Assignment No:-2 CAP-323 Multimedia System HOMEWORK 2 PART A 1. Your Boss wants to create a hypermedia system for Web visitors to find technical support information about your company. What are some of the implications in creating this system? Should you hand-build the links or use an automatic indexing systems. Why? Ans 1 Hypermedia includes use of sound, video, image and text. This helps the user to know about the product of the company. The user can view and test the product so for as view of the product is concerned. However the hypermedia restricts the speed of web and it also enhances the time taken for opening of the site. So for as the use of hand build indexing system and automatic indexing is concerned, it is the glue that holds the content together. It is the layer of order which makes data base product, robust, and responsive, thus best ever to serve the needs of organization. However without automatic indexing, one may find the precise bit of data that will ignite a new market. Advance indexing System:- Automatic link generation enhances reusability of the multimedia material after it is organized in a lesson structure. This approach allows authors to create different context-based presentations starting from the expected skill of the target users. Advanced indexing schemes will be further available for dynamic and interactive hypermedia generation. The MTeach framework is standard compliant in all phases of the multimedia production process: the output of each activity in MTeach can be easily integrated with open e-learning platforms in a complementary fashion. 2. Discuss the implications of using audio in a production, focusing on the purpose of the audio, how to manage audio files, and copyright issues. Ans 2 Sound is perhaps the most important element of multimedia. It is meaningful “speech” in any language, from a whisper to a scream. It can provide the listening pleasure of music, the startling accent of special effects or the ambience of a mood setting background. Sound is the terminology used in the analog form, and the digitized form of sound is called as audio. Once a recording has been made, it will almost certainly need to be edited. The basic sound editing operations that most multimedia procedures needed are described in the paragraphs that follow:- 1. Multiple Tasks: Able to edit and combine multiple tracks and then merge the tracks and export them in a final mix to a single audio file. 2. Trimming: Removing dead air or blank space from the front of a recording and an unnecessary extra time off the end is your first sound editing task. 3. Splicing and Assembly: Using the same tools mentioned for trimming, you will probably want to remove the extraneous noises that inevitably creep into recording. 4. Volume Adjustments: If you are trying to assemble ten different recordings into a single track there is a little chance that all the segments have the same volume. 5. Format Conversion: In some cases your digital audio editing software might read a format different from that read by your presentation or authoring program. 6. Resampling or downsampling: If you have recorded and edited your sounds at 16 bit sampling rates but are using lower rates you must resample or downsample the file. 7. Equalization: Some programs offer digital equalization capabilities that allow you to modify a recording frequency content so that it sounds brighter or darker. 8. Digital Signal Processing: Some programs allow you to process the signal with reverberation, multitap delay, and other special effects using DSP routines. 3. You need to create a simple animation of a man bowling,with the ball rolling down the alley and striking the pins. Describe the sequence of motions in a storeyboard.Discuss the various techniques and principles you ,might employ to accurately represent the motion of the man moving , the ball rolling and the pins falling. Ans 3 You can see below what we’re aiming for. To play, first click on the green rectangle to horizontally position the ball. Then, click the red square to roll the ball. The higher up on the square you click, the more forward power the ball will have. The angular force on the ball is determined by the horizontal position of the click. This may sound confusing (and if I were to develop this into a fully featured game, it’s something I would certainly give more thought to), but trying it out a couple times should make the mechanism obvious. Seven seconds after each roll the ball will reappear and be ready to roll again . PART B 4. Discuss the difference between bitmap and vector graphics. Describe five different graphic elements you might use in a project, for example, the background, buttons,icons or text. Ans 4 Bitmap Graphics Bitmap graphics are made up of colored pixels. Pixels are very small rectangles (usually square, although in some video applications they are wider than they are tall) of varying colors that once put together give you an image. You can see from the example below that zooming in on a bitmap image reveals the pixels that make up the image when viewed at 100%. Bitmap graphics are usually (but not always) photographic in nature, capable of subtle graduated tones - often in the range of millions of colors per image. The problem with bitmap graphics is that they don't enlarge well as Photoshop needs to guess what color the extra pixels should be - this can result is loss of definition and a dramatic lowering in quality, depending on how much you enlarge the image. Common file formats for bitmap image data include GIF, JPEG and PNG for Internet usage and TIFF for print usage. As you can see from the example below, physically enlarging an image will degrade quality. Vector Graphics Vector graphics on the other hand are not constructed with pixels at all (although they are displayed on your computer screen as pixels). They are actually made-up of mathematical expressions and instructions that produce lines, curves and filled shapes. Company logos are often vector graphics. They are usually made up of limited colors, although they may feature sophisticated gradients and shading to produce more sophisticated looking graphics. Vector graphics are created outside of Photoshop in applications such as Adobe Illustrator or Corel Draw. They don't have a native DPI like a bitmap image and can be scaled to any size without any loss in quality. Their size is defined by the dimensions at which they were originally created. Common file formats for vector graphics are EPS and AI (the native Illustrator file format). Vector graphics are usually much smaller in file size than bitmap graphics, unless bitmap images are embedded inside the image, in this case the file size will usually be larger. If bitmap graphics are embedded in vector files (for example, an EPS), the bitmap element of the graphic will suffer in quality if resized, whereas the vector element will always output at excellent quality regardless of this. An example of a vector graphic and its enlargement is shown below. Vector artwork is used within Photoshop to create paths in the paths palette, manipulate type using fonts, and create and manipulate custom shapes. These elements can be resized up and down to any scale as many times as you wish without any loss in quality. You must save your file in the native PSD Photoshop file format to retain this editability - once saved as a bitmap image file such as a TIFF this editability will be lost (unless it is an embedded path). 5. List the four main sampling rates and the two sampling depths. Briefly describe what each is most useful for. How does mono versus stereo come into the equation. Ans 5 Sampling Rate: The sampling rate is the number of samples of data taken in one second for each channel of audio being recorded. CDs are recorded at 44,100 samples per second. The image below is a 1000hz signal recorded at 8000 samples per second. The bright green dots are the points where the data was taken. you can count them and see that there 8 samples per cycle. Multiply that by 1000 cycles per second and you get the 8000 samples/sec. The rate at which it was recorded. This is 0.0045 seconds of audio. The image below is a 1000hz signal recorded at 44,100 samples per second. The bright green dots are the points where the data was taken. You can't count these very easily. This is also 0.0045 seconds of audio. You can easily see that there is much more data in this recording. MONO VS STEREO The terms stereo and mono are often used when referring to amplifier connections. A stereo amplifier has two independent channels, one left and one right. The left and right signals of the stereo signal are similar but not exactly the same. The two channels are used to give the audio a sense of depth. If one instrument or voice is only produced in the left channel, it will seem to originate from the left side of the listening area. If a particular sound is only slightly louder in one of the channels, that sound will seem to originate off center slightly toward the channel in which the sound is louder. If you have two speakers but supply mono signal to both of them, there will be no sense of separation or depth. If a mono signal fed to both channels of a stereo amplifier, with a speaker on each channel, the output will mono. If a stereo signal is fed to the same amp/speaker set up, the output will be stereo. If a speaker is bridged onto a stereo amplifier, the output of the speaker will be a mono output, even if the signal fed into the amplifier is a stereo signal. Even if 2 speakers are bridged onto the amplifier, the output will still be mono because the output from each speaker has the same content. 6. Describe the capabilities and limitations of Bitmap Images. Ans 6 Bitmap A bitmap is an image which is made up of tiny squares of color. The arrangement of these tiny coloured squares produces the effect of an image. This is a good method of reproducing 'continuous tone' images, such as photographs. The amount of detail that can be seen in a picture depends on the resolution of the image; how many times per inch these squares or pixels occur. 300 times per inch is what is needed for good quality reproduction on a commercial printing press, and 72 pixels per inch for monitor display. Bitmaps have two disadvantages. In terms of the amount of digital storage, bitmaps are memory intensive, and the higher the resolution, the larger the file size. The other disadvantage with bitmaps is when an image is enlarged, the individual colored squares become visible and the illusion of a smooth image is lost to the viewer. This 'pixilation' makes the image look course.