Multimedia business by mnmgroup


									        Assignment No:-2


                              HOMEWORK 2

                                    PART A
1. Your Boss wants to create a hypermedia system for Web visitors to find
   technical support information about your company. What are some of the
   implications in creating this system? Should you hand-build the links or
   use an automatic indexing systems. Why?
     Ans 1
      Hypermedia includes use of sound, video, image and text. This helps the
      user to know about the product of the company. The user can view and
      test the product so for as view of the product is concerned. However the
      hypermedia restricts the speed of web and it also enhances the time
      taken for opening of the site.
      So for as the use of hand build indexing system and automatic indexing
      is concerned, it is the glue that holds the content together. It is the
      layer of order which makes data base product, robust, and responsive,
      thus best ever to serve the needs of organization. However without
      automatic indexing, one may find the precise bit of data that will ignite
      a new market.
      Advance indexing System:-
      Automatic link generation enhances reusability of the multimedia
      material after it is organized in a lesson structure. This approach
      allows authors to create different context-based presentations starting
      from the expected skill of the target users. Advanced indexing schemes
      will be further available for dynamic and interactive hypermedia
      generation. The MTeach framework is standard compliant in all phases
      of the multimedia production process: the output of each activity in
      MTeach can be easily integrated with open e-learning platforms in a
      complementary fashion.

2. Discuss the implications of using audio in a production, focusing on the
   purpose of the audio, how to manage audio files, and copyright issues.

     Ans 2
      Sound is perhaps the most important element of multimedia. It is
      meaningful “speech” in any language, from a whisper to a scream. It
      can provide the listening pleasure of music, the startling accent of
      special effects or the ambience of a mood setting background. Sound is
      the terminology used in the analog form, and the digitized form of
      sound is called as audio.
      Once a recording has been made, it will almost certainly need to be
      edited. The basic sound editing operations that most multimedia
      procedures needed are described in the paragraphs that follow:-

      1. Multiple Tasks: Able to edit and combine multiple tracks and then
      merge the tracks and export them in a final mix to a single audio file.
      2. Trimming: Removing dead air or blank space from the front of a
      recording and an unnecessary extra time off the end is your first sound
      editing task.
      3. Splicing and Assembly: Using the same tools mentioned for
      trimming, you will probably want to remove the extraneous noises that
      inevitably creep into recording.
      4. Volume Adjustments: If you are trying to assemble ten different
      recordings into a single track there is a little chance that all the
      segments have the same volume.
      5. Format Conversion: In some cases your digital audio editing
      software might read a format different from that read by your
      presentation or authoring program.
      6. Resampling or downsampling: If you have recorded and edited
      your sounds at 16 bit sampling rates but are using lower rates you
      must resample or downsample the file.
      7. Equalization: Some programs offer digital equalization capabilities
      that allow you to modify a recording frequency content so that it
      sounds brighter or darker.
      8. Digital Signal Processing: Some programs allow you to process the
      signal with reverberation, multitap delay, and other special effects
      using DSP routines.

3. You need to create a simple animation of a man bowling,with the ball
   rolling down the alley and striking the pins. Describe the sequence of
   motions in a storeyboard.Discuss the various techniques and principles
   you ,might employ to accurately represent the motion of the man moving ,
   the ball rolling and the pins falling.
Ans 3
You can see below what we’re aiming for. To play, first click on the green rectangle to
horizontally position the ball. Then, click the red square to roll the ball. The higher up on
the square you click, the more forward power the ball will have. The angular force on
the ball is determined by the horizontal position of the click. This may sound confusing
(and if I were to develop this into a fully featured game, it’s something I would certainly
give more thought to), but trying it out a couple times should make the mechanism
obvious. Seven seconds after each roll the ball will reappear and be ready to roll again


                                         PART B

4. Discuss the difference between bitmap and vector graphics. Describe five
   different graphic elements you might use in a project, for example, the
   background, buttons,icons or text.

    Ans 4
Bitmap Graphics

Bitmap graphics are made up of colored pixels. Pixels are very small
rectangles (usually square, although in some video applications they are
wider than they are tall) of varying colors that once put together give you an
image. You can see from the example below that zooming in on a bitmap
image reveals the pixels that make up the image when viewed at 100%.

Bitmap graphics are usually (but not always) photographic in nature, capable
of subtle graduated tones - often in the range of millions of colors per image.
The problem with bitmap graphics is that they don't enlarge well as
Photoshop needs to guess what color the extra pixels should be - this can
result is loss of definition and a dramatic lowering in quality, depending on
how much you enlarge the image. Common file formats for bitmap image data
include GIF, JPEG and PNG for Internet usage and TIFF for print usage. As you
can see from the example below, physically enlarging an image will degrade

Vector Graphics

Vector graphics on the other hand are not constructed with pixels at all
(although they are displayed on your computer screen as pixels). They are
actually made-up of mathematical expressions and instructions that produce
lines, curves and filled shapes. Company logos are often vector graphics. They
are usually made up of limited colors, although they may feature sophisticated
gradients and shading to produce more sophisticated looking graphics.
Vector graphics are created outside of Photoshop in applications such as
Adobe Illustrator or Corel Draw. They don't have a native DPI like a bitmap
image and can be scaled to any size without any loss in quality. Their size is
defined by the dimensions at which they were originally created. Common file
formats for vector graphics are EPS and AI (the native Illustrator file format).
Vector graphics are usually much smaller in file size than bitmap graphics,
unless bitmap images are embedded inside the image, in this case the file size
will usually be larger. If bitmap graphics are embedded in vector files (for
example, an EPS), the bitmap element of the graphic will suffer in quality if
resized, whereas the vector element will always output at excellent quality
regardless of this. An example of a vector graphic and its enlargement is
shown below.

Vector artwork is used within Photoshop to create paths in the paths palette,
manipulate type using fonts, and create and manipulate custom shapes. These
elements can be resized up and down to any scale as many times as you wish
without any loss in quality. You must save your file in the native PSD
Photoshop file format to retain this editability - once saved as a bitmap image
file such as a TIFF this editability will be lost (unless it is an embedded path).

5. List the four main sampling rates and the two sampling depths.
   Briefly describe what each is most useful for. How does mono versus
   stereo come into the equation.
   Ans 5
Sampling Rate:
  The sampling rate is the number of samples of data taken in one second
  for each channel of audio being recorded. CDs are recorded at 44,100
  samples per second.

  The image below is a 1000hz signal recorded at 8000 samples per
  second. The bright green dots are the points where the data was taken.
  you can count them and see that there 8 samples per cycle. Multiply that
  by 1000 cycles per second and you get the 8000 samples/sec. The rate
  at which it was recorded. This is 0.0045 seconds of audio.

  The image below is a 1000hz signal recorded at 44,100 samples per
  second. The bright green dots are the points where the data was taken.
  You can't count these very easily. This is also 0.0045 seconds of audio.
  You can easily see that there is much more data in this recording.

The terms stereo and mono are often used when referring to amplifier
connections. A stereo amplifier has two independent channels, one left
and one right. The left and right signals of the stereo signal are similar but
not exactly the same. The two channels are used to give the audio a sense
of depth. If one instrument or voice is only produced in the left channel, it
will seem to originate from the left side of the listening area. If a particular
sound is only slightly louder in one of the channels, that sound will seem
to originate off center slightly toward the channel in which the sound is
louder. If you have two speakers but supply mono signal to both of them,
there will be no sense of separation or depth. If a mono signal fed to both
channels of a stereo amplifier, with a speaker on each channel, the output
will mono. If a stereo signal is fed to the same amp/speaker set up, the
output will be stereo. If a speaker is bridged onto a stereo amplifier, the
   output of the speaker will be a mono output, even if the signal fed into the
   amplifier is a stereo signal. Even if 2 speakers are bridged onto the
   amplifier, the output will still be mono because the output from each
   speaker has the same content.

6. Describe the capabilities and limitations of Bitmap Images.

   Ans 6


   A bitmap is an image which is made up of tiny squares of color. The
   arrangement of these tiny coloured squares produces the effect of an
   image. This is a good method of reproducing 'continuous tone' images,
   such as photographs.

   The amount of detail that can be seen in a picture depends on the resolution
   of the image; how many times per inch these squares or pixels occur. 300
   times per inch is what is needed for good quality reproduction on a
   commercial printing press, and 72 pixels per inch for monitor display.

   Bitmaps have two disadvantages. In terms of the amount of digital storage,
   bitmaps are memory intensive, and the higher the resolution, the larger the
   file size.

The other disadvantage with bitmaps is when an image is enlarged, the
individual colored squares become visible and the illusion of a smooth image is
lost to the viewer. This 'pixilation' makes the image look course.

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