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Language by zhangyun



Viktoria Ivanova,
Hang Dang

A language is a system, used for communication,
   comprising a set of arbitrary symbols and a set of
   rules by which the manipulation of these symbols is

These symbols can be combined productively to convey
  new information, distinguishing languages from other
  forms of communication.
Styles of communication

   Styles of communication vary according
    to the culture:
            Verbal communication
            Non verbal communication
Process of communication

  Encodage                                Decodage

              Media                 Media
Transmitter              Sound              Receiver

                      (past experience)
Process of communication
   Differences in codes, encodages & decodages

   Cultural preferences for some medias (ex. written vs.
    oral, verbal vs. non-verbal) for some messages

   Style of retrospective increase is very cultural (people
    filter information from past experience)

   Significant increase of the level of the sound

   Perceived distance increase

   Potential misunderstanding increase
                                      The Most Common Languages in the World
                                                                                      COUNTRIES WITH
                                                                    NUMBER OF
                                    LANGUAGE                                             NUMBERS OF
                                                                NATIVE SPEAKERS
                                                                 (in the year 2000)
               1.         Mandarin Chinese                       874,000,000                16
               2.         Hindi (India)                          366,000,000                17
               3.         English                                341,000,000               104
               4.         Spanish                               322-358,000,000             43
               5.         Bengali (India and Bangladesh)         207,000,000                 9
               6.         Portuguese                             176,000,000                33
               7.         Russian                                167,000,000                30
               8.         Japanese                               125,000,000                26
               9.         German (standard)                      100,000,000                40
               10.        Korean                                   78,000,000               31
               11.        French                                   77,000,000               53
               12.        Wu Chinese                               77,000,000                1
               13.        Javanese                                75,000,000                 4
               14.        Yue Chinese                             71,000,000                20
               15.        Telegu (India)                          69,000,000                 7

    NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION includes facial
     expressions, tones of voice, gestures, eye contact,
     spatial arrangements, patterns of touch, expressive
     movement, cultural differences, and other
     "nonverbal" acts.

    Research suggests that nonverbal communication
     is more important in understanding human behavior
     than words alone--the nonverbal "channels" seem
     to be more powerful than what people say.

1.   Gestures and body positioning
2.   Eye contact
3.   Facial Expressiveness
4.   Conversation distance
Culture differencies
   Cultures differ in the meaning of slang, even if people
    think they're speaking the same language.

   The role of the human face in emotions, cultural
    differences, attractiveness, identity, facial mythology,
    cosmetic surgery, aging, law enforcement, etc.

   The power of the voice (verbal + nonverbal) in
    interpersonal communication emphasizes the way we
    interpret a speaker's voice in terms of accent,
    pronunciation, emotions, honesty, sarcasm,
    charisma, uniqueness, lifestyle, and geographic
Culture differencies
Pay attention to the
expression of angry gestures,
obscene gestures, friendly
gestures, warning gestures,
the development of gestures
in children, gang gestures,
secret gestures, and
embarrassing gestures. This
powerful form of nonverbal
communication varies across
cultural and national
Business communication
 The business communication supposes the
  knowledge of the rules of etiquette and
  characteristics of the different countries languages.
 International differences in gestures, and cultural
  differences in nonverbal communication might be
 Differences affect our ability to understand people
  from different cultures.
 English is recognised
 Language skills allow to better perceive another
 Internationalization of business depends on language
  skills of managers.
Language in Business

     Verbal language:
         • Business letter
         • Memos
         • Emails

     Non-verbal language:
         • Pay attention to the expression of
             –   angry gestures
             –   obscene gestures
             –   friendly gestures
             –   warning gestures
             –   secret gestures, and embarrassing gestures, ect.
         • The power of the voice (verbal + nonverbal)
         • Dress code
French language

 210 million people speak French
 Spoken in 55 countries
 Latin language
 Cartesian spirit
Verbal aspects

   Academic language
   Diplomacy and respect
   Vous/ tu
   Politeness
   Importance of graduation
   French norm: unsaid, undercurrent, tease
   Vertical relation
Non verbal aspects

 Movement of hand
 The significance of smile
 Take distance
 Multiple listenning
French in business

 Take care of: work area, hand
  movement, appearance
 No direct relation, vertical relation
 The other is a foreigner
 Start with negative point
 Always a « but »
Russian language
Russian (russkiy yazyk) is the most widely
spoken language of Eurasia.
Spoken in:        Russia, former Soviet republics,
                  Mongolia, Svalbard and Israel.
Total speakers: primary language: about 145 million
                secondary language: 110 million
Language          Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic,
family:           East slavic, Russian
Writing system:   Cyrillic alphabet
Official          Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan,
language of:      Kyrgyzstan, United Nations, Crimea,
                  Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria
                  and Gagauzia.
Russian language
   The closest relatives are Ukrainian and Belarusian.
   Official recognition and legality: Latvia, Estonia,
    Luthuania (1/10), Finland (0.6%)
   Old generations in Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic,
    Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and Albania
   It was tought in some Asian countries: Laos, Vietnam
    and Mongolia
   Israel: press and web site
   North America and Western Europe

   Education in Russian: 75% in Belarus, 41% in
    Kazakhstan, 25% in Ukraine, 23% in Kyrgyzstan,
    21% in Moldova, 7% in Azerbaijan, 5% in Georgia
    and 2% in Armenia and Tajikistan
Russian verbal language
 Close distance
 High tone of voice
 Very expressive
 Direct
 The "patronymic" name based on the first name of the
  father. For women it is "OVNA" or "EVNA" is added to
  the patronymic name instead of "OVICH" for men.
 Between family, good friends and colleagues, and
  sometime subordinates, the Christian name is modified
  to a "pet" name, e.g. Alexander = Sasha; Ludmila =
  Mila, Vladimir = Vova, Evgueniy = Geniya.
 In formal situations, "vy" is used, "ty" is used between
  friends, etc.
Russian non verbal language

   A firm handshake is the common form of greeting &
   Tactile (smart kiss – close relationship)
   Open greeting with good eye contact
   Friendly gestures

   Clothes: strict, elegant, bright colours (Skirts for women),
    Russia is still a country of formality—for men a shirt, tie,
    jacket, etc in darker, conservative tones is still the
    required uniform for offices and at formal occasions.
    Russian women, especially younger ones, dress very
    fashionably, although in some instances somewhat more
   Make up
Russian culture
   Russians are formal with all new contacts and
    especially so with foreigners

   Once the newcomer is accepted – affection (hugging,
    or be verbal with extreme complimentary toasts and
    speeches about the chosen person(s).

   Although Russian businesses are becoming more like
    those in West, decision making still reflects old style:
    top down.
    Russian culture
   Dictatorial style of management

   Generally, women are not regarded or treated as
    equals to men and most hold lower level jobs
    compared to men.

   Russian women are often described as "The neck of
    Russia". Supporting the head and brains (men) but
    determine where the head looks!!

   Flowers are very popular gifts for men & women—
    large bouquets are presented for all kinds of
    celebrations, including birthdays, jubilees, name days
    for women (Vera, Luba, Nadia, etc). The count of
    flowers is important—an even number is unlucky (for
    funerals); odd numbers of flowers should be given for
    all other occasions.
   Avoid shaking hands across a doorway - bad luck

   There is a tendency to give the listener what he wants to

   For most Russians the personal relationship comes first &
    then the business relationship. This would include
    participating in office celebrations for birthdays, jubilees
    etc., where staff sits around and talk, drink & toast. Also,
    Russians like to entertain at home. If invited, this would be
    an ideal opportunity to build a relationship. The guest
    should take a small gift of flowers, food or alcohol.
   For clients, restaurant dining, usually in the evening, is a
    good icebreaker. It is not usual among older Russians to
    include spouse in such entertaining

    While Russians can sometimes appear gruff & unsmiling,
    the foreign visitor should stay calm & smiling but reinforce
    points in strong voice, when appropriate. Russians respect

   To address with Russians, with whom one is not close,
    with ―pet‖ name, is not considered polite.
How many people speak Lao?

 A bit over six million within the country
 Another half of million outside the

   Originated from Lao the Tai language family
   The writing system evolved from Sanskrit
   Lack of harmonization within dialects
   Quite Monotonage and simplistic
   Not close distance
   Not expressive
   Warm
      Verbal Language

   Distance:   - one arm length and touching is
                - considered disrespectful
                - sitting with their legs folded to the side
                  of them
Verbal Language

   Tone of voice: - Quiet and undemonstrative
                   - A nervous tone of voice
                     might be considered as a
                    sign of dishonesty

   Intonation:   - Very monotonage

   Influences from other languages:
     – French: ―Cadeau‖
Non Verbal Language

   Greeting: ―Sabidee‖
   Eye contact: Not
   Addressing: as an uncle
    or brother is more
   Dress code: traditional
    skirts (women)
          ―Trăm năm, trong cõi người ta,
        Chữ tài, chữ mệnh, khéo là ghét nhau‖

  Within the span of hundred years of human existence,
 what a bitter struggle is waged between genius and destiny!
 Overview

   From 111BC to 13th century: Classical Chinese
   From the 13th to 15th century: Chinese characters
    were adapted to write native Vietnamese words.
   From the 15th century: Roman Catholic missionaries
    introduced a system of writing Vietnamese in the
    Latin alphabet
1. Genetic relationship
 Chinese cultural influence.
 Mon-Khmer stock, which comprises Mon
  (spoken in Burma) and Khmer (the language
  of Cambodia)
 Nagpur plateau of India, in the west, to the
  Indo-Chinese peninsula in the east.
2. Writing Systems
There are three distinct writing systems:
 The Chinese characters
 The demotic characters derived from Chinese
 The Roman script’
     • 6 accents: à   (falling tone), á (high tone),   ả, ã (tilde), ạ (drop
     • More characters: ă, â, đ, ô, ơ, ư
2. “High context society”
 Empathizes spiral logic
 Values indirect verbal interaction and is more
  able to read nonverbal expressions
 Tends to use more ―feeling‖ in expression
 Tends to give simple, ambiguous, non
  contexting messages
3. “Personal pronoun”
   Example:
    – Anh yêu em.
    Older-brother love younger-sibling.
    can be translated as:
    – I love you. (male to female).
    – You love me. (female to male).
    – He loves her. (rare)

    Be carefully assess the social relationship
    between him/her and the audience, difference in
    age, and sex of the audience to choose an
    appropriate form of address.
4. “Names”

   Family name: positioned first, is passed on by the father to his children
   Middle name: more correctly, intercalary name
   Given name: the primary form of address for Vietnamese
Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, "Mr.", "Mrs.",
                 etc. will be added when necessary

   Example
    Nguyễn Tấn Dũng is the current Prime Minister of Vietnam. Nguyễn is his
    family name, Tấn is his middle name, and Dũng is his given name. In formal
    usage, he is referred to by his given name ("Mr. Dũng"), not by his family name
    ("Mr. Nguyen").
   Bowing: Is to show greeting and to show great respect

   Avoiding eye contact: Is to show respect to people older in age and
    of the opposite sex.

   Smiling: Is another way to show agreement, embarrassment,
    disbelief, mild disagreement, appreciation and apology.

   Shaking hands: Friendly greeting between men (but not the elderly).
    Not customary between women or between a Vietnamese woman
    and non Vietnamese man Pointing to other people while talking.

   Patting a person’s back, especially someone senior in age or
    status: It is considered very disrespectful/ familiar

   Pointing to other people while talking: Is disrespectful and
    consider to be threatening.

   Putting one’s feet on a table or sitting on a desk while talking:
   In Meeting
   Acceptable distance: This depends on the type of meeting.
    – In a formal gathering, people shake hands. Vietnamese maintain a certain
        distance with strangers. However, in a public setting you should expect to
        be cramped, bumped into, or share a bench with a lot of other people, etc.
        It is very rare that Vietnamese greet by kissing one another on the cheek
        (like the French) even if they know one another very well; regardless of
        gender they will offer to shake hands.
   Eye contact: It is not polite to make direct eye contact with someone; the first
    time you meet someone, he/she will likely tend to look down at the ground
    unless he/she is your superior.
   They have facial expressions that are somewhat difficult to read.
    Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to see people become enraged or raise their
    voices, particularly when a superior is talking to a junior employee. Since
    nobody wants to lose face, meetings appear to remain rather superficial and
    many discussions take place behind the scenes, but usually in the end
    everyone comes to a mutually acceptable settlement.
   In Dress
   Vietnamese are very conservative and appearances are very important to
    them. First and foremost, they judge someone by his/her appearance. It is
    essential to always be dressed appropriately. This does not mean that you
    should always look elegant because oftentimes clothing that we like is not
    pleasing to our Vietnamese colleagues.
    For men it is quite acceptable to wear dark pants, a white shirt and tie (or in
    the North a suit during the winter). Women wear pants (most ride a bicycle or
    motorcycle to get to work or to the market) or long skirts/dresses with sleeves.
    Some Westerners wear the ao dai, the traditional Vietnamese outfit consisting
    of a tunic and slacks, but personally I do not find it to be very comfortable (as
    it is very fitted and often made of synthetic materials). At the beach foreigners
    wear shorts.
   You should always be polite and diplomatic; however, normally an interpreter
    is involved and the conversation will depend, to a large extent, on the quality
    of the interpretation. If possible, it is recommended to have your own personal
    interpreter and to hire someone who knows the intricacy of both languages. It
    is best to do a reference check on your interpreter since he/she will be the link
    between you and your partner or client.
What does it mean in japanese
nonverbal language?
•It’s the joke!
•I mislead you!
•You are mistaken!
•I am angry!
What does it mean in french
 I don’t beleive you!
 You are crazy!
 I have problems with
  my eyes!
 We will see who is
What does it mean in Tunis?

 Everything is ok!
 Good luck!
 I’ll kill you!
 Our result is zero

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