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Chapter 9 Section 1

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Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
During feudal times, monarchs in Europe stood at the head of society
but had limited power. Nobles and the Church had as much—or
more—power than the monarchs.
              Development of England
• Angles, Saxons, and Vikings settled in England
• Feudalism developed
• English rulers kept kingdom united

• 1066 King Edward the Confessor dies
   – no heir
   – council of nobles chose Harold
            Development of England

• Duke William of Normandy
  – claims throne
  – raises army
  – backed by pope

• Battle of Hastings in 1066
  – William and knights defeat King Harold
  – last invasion of England
Battle of Hastings
               Development of England

• Bayeux Tapestry
  – chronicles Norman conquest
  – valuable piece of historical evidence
Development of England

 • Henry II
   – foundations of English Common Law
       • legal system based on custom and
         court rulings
       • protects property
   – early jury system

   – married Eleanor of Aquitaine
      • vast holdings in France
•    On a half sheet of paper answer the
     following questions:
1.   What was the Magna Carta?
2.   Who signed it?
3.   In what country was it signed?
4.   What two important principles did it
5.   How is it similar to the Constitution?
Eleanor of Aquitaine
       Development of England and France
• Eleanor of Aquitaine
  – first married to France’s King Louis VII
  – joined Second Crusade
     • wore armor and rode horse with other Crusaders
  – she ended marriage to Louis VII

  – married England’s King Henry II
  – 8 children
     • Richard (“the Lion-Hearted”)
     • John
  – spurred several sons to overthrow Henry II
  – revolt failed
  – 15 years in prison
Richard I (Lionheart)   John I
Development of England

       • Magna Carta - 1215
         – King John is forced to sign the
           Magna Carta by the nobles.
         – 1st document in English history
           where monarch does not have
           complete or absolute power
            • created limited monarchy

         – ideas still influence systems of
           government in many countries
           around world today
             Development of England

• Magna Carta - 1215
  – places King of England under law
  – statement of rights for noblemen
     • protects privileges of lords
     • recognizes legal rights of townspeople and Church
  – king agrees not to raise taxes without consulting the
     Great Council
         – representative body of lords and clergy
         – in 1200s, evolves into Parliament

Successful Monarchs in France
 Monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom.
 However, under strong Capetian kings, such as Philip II
 and Louis IX, they slowly increased royal power.
               Development of France
• Louis IX
  – most admired of his time
  – generous, noble, devoted to justice & chivalry
  – deeply religious, declared a saint
  – led France in 2 wars against Muslims
  – improved royal government
      • outlawed private wars
      • ended serfdom
      • created strong national feeling (nationalism)
  – established absolute monarchy
        (complete authority)
  – St. Louis named for Louis IX
Louis IX – St. Louis
Development of France

• Philip IV
  – established Estates General
                Development of France
• Estates General
  – French legislature
     • includes reps from all 3 estates, or classes
         – clergy, nobles, townspeople

  – did not develop same role at British Parliament
     • never gained power of purse
     • never served as balance to royal power
Development of France and England

  • France
    – Absolute Monarchy

  • England
    – Limited Monarchy

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