, in which fab-                    cylinders, screen section, calender sec-
                                 rics may be boiled out, bleached, etc.                    tion, rolls, or beaters used for the prep-
                                   (18) Lapper (ribbon). A ribbon lapper is                aration of stock for further processing.
                                 a machine used to prepare laps for                          (26) Paddler. A paddler consists of a
                                 feeding a cotton comb; its purpose is to                  trough for a solution and two or more
                                 provide a uniform lap in which the fi-                    squeeze rolls between which cloth
                                 bers have been straightened as much as                    passes after being passed through a
                                 possible.                                                 mordant or dye bath.
                                   (19) Lapper (sliver). A sliver lapper is a                (27) Point of operation. Point of oper-
                                 machine in which a number of parallel                     ation shall mean that part of the ma-
                                 card slivers are drafted slightly, laid                   chine where the work of cutting, shear-
                                 side by side in a compact sheet, and                      ing, squeezing, drawing, or manipu-
                                 wound into a cylindrical package.                         lating the stock in any other way is
                                   (20) Loom. A loom is a machine for ef-                  done.
                                 fecting the interlacing of two series of
                                                                                             (28) Printing machine (roller type). A
                                 yarns crossing one another at right an-
                                                                                           roller printing machine is a machine con-
                                 gles. The warp yarns are wound on a
                                                                                           sisting of a large central cylinder, or
                                 warp beam and pass through heddles
                                                                                           pressure bowl, around the lower part of
                                 and reed. The filling is shot across in a
                                                                                           the perimeter of which is placed a se-
                                 shuttle and settled in place by reed and
                                 lay, and the fabric is wound on a cloth                   ries of engraved color rollers (each hav-
                                 beam.                                                     ing a color trough), a furnisher roller,
                                   (21) Mangle (starch). A starch mangle is                doctor blades, etc. The machine is used
                                 a mangle that is used specifically for                    for printing fabrics.
                                 starching cotton goods. It commonly                         (29) Ranges (bleaching continuous).
                                 consists of two large rolls and a shal-                   Continuous bleaching ranges are of sev-
                                 low open vat with several immersion                       eral types and may be made for cloth
                                 rolls. The vat contains the starch solu-                  in rope or open-width form. The goods,
                                 tion.                                                     after wetting out, pass through a
                                   (22) Mangle (water). A water mangle is                  squeeze roll into a saturator con-
                                 a calender having two or more rolls                       taining a solution of caustic soda and
                                 used for squeezing water from fabrics                     then to an enclosed J-box. A V-shaped
                                 before drying. Water mangles also may                     arrangement is attached to the front
                                 be used in other ways during the fin-                     part of the J-box for uniform and rapid
                                 ishing of various fabrics.                                saturation of the cloth with steam be-
                                   (23) Mule. A mule is a type of spinning                 fore it is packed down in the J-box. The
                                 frame having a head stock and a car-                      cloth, in a single strand rope form,
                                 riage as its two main sections. The                       passes over a guide roll down the first
                                 head stock is stationary. The carriage                    arm of the ‘‘V’’ and up the second.
                                 is movable and it carries the spindles                    Steam is injected into the ‘‘V’’ at the
                                 which draft and spin the roving into                      upper end of the second arm so that the
                                 the yarn. The carriage extends over the                   cloth is rapidly saturated with steam
                                 whole width of the machine and moves                      at this point. The J-box capacity is
                                 slowly toward and away from the head                      such that cloth will remain hot for a
                                 stock during the spinning operation.                      sufficient time to complete the scour-
                                   (24) Nip. Nip shall mean the point of                   ing action. It then passes a series of
                                 contact between two in-running rolls.                     washers with a squeeze roll in between.
                                   (25) Openers and pickers. Openers and                   The cloth then passes through a second
                                 pickers means a general classification                    set of saturator, J-box, and washer,
                                 which includes breaker pickers, inter-                    where it is treated with the peroxide
                                 mediate pickers, finisher pickers, sin-                   solution. By slight modification of the
                                 gle process pickers, multiple process                     form of the unit, the same process can
                                 pickers, willow machines, card and                        be applied to open-width cloth.

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                                 § 1910.262                                                           29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–03 Edition)

                                   (30) Range (mercerizing). A mercerizing                 clips of fine pins and carried on tracks.
                                 range consists generally of a 3-bowl                      The cloth is firmly held at the selvages
                                 mangle, a tenter frame, and a number                      by the two chains which diverge as
                                 of boxes for washing and scouring. The                    they move forward so that the cloth is
                                 whole setup is in a straight line and all                 brought to the desired width.
                                 parts operate continuously. The com-                        (37) Warper. A warper is any machine
                                 bination is used to saturate the cloth                    for preparing and arranging the yarns
                                 with sodium hydroxide, stretch it while                   intended for the warp of a fabric, spe-
                                 saturated, and washing out most of the                    cifically, a beam warper.
                                 caustic before releasing tension.                           (c) General safety requirements—(1)
                                   (31) Sanforizing machine. A sanforizing                 Means of stopping machines. Every tex-
                                 machine is a machine consisting of a                      tile machine shall be provided with in-
                                 large steam-heated cylinder, an end-                      dividual mechanical or electrical
                                 less, thick, woolen felt blanket which                    means for stopping such machines. On
                                 is in close contact with the cylinder for                 machines driven by belts and shafting,
                                 most of its perimeter, and an elec-                       a locking-type shifter or an equivalent
                                 trically heated shoe which presses the                    positive device shall be used. On oper-
                                 cloth against the blanket while the lat-                  ations where injury to the operator
                                 ter is in a stretched condition as it                     might result if motors were to restart
                                 curves around feed-in roll.                               after power failures, provision shall be
                                   (32) Shearing machine. A shearing ma-                   made to prevent machines from auto-
                                 chine is a machine used in shearing                       matically restarting upon restoration
                                 cloth. Cutting action is provided by a                    of power.
                                 number of steel blades spirally mount-                      (2) Handles. Stopping and starting
                                 ed on a roller. The roller rotates in                     handles shall be designed to the proper
                                 close contact with a fixed ledger blade.                  length to prevent the worker’s hand or
                                 There may be from one to six such roll-                   fingers from striking against any re-
                                 ers on a machine.                                         volving part, gear guard, or any other
                                   (33) Singeing machine. A singeing ma-                   part of the machine.
                                 chine is a machine used particularly
                                                                                             (3)–(4) [Reserved]
                                 with cotton; it comprises of a heated
                                                                                             (5) Inspection and maintenance. All
                                 roller, plate, or an open gas flame. The
                                                                                           guards and other safety devices, includ-
                                 material is rapidly passed over the
                                                                                           ing starting and stopping devices, shall
                                 roller or the plate or through the open
                                                                                           be properly maintained.
                                 gas flame to remove, fuzz or hairiness
                                 on yarn or cloth by burning.                                (6) Lighting. Lighting shall conform
                                   (34) Slasher. A slasher is a machine                    to American National Standard A11.1—
                                 used for applying a size mixture to                       1965, which is incorporated by reference
                                 warp yarns. Essentially, it consists of a                 as specified in § 1910.6.
                                 stand for holding section beams, a size                     (7) Identification of piping systems.
                                 box, one or more cylindrical dryers or                    Identification of piping systems shall
                                 an enclosed hot air dryer, and a beam-                    conform to American National Stand-
                                 ing end for finding the yarn on the                       ard A13.1—1956, which is incorporated
                                 loom beams.                                               by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
                                   (35) Solvent (industrial organic). Indus-                 (8) Identification of physical hazards.
                                 trial organic solvent means any organic                   Identification of physical hazards shall
                                 volatile liquid or compound, or any                       be in accordance with the requirements
                                 combination of these substances which                     of § 1910.144.
                                 are used to dissolve or suspend a non-                      (9) Steam pipes. All pipes carrying
                                 volatile or slightly volatile substance                   steam or hot water for process or serv-
                                 for industrial utilization. It shall also                 icing machinery, when exposed to con-
                                 apply to such substances when used as                     tact and located within seven feet of
                                 detergents or cleansing agents. It shall                  the floor or working platform shall be
                                 not apply to petroleum products when                      covered with a heat-insulating mate-
                                 such products are used as fuel.                           rial, or otherwise properly guarded.
                                   (36) Tenter frame. A tenter frame is a                    (d) Openers and pickers—(1) Beater
                                 machine for drying cloth under ten-                       guards. When any opening or picker
                                 sion. It essentially consists of a pair of                machinery is equipped with a beater,
                                 endless traveling chains fitted with                      such beater shall be provided with

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                                 Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                   § 1910.262

                                 metal covers which will prevent con-                        (h) Slashers—(1) Cylinder dryers—(i)
                                 tact with the beater. Such covers shall                   Reducing valves, safety valves, and pres-
                                 be provided with an interlock which                       sure gages. Reducing valves, safety
                                 will prevent the cover from being                         valves, and pressure gages shall con-
                                 raised while the machine is in motion                     form to the ASME Pressure Vessel
                                 and prevent the operation of the ma-                      Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure
                                 chine while the cover is open.                            Vessels, 1968, which is incorporated by
                                   (2) Cleanout holes. Cleanout holes                      reference as specified in § 1910.6.
                                 within reaching distance of the fan or                      (ii) Vacuum relief valves. Vacuum re-
                                 picker beater shall have their covers                     lief valves shall conform to the ASME
                                 securely fastened and they shall not be                   Code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII,
                                 opened while the machine is in motion.                    Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1968.
                                   (3) Feed rolls. The feed rolls on all                     (iii) Lever control. When slashers are
                                 opening and picking machinery shall                       operated by control levers, these levers
                                 be covered with a guard designed to                       shall be connected to a horizontal bar
                                 prevent the operator from reaching the                    or treadle located not more than 69
                                 nip while the machinery is in oper-                       inches above the floor to control the
                                 ation.                                                    operation from any point.
                                   (4) Removal of foreign ferrous material.                  (iv) Pushbutton control. Slashers oper-
                                 All textile opener lines shall be                         ated by pushbutton control shall have
                                 equipped with magnetic separators,                        stop and start buttons located at each
                                 tramp iron separators, or other means                     end of the machine, and additional but-
                                 for the removal of foreign ferrous ma-                    tons located on both sides of the ma-
                                 terial.                                                   chine, at the size box and the delivery
                                   (e) Cotton cards—(1) Enclosures. Cyl-                   end. If calender rolls are used, addi-
                                 inder and lickerins shall be completely                   tional buttons shall be provided at
                                 protected and the doffers should be en-                   both sides of the machine at points
                                 closed.                                                   near the nips, except when slashers are
                                   (2) Enclosure fastenings. The enclo-                    equipped with an enclosed dryer.
                                 sures or covers shall be kept in place                      (v) Nip guards. All nip guards shall
                                 while the machine is in operation, ex-                    comply with the requirements of para-
                                 cept when stripping or grinding.                          graph (h)(2)(iv) of this section.
                                   (3) Stripping rolls. On operations call-                  (vi) Cylinder enclosure. When enclo-
                                 ing for flat strippings which are al-                     sures or hoods are used over cylinder
                                 lowed to fall on the doffer cover, where                  drying rolls, such enclosures or hoods
                                 such strippings are removed by hand,                      shall be provided with an exhaust sys-
                                 the doffer cover shall be kept closed                     tem which will effectively prevent wet
                                 and securely fastened to prevent the                      air and steam from escaping into the
                                 opening of the cover while the machine                    workroom.
                                 is in operation. When it becomes nec-                       (vii) Expansion chambers. Slasher ket-
                                 essary to clean the cards while they                      tles and cookers shall be provided with
                                 are in motion, a long-handled brush or                    expansion chambers in the covers, or
                                 dust mop shall be used.                                   drains, to prevent surging over. Steam-
                                   (f) Garnett machines—(1) Lickerin. Gar-                 control valves shall be so located that
                                 nett lickerins shall be enclosed.                         they can be operated without exposing
                                   (2) Fancy rolls. Garnett fancy rolls                    the worker to moving parts, hot sur-
                                 shall be enclosed by covers. These shall                  faces, or steam.
                                 be installed in a way that keeps worker                     (2) Enclosed hot air dryer—(i) Lever
                                 rolls reasonably accessible for removal                   control. When slashers are operated by
                                 or adjustment.                                            control levers, these levers shall be
                                   (3) Underside of machine. The under-                    connected to a horizontal bar or trea-
                                 side of the garnett shall be guarded by                   dle located not more than 69 inches
                                 a screen mesh or other form of enclo-                     above the floor to control the oper-
                                 sure to prevent access.                                   ation from any point.
                                   (g) Spinning mules—A substantial                          (ii) Push-button control. Slashers op-
                                 fender of metal or hardwood shall be                      erated by push-button control shall
                                 installed in front of the carriage                        have one start button at each end of
                                 wheels, the fender to extend to within                    the machine and stop buttons shall be
                                 one-fourth inch of the rail.                              located on both sides of the machines

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                                 § 1910.262                                                                                            29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–03 Edition)

                                 at intervals spaced not more than 6                                                        prevent the worker’s fingers from being
                                 feet on centers. Inching buttons should                                                    caught in the pins of the intersecting
                                 be installed.                                                                              fallers.
                                   (iii) Dryer enclosure. The dryer enclo-                                                    (2) Nip guards. All nip guards shall
                                 sure shall be provided with an exhaust                                                     comply with the requirements of para-
                                 system which will effectively prevent                                                      graph (h)(2)(iv) of this section.
                                 wet air and steam from escaping into                                                         (l) Heavy draw boxes, finishers, and
                                 the workroom.                                                                              speeders used in worsted drawing—(1)
                                   (iv) Nip guards. All nip guards shall                                                    Band pulley covers. Covers for band pul-
                                 comply with Table R–1.                                                                     leys shall be closed when the machine
                                                                                                                            is in motion.
                                                 TABLE R–1—GUARD OPENINGS                                                     (2) Benches or working platforms.
                                    [Openings in the guard or between the guard and working                                 Branches or working platforms ap-
                                         surface shall not be greater than the following]
                                                                                                                            proximately 10 inches in height and 8
                                                                                                              Maximum       inches in width should be installed
                                           Distance of opening from nip point                                  width of
                                                                                                              opening       along the entire running length of the
                                                                                                                            machine for the worker to stand on
                                 0 to 11⁄2 ................................................................           ⁄
                                                                                                                     14
                                                                                                                            while creeling the machine. Such
                                 11⁄2 to 21⁄2 ............................................................            ⁄
                                                                                                                     38

                                 21⁄2 to 31⁄2 ............................................................            ⁄
                                                                                                                     12     benches or platforms shall be covered
                                 31⁄2 to 51⁄2 ............................................................           5⁄8    with an abrasive or nonslip material.
                                 51⁄2 to 61⁄2 ............................................................           3⁄4
                                                                                                                              (m) Sliver and ribbon lappers (cotton).
                                 61⁄2 to 71⁄2 ............................................................           7⁄8

                                 71⁄2 to 81⁄2 ............................................................          11⁄4
                                                                                                                            Cover guard. An interlocking cover
                                                                                                                            guard shall be installed over the large
                                    The measurements in Table R–1 are all in inches.
                                                                                                                            calender drums and the lap spool, de-
                                   (v) Expansion chambers. Slasher ket-                                                     signed to prevent the operator from
                                 tles and cookers shall be provided with                                                    coming in contact with the nip.
                                 expansion chambers in the covers, or                                                         (n) Looms—(1) Shuttle guard. Each
                                 drains, to prevent surging over. Steam                                                     loom shall be equipped with a guard de-
                                 control valves shall be so located that                                                    signed to minimize the danger of the
                                 they can be operated without exposing                                                      shuttle flying out of the shed.
                                 the worker to moving parts, hot sur-                                                         (2) Protection for loom fixer. Provisions
                                 faces, or steam.                                                                           shall be made so that every loom fixer
                                   (i) Warpers—(1) Swiveled double-bar                                                      can prevent the loom from being start-
                                 gates. Swiveled double-bar gates shall                                                     ed while he is at work on the loom.
                                 be installed on all warpers operating in                                                   This may be accomplished by means of
                                 excess of 450 yards per minute. These                                                      a lock, the key to which is retained in
                                 gates shall be so interlocked that the                                                     the possession of the loom fixer, or by
                                 machine cannot be operated until the                                                       some other effective means to prevent
                                 gate is in the ‘‘closed position,’’ except                                                 starting the loom.
                                 for the purpose of inching or jogging.                                                       (o) Shearing machines. All revolving
                                   (2) Closed position. Closed position                                                     blades on shearing machines shall be
                                 shall mean that the top bar of the gate                                                    guarded so that the opening between
                                 shall be at least 42 inches from the                                                       the cloth surface and the bottom of the
                                 floor or working platform; and the                                                         guard will not exceed three-eighths
                                 lower bar shall be at least 21 inches                                                      inch.
                                 from the floor or working platform;                                                          (p) Continuous bleach range (cotton
                                 and the gate shall be located 15 inches                                                    and rayon)—(1) J-box protection. Each
                                 from the vertical tangent to the beam                                                      valve controlling the flow of steam, in-
                                 head.                                                                                      jurious gases, or liquids into a J-box
                                   (j) Drawing frames, slubbers, roving                                                     shall be equipped with a chain, lock,
                                 parts, cotton combers, ring spinning                                                       and key, so that any worker who enters
                                 frames, twisters. Gear housing covers on                                                   the J-box can lock the valve and retain
                                 all installations of drawing frames,                                                       the key in his possession. Any other
                                 slubbers, roving frames, cotton comb-                                                      method which will prevent steam, inju-
                                 ers, ring spinning frames, and twisters                                                    rious gases, or liquids from entering
                                 shall be equipped with interlocks.                                                         the J-box while the worker is in it will
                                   (k) Gill boxes—(1) Pin guard. A guard                                                    be acceptable.
                                 shall be placed ahead of the feed end                                                        (2) Open-width bleaching. The nip of
                                 and shall be so designed that it will                                                      all in-running rolls on open-width

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                                 Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                   § 1910.262

                                 bleaching machine rolls shall be pro-                     ments of paragraph (h)(2)(iv) of this
                                 tected with a guard to prevent the                        section.
                                 worker from being caught at the nip.                         (w) Drying cans—(1) Pressure reducing
                                 The guard shall extend across the en-                     valves and pressure gages. Pressure re-
                                 tire length of the nip.                                   ducing valves and pressure gages shall
                                    (q) Kiers—(1) Reducing valves, safety                  conform to the ASME Code for Pres-
                                 valves, and pressure gages. Reducing                      sure Vessels, Section VIII, 1968, Unfired
                                 valves, safety valves, and pressure                       Pressure Vessels.
                                 gages shall conform to the ASME Code                         (2) Vacuum collapse. If cans are not
                                 for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section                     designed to prevent vacuum collapse,
                                 VIII, Unfired/Pressure Vessels, 1968.                     each can shall be equipped with one or
                                    (2) Kier valve protection. Each valve                  more vacuum relief valves with open-
                                 controlling the flow of steam, injurious                  ings of sufficient size to prevent the
                                 gases, or liquids into a kier shall be                    collapse of the can if vacuum occurs.
                                 equipped with a chain, lock, and key,                        (x) Flat-work ironer—(1) Feed rolls.
                                 so that any worker who enters the kier                    The feed rolls shall be guarded to con-
                                 can lock the valve and retain the key                     form to § 1910.264.
                                 in his possession. Any other method                          (2) Pressure rolls. Pressure rolls shall
                                 which will prevent steam, injurious                       be covered or guarded to conform to
                                 gases, or liquids from entering the kier                  § 1910.264.
                                 while the worker is in it will be accept-
                                                                                              (y) Extractors—(1) Centrifugal extrac-
                                 able.
                                                                                           tor—(i) Cover. Each extractor shall be
                                    (r) Gray and white bins. On new in-
                                                                                           equipped with a metal cover.
                                 stallations guard rails conforming to
                                                                                              (ii) Interlocking device. Each extractor
                                 § 1910.23 shall be provided where work-
                                                                                           shall be equipped with an interlocking
                                 ers are required to plait by hand from
                                                                                           device that will prevent the cover from
                                 the top of the bin so as to protect the
                                                                                           being opened while the basket is in mo-
                                 worker from falling to a lower level.
                                                                                           tion, and also prevent the power oper-
                                    (s) Mercerizing range (piece goods)—(1)
                                                                                           ation of the basket while the cover is
                                 Stopping devices. A stopping device
                                                                                           open.
                                 shall be provided at each end of the
                                 machine.                                                     (iii) Brakes. Each extractor shall be
                                    (2) Frame ends. A guard shall be in-                   equipped with a mechanically or elec-
                                 stalled at each end of the frame be-                      trically operated brake to quickly stop
                                 tween the in-running chain and the clip                   the basket when the power driving the
                                 opener, to prevent the worker’s fingers                   basket is shut off.
                                 from being caught.                                           (iv) Maximum allowable speed. Each
                                    (3) Mangle and washers. The nip at                     centrifugal extractor shall be effec-
                                 the in-running rolls shall conform to                     tively secured in position on the floor
                                 § 1910.264.                                               or foundation so as to eliminate unnec-
                                    (t) Tenter frames—(1) Stopping devices.                essary vibration, and should not be op-
                                 A stopping device shall be provided at                    erated at a speed greater than the man-
                                 each end of the machine.                                  ufacturer’s rating, which shall be
                                    (2) Frame ends. A guard shall be in-                   stamped where easily visible in letters
                                 stalled at each end of the frame at the                   not less than one-quarter inch in
                                 in-running chain and clip opener.                         height. The maximum allowable speed
                                    (3) Oil cups. Oil cups shall be safely                 shall be given in revolutions per
                                 located to permit easy access.                            minute (rpm).
                                    (u) Dyeing jigs—(1) Stopping devices.                     (2) Engine drum extractor—Over-speed
                                 Each dye jig shall be equipped with in-                   governor. Each engine individually
                                 dividual mechanical or electrical                         driving an extractor shall be provided
                                 means for stopping the machine.                           with an approved engine stop and speed
                                    (2) Roll arms. Roll arms on jigs shall                 limit governor.
                                 be built to allow for extra large                            (3) Squeezer or wringer extractor—Nip
                                 batches, and to prevent the center bar                    guards. All nip guards shall comply
                                 from being forced off, causing the                        with the requirements of paragraph
                                 batch to fall.                                            (h)(2)(iv) of this section.
                                    (v) Padders—Nip guards. All nip                           (z) Nip guards. All nip guards for
                                 guards shall comply with the require-                     water mangle, starch mangle, back-

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                                 § 1910.262                                                           29 CFR Ch. XVII (7–1–03 Edition)

                                 washer (worsted yarn) crabbing ma-                        Individual discs for each nip will be ac-
                                 chines, decating machines, shall com-                     ceptable.
                                 ply with the requirements of paragraph                      (ee) Calenders. The nip at the in-run-
                                 (h)(2)(iv).                                               ning side of the rolls shall be provided
                                   (aa) Sanforizing and palmer machine. A                  with a guard extending across the en-
                                 safety trip rod, cable, or wire center                    tire length of the nip and arranged to
                                 cord shall be provided across the front                   prevent the fingers of the workers from
                                 and back of all palmer cylinders ex-                      being pulled in between the rolls or be-
                                 tending the length of the face of the                     tween the guard and the rolls, and con-
                                 cylinder. It shall operate readily                        structed so that the cloth can be fed
                                 whether pushed or pulled. This safety                     into the rolls safely.
                                 trip shall be not more than 72 inches                       (ff) Rotary staple cutters. A guard shall
                                 above the level on which the operator                     be installed completely enclosing the
                                 stands and shall be readily accessible.                   cutters to prevent the hands of the op-
                                   (bb) Rope washers—(1) Splash guard.                     erator from reaching the cutting zone.
                                 Splash guards shall be installed on all                     (gg) [Reserved]
                                 rope washers unless the machine is so                       (hh) Hand bailing machine. An angle-
                                 designed as to prevent the water or liq-                  iron-handle stop guard shall be in-
                                 uid from splashing the operator, the                      stalled at the right angle to the frame
                                 floor, or working surface.                                of the machine. The stop guard shall be
                                                                                           so designed and so located that it will
                                   (2) Safety stop bar. A safety trip rod,
                                                                                           prevent the handle from traveling be-
                                 cable or wire center cord shall be pro-
                                                                                           yond the vertical position should the
                                 vided across the front and back of all
                                                                                           handle slip from the operator’s hand
                                 rope washers extending the length of
                                                                                           when the pawl has been released from
                                 the face of the washer. It shall operate
                                                                                           the teeth of the takeup gear.
                                 readily whether pushed or pulled. This
                                                                                             (ii) Roll bench. Cleats shall be in-
                                 safety trip shall be not more than 72
                                                                                           stalled on the ends of roll benches.
                                 inches above the level on which the op-
                                                                                             (jj) Cuttle or swing folder (overhead
                                 erator stands and shall be readily ac-
                                                                                           type). The bottom of the overhead fold-
                                 cessible.
                                                                                           ers shall be located not less than 7 feet
                                   (cc) Laundry washer tumbler or shak-                    from the floor or working surface.
                                 er—(1) Interlocking device. Each drying                     (kk) Color-mixing room. Floors in
                                 tumbler, each double cylinder shaker                      color-mixing rooms shall be con-
                                 or clothes tumbler, and each washing                      structed to drain easily.
                                 machine shall be equipped with an                           (ll) Open tanks and vats for mixing and
                                 interlock device which will prevent the                   storage of hot or corrosive liquids—Shut-
                                 power operation of the inside cylinder                    off valves. Boiling tanks, caustic tanks,
                                 when the outer door on the case or                        and hot liquid containers, so located
                                 shell is open, and which will also pre-                   that the operator cannot see the con-
                                 vent the outer door on the case or shell                  tents from the floor or working area,
                                 from being opened without shutting off                    shall have emergency shutoff valves
                                 the power.                                                controlled from a point not subject to
                                   (2) Means of holding covers or doors in                 danger of splash. Valves shall conform
                                 open position. Each enclosed barrel                       to the ASME Pressure Vessel Code, sec-
                                 shall also be equipped with adequate                      tion VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels,
                                 means for holding open the doors or                       1968.
                                 covers of the inner and outer cylinders                     (mm) Dye kettles and vats—Pipes or
                                 or shells while it is being loaded or un-                 drains of sufficient capacity to carry
                                 loaded.                                                   the contents safely away from the
                                   (dd) Printing machine (roller type)—(1)                 working area shall be installed where
                                 Nip guards. All nip guards shall comply                   there are dye kettles and vats which
                                 with the requirements of paragraph                        may at any time contain hot or corro-
                                 (h)(2)(iv) of this section.                               sive liquids. These shall not empty di-
                                   (2) Crown wheel and roller gear nip pro-                rectly onto the floor.
                                 tection. The engraved roller gears and                      (nn) Acid carboys. Carboys shall be
                                 the large crown wheel shall be provided                   provided with inclinators, or the acid
                                 with a protective disc which will en-                     shall be withdrawn from the carboys by
                                 close the nips of the in-running gears.                   means of pumping without pressure in

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                                 Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor                                                   § 1910.263

                                 the carboy, or by means of hand oper-                       (b) Wherever a flour-handling system
                                 ated siphons.                                             is of such size that the beginning of its
                                   (oo) Handling caustic soda and caustic                  operation is far remote from its final
                                 potash. Means shall be provided for                       delivery end, all electric motors oper-
                                 handling and emptying caustic soda                        ating each apparatus comprising this
                                 and caustic potash containers to pre-                     system shall be controlled at each of
                                 vent workers from coming in contact                       two points, one located at each remote
                                 with the caustic (see paragraph (qq) of                   end, either of which will stop all mo-
                                 this section).                                            tors.
                                   (pp) First aid. Wherever acids or                         (c) [Reserved]
                                 caustics are used, provision shall be                       (d) Control circuits for magnetic con-
                                 made for a copious and flowing supply                     trollers shall be so arranged that the
                                 of fresh, clean water.                                    opening of any one of several limit
                                                                                           switches, which may be on an indi-
                                 [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40
                                                                                           vidual unit, will serve to de-energize
                                 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 49 FR 5324, Feb. 10,
                                 1984; 61 FR 9241, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR 33467,              all of the motors of that unit.
                                 June 18, 1998]                                              (ii) [Reserved]
                                                                                             (2) Bag chutes and bag lifts (bag-arm
                                 § 1910.263      Bakery equipment.                         elevators). (i) Bag chutes (gravity
                                                                                           chutes for handling flour bags) shall be
                                   (a) General requirements—(1) Applica-
                                                                                           so designed so as to keep to a minimum
                                 tion. The requirements of this section
                                                                                           the speed of flour bags. If the chute in-
                                 shall apply to the design, installation,
                                                                                           clines more than 30° from the hori-
                                 operation and maintenance of machin-
                                                                                           zontal, there shall be an upturn at the
                                 ery and equipment used within a bak-
                                                                                           lower end of the chute to slow down
                                 ery.
                                                                                           the bags.
                                   (2) [Reserved]
                                                                                             (ii) Bag-arm elevators with manual
                                   (b) [Reserved]                                          takeoff shall be designed to operate at
                                   (c) General machine guarding.                           a capacity not exceeding seven bags per
                                   (1) [Reserved]                                          minute. The arms on the conveyor
                                   (2) Gears. All gears shall be com-                      chain shall be so spaced as to obtain
                                 pletely enclosed regardless of location.                  the full capacity of the elevator with
                                   (3) Sprockets and V-belt drives. Sprock-                the lowest possible chain speed. There
                                 ets and V-belt drives located within                      shall be an electric limit switch at the
                                 reach from platforms or pasageways or                     unloading end of the bag-arm elevator
                                 located within 8 feet 6 inches from the                   so installed as to automatically stop
                                 floor shall be completely enclosed.                       the conveyor chain if any bag fails to
                                   (4) [Reserved]                                          clear the conveyor arms.
                                   (5) Lubrication. Where machinery                          (iii) [Reserved]
                                 must be lubricated while in motion,                         (iv) Man lifts shall be prohibited in
                                 stationary lubrication fittings inside a                  bakeries. Bag or barrel lifts shall not
                                 machine shall be provided with exten-                     be used as man lifts.
                                 sion piping to a point of safety so that                    (3) Dumpbin and blender.
                                 the employee will not have to reach                         (i)–(iv) [Reserved]
                                 into any dangerous part of the machine                      (v) All dumpbin and blender hoods
                                 when lubricating.                                         shall be of sufficient capacity to pre-
                                   (6)–(7) [Reserved]                                      vent circulation of flour dust outside
                                   (8) Hot pipes. Exposed hot water and                    the hoods.
                                 steam pipes shall be covered with insu-                     (vi) All dumpbins shall be of a suit-
                                 lating material wherever necessary to                     able height from floor to enable the op-
                                 protect employee from contact.                            erator to dump flour from bags, with-
                                   (d) Flour-handling equipment—(1) Gen-                   out causing undue strain or fatigue.
                                 eral requirements for flour handling. (i)                 Where the edge of any bin is more than
                                 Wherever any of the various pieces of                     24 inches above the flour, a bag rest
                                 apparatus comprising a flour-handling                     step shall be provided.
                                 system are run in electrical unity with                     (vii) A control device for stopping the
                                 one another the following safeguards                      dumpbin and blender shall be provided
                                 shall apply:                                              close to the normal location of the op-
                                   (a) [Reserved]                                          erator.

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