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					                                                                 Publication : null
                                                                 Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 18




  This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                                             Publication : null
                                                                                             Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                                             Page : 13




Dana slips from founder’s grip
News analysis
Korean oil group’s
bold move for the
UK company is
seen as likely to
succeed, write
Miles Johnson and
Song Jung-a                     acceptances.
                                   That the hedge funds that
                                                                   ner at KPMG.
                                                                     The company has few
                                                                                                       willing to pay slightly more
                                                                                                       to do so.
                                held 27.4 per cent of Dana         cards left to play. Mr Cross           This would enable KNOC
                                agreed to sell to KNOC             and his board are left with         to avoid the controversy of
Tom Cross, Dana Petro-
                                came as no surprise.               two choices to try to gain a        a hostile approach and
leum’s     chief   executive,
                                   But the presence of             higher price for their com-         would increase the chance
woke up on Friday morning
                                Dana’s three largest long-         pany.                               that one of Dana’s key
to find himself in check
                                term institutional share-            First, Dana could for-            assets – the people who run
mate.
                                holders – Schroders, Black-        mally put itself up for sale        its operations – will stay.
  Just two months after a
                                Rock and JPMorgan – is             in the hope that a last-               KNOC has been under
team from Korea National
                                likely to have dealt an            minute “white knight” will          growing political pressure
Oil Corporation first flew to
                                irreparable blow to Dana’s         ride to its rescue. A public        to increase its production as
Aberdeen to make him an
                                hopes of retaining its inde-       announcement to this effect         South Korea imports almost
unexpected offer for the
                                pendence.                          could convince the market           all of its oil needs.
North Sea oil company he
                                   Since the South Korean’s        to price in a possible alter-          It has earmarked about
founded 16 years ago, its
                                approach to Dana first             native offer and push               $6bn (£3.9bn) for acquisi-
future appears to have
                                became public in early July,       Dana’s shares above the £18         tions and other projects this
slipped from his grasp.
                                the company has released a         level investors have signed
  Unable to agree a deal                                                                               year to more than double
                                stream     of    operational       up to, and disrupt KNOC’s
with Mr Cross, KNOC’s                                                                                  output by 2012 as South
                                updates to stress its value.       plans.
advisers swooped after the                                                                             Korea competes with other
                                   Negotiations between the          Yet the likelihood of an
London market closed on                                                                                Asian countries, such as
                                two sides broke down ear-          interloper snatching Dana
Thursday, signing up share-                                                                            China and India, to secure
                                lier this month after Dana’s       away from KNOC is seen as
holders owning 48 per cent                                                                             natural resources.
                                board refused to accept            low, according to Jonathan
of Dana’s shares to support                                                                              But the company is under
                                KNOC’s £18 a share offer,          Copus at Deutsche Bank.
their £1.87bn offer. At 7am                                                                            pressure to secure value
                                pitched at a 56 per cent pre-        “I cannot see anyone else
yesterday morning, the first                                                                           when shopping abroad for
                                mium to the average price          coming in for Dana at this
hostile offer by an Asian oil                                                                          energy assets after being
                                in the six months before           price,” said one banker.
company in the UK was                                                                                  accused of overpaying in its
                                KNOC’s interest became             “The company has effec-
under way.                                                                                             $3.9bn acquisition of Can-
                                public.
  “I think this is the end                                         tively been on the market           ada’s Harvest Energy last
                                   Large shareholders have
game,” says Peter Hitchens,                                        since KNOC’s approach               year.
an analyst at Panmure           remained unconvinced by            came out almost two                   Some analysts argue that
Gordon.                         Dana’s protestations that          months ago. Why would a             the fact KNOC has already
  “The management were          the offer undervalues its oil      rival bidder wait until now         gone so far means the state-
holding out for too much,       exploration programme.             to stick their head out?”           controlled company has
and were gambling on the          “The oil and gas sector            The other option open to          moved beyond the need to
idea that KNOC would not        has a record of manage-            Dana is to stress the value         strike a deal with Dana’s
go hostile,” he says. “The      ment teams who are either          of a board recommendation           management.
only thing that can change      emotionally attached to            for an offer to KNOC to               “The Koreans probably
things is if they pull a mas-   their portfolios, having           tempt it to increase its            couldn’t care about a rec-
sive rabbit out of the hat,     developed them, or see             offer. The Korean company           ommended offer now,” one
and that is unlikely.”          more upside in their                                                   UK industry figure said.
KNOC would be able to           reserves than the market,”         always intended to strike a         “When you have so many
delist Dana with 75 per cent    says Anthony Lobo, a part-         friendly deal and could be          shareholders backing you,




                              This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
                            copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                              Publication : null
                                                                              Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                              Page : 13




‘hostile’ is maybe the wrong
word.”                              The mercurial route to results
  Dana’s shares yesterday
rose to £17.98 – implying the       KNOC’s offer for Dana            mindedness that has
market believes KNOC’s              Petroleum comes, in the          strained some of his
success is almost certain. If       words of Tom Cross, at           relationships with others in
the deal goes through, Mr           “the busiest exploration and     the UK oil industry.
Cross, who holds 2 per cent         development period in              “He is a mercurial
of its shares, will leave as a      Dana’s history”.                 character,” said one person
rich man, going some way               Dana’s chief executive        who knows him. “He can be
towards compensating him            has built the North Sea and      awkward and stubborn, but
for losing control of the           Egypt-focused oil explorer       he gets results”.
company he founded.                 up from scratch, founding          Mr Cross has been
                                    the company in 1994 with         expecting an approach for
www.ft.com/dailyview                just several hundred             his company.
                                    thousand pounds of seed            “It would be no surprise if
‘The Koreans                        capital.                         we were on people’s
                                       Via a string of deals and     shopping list as Dana is
probably couldn’t                   discoveries, Dana has grown      becoming an attractive
care about a                        into an FTSE 250 member          proposition for a larger
                                    and one of the UK’s largest      company,” he said earlier
recommended                         independent energy groups.       this year, before KNOC’s
                                    Its latest deal is the           approach.
offer now’                          proposed acquisition of a          “All you can do is try and
                                    string of North Sea oilfields    get the best premium for
                                    from Suncor of Canada.           your shareholders, but you
                                       Born in London, 49-year-      can’t stop [a takeover]
                                    old Mr Cross trained as an       happening”.
                                    engineer at Exeter
                                    University before joining the
                                    US oil major Conoco, later
                                    working for Thomson North
                                    Sea. He now lives in
                                    Aberdeen, and invests in
                                    property developments
                                    alongside his work at Dana.
                                       A private person, Mr
                                    Cross is respected by his
                                    industry peers for his
                                    intelligence and drive, but      Tom Cross: expected an
                                    has a reputation for a single    approach for Dana




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             copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                                                         Publication : null
                                                                                                         Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                                                         Page : 13




KNOC: UK acquisition trail                                                             Dana : the target
Oct 2007                                                                Nov 2007
                                                                        No
                                                                                                                                   £397m
                                                                                                                                       Sales 2009

  KNOC in talks
  with Burren
                        Burren
                        operates in                                Burren ag
                                                                          agrees                                                       £56m
                                                                                                                                  Pre-tax profit 2009
  Energy                west Africa and                           takeover b Eni
                                                                           by
                                                                    for £1.7bn
                                                                        £1.7
                        Turkmenistan
                                                                                              38,700                                 £1.7bn
                                                                                                                                 Market capitalisation
                                                                                            Production 2009 (boepd*)
                                                                                                                                 (latest)
                                                                                       Sales by customer location

Jun 2009                                                                Jun 2009            £3.3m       £47.4m       £47.5m

                                                                                                                                                UK
                                                                                            Other        Egypt       Norway
   KNOC approaches      Addax operates                             Addax agrees                                                              £299.1m
   Addax Petroleum      in west Africa                              takeover by
                                                                    take
   (dual-listed in      and Kurdistan                               Sino
                                                                    Sinopec for
   London and                                                         C$8.3bn
                                                                      C$
   Toronto)                                                          (£4
                                                                     (£4.4bn)
                                                                                       Production                               roved         probable
                                                                                                                               Proved and probableb
                                                                                       By location , 2009                      reserves
                                                                                       (boepd ’000)                            (Barrels of oil equivalent)
                                                                                       40                                          Other international 3m

                                                                                       35      Egypt (Western Desert)
Jun 2010                         Jul 2010                                Aug 2010                                                           Egypt 42m
                                                                                       30       Egypt (Gulf of Suez)
 KNOC makes Dana                                                                       25
                                     Schroders, Dana’s            KNOC refuses to           Europe (SNS* & Netherlands)
  an indicative offer                                                                  20
                                    largest shareholder,         increase offer and
  of £18 per share,                                                                                                                          Europe
                                    urges acceptance of           launches hostile     15              Europe
      valuing the                                                                                                                            178m
                                      the offer. KNOC              offer, claiming               (Central North Sea)
 company at £1.7bn                                                                     10
                                        proves it can           backing of 48.6 per
 which Dana’s board
                                      finance the deal             cent of Dana’s       5
   says is too low
                                                                    shareholders             Europe (NNS** & Norway)
                                                                                        0
                                                                                      *SNS = Southern North Sea **NSS= Northern North Sea
                                                                                       boepd = barrels of oil equivalent per day                  Source: company




                                     This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
                                   copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                 Publication : EA Environment
                                                                 Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 8




  ANTS were being turned
                                  a major vein of the leaf
  into zombies by a mind-
                                  before dying. The “death
  control fungus 48
                                  grip” leaves the ant in a
  million years ago,
                                  perfect position for the
  scientists have learned.
                                  fungus to grow and
  The evidence is an
                                  release its infectious
  ancient fossilised leaf
                                  spores.
  bearing unmistakable
                                     The death grip bite
  traces of a natural
                                  leaves a very distinctive
  horror story.
                                  mark, and it was this
    Dr David Hughes, from
                                  scientists discovered on
  the University of Exeter,
                                  the 48-million-year-old
  who studied the find,
                                  leaf specimen from the
  said: “This leaf shows
                                  Rhine Rift Valley in
  clear signs of one well-
                                  Hesse, Germany.
  documented form of
                                     “The evidence we
  zombie parasite, a fungus
                                  found mirrors very
  which infects ants and
                                  closely the type of leaf
  then manipulates their
                                  scars that we find today,
  behaviour.”
                                  showing that the
    The parasite,
                                  parasite has been
  Ophiocordyceps
                                  working in the same way
  unilateralis, appears to
                                  for a very long time.
  take over the minds of
                                    “This is, as far as we
  infected ants. The
                                  know, the oldest evidence
  insects are forced to
                                  of parasites
  leave their nests and
                                  manipulating the
  head for a leaf that
                                  behaviour of their hosts
  provides ideal conditions
                                  and it shows this
  for the fungus to
                                  parasitic association
  reproduce.
                                  with ants is relatively
    On arrival the ants are
                                  ancient and not a recent
  compelled to bite hard on
                                  development.




  This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                               Publication : EA Environment
                                                                               Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                               Page : 8




ZOMBIE: A
modern
day ant
from
Thailand
killed by a
“zombie”
fungal
parasite.
The insect
is biting
into the
leaf vein
and fungal
growth can
be seen
issuing
from its
head

Photo: PA




                This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
              copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                 Publication : EA Environment
                                                                 Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 8




                               PHOTOS




  This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                                             Publication : null
                                                                                             Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                                             Page : 13




Dana slips from founder’s grip
News analysis
Korean oil group’s
bold move for the
UK company is
seen as likely to
succeed, write
Miles Johnson and
S     J,                        acceptances.                       ner at KPMG.                        willing to pay slightly more
Miles Johnso                       That the hedge funds that         The company has few               to do so.
Song Jung-a                     held 27.4 per cent of Dana         cards left to play. Mr Cross           This would enable KNOC
                                agreed to sell to KNOC             and his board are left with         to avoid the controversy of
Tom Cross, Dana Petro-
                                came as no surprise.               two choices to try to gain a        a hostile approach and
leum’s     chief   executive,
                                   But the presence of             higher price for their com-         would increase the chance
woke up on Friday morning
                                Dana’s three largest long-         pany.                               that one of Dana’s key
to find himself in check
                                term institutional share-            First, Dana could for-            assets – the people who run
mate.
                                holders – Schroders, Black-        mally put itself up for sale        its operations – will stay.
  Just two months after a
                                Rock and JPMorgan – is             in the hope that a last-               KNOC has been under
team from Korea National
                                likely to have dealt an            minute “white knight” will          growing political pressure
Oil Corporation first flew to
                                irreparable blow to Dana’s         ride to its rescue. A public        to increase its production as
Aberdeen to make him an
                                hopes of retaining its inde-       announcement to this effect         South Korea imports almost
unexpected offer for the
                                pendence.                          could convince the market           all of its oil needs.
North Sea oil company he
                                   Since the South Korean’s        to price in a possible alter-          It has earmarked about
founded 16 years ago, its
                                approach to Dana first             native offer and push               $6bn (£3.9bn) for acquisi-
future appears to have
                                became public in early July,       Dana’s shares above the £18         tions and other projects this
slipped from his grasp.
                                the company has released a         level investors have signed
  Unable to agree a deal                                                                               year to more than double
                                stream     of    operational       up to, and disrupt KNOC’s
with Mr Cross, KNOC’s                                                                                  output by 2012 as South
                                updates to stress its value.       plans.
advisers swooped after the                                                                             Korea competes with other
                                   Negotiations between the          Yet the likelihood of an
London market closed on                                                                                Asian countries, such as
                                two sides broke down ear-          interloper snatching Dana
Thursday, signing up share-                                                                            China and India, to secure
                                lier this month after Dana’s       away from KNOC is seen as
holders owning 48 per cent                                                                             natural resources.
                                board refused to accept            low, according to Jonathan
of Dana’s shares to support                                                                              But the company is under
                                KNOC’s £18 a share offer,          Copus at Deutsche Bank.
their £1.87bn offer. At 7am                                                                            pressure to secure value
                                pitched at a 56 per cent pre-        “I cannot see anyone else
yesterday morning, the first                                                                           when shopping abroad for
                                mium to the average price          coming in for Dana at this
hostile offer by an Asian oil                                                                          energy assets after being
                                in the six months before           price,” said one banker.
company in the UK was                                                                                  accused of overpaying in its
                                KNOC’s interest became             “The company has effec-
under way.                                                                                             $3.9bn acquisition of Can-
                                public.
  “I think this is the end                                         tively been on the market           ada’s Harvest Energy last
                                   Large shareholders have
game,” says Peter Hitchens,                                        since KNOC’s approach               year.
an analyst at Panmure           remained unconvinced by            came out almost two                   Some analysts argue that
Gordon.                         Dana’s protestations that          months ago. Why would a             the fact KNOC has already
  “The management were          the offer undervalues its oil      rival bidder wait until now         gone so far means the state-
holding out for too much,       exploration programme.             to stick their head out?”           controlled company has
and were gambling on the          “The oil and gas sector            The other option open to          moved beyond the need to
idea that KNOC would not        has a record of manage-            Dana is to stress the value         strike a deal with Dana’s
go hostile,” he says. “The      ment teams who are either          of a board recommendation           management.
only thing that can change      emotionally attached to            for an offer to KNOC to               “The Koreans probably
things is if they pull a mas-   their portfolios, having           tempt it to increase its            couldn’t care about a rec-
sive rabbit out of the hat,     developed them, or see             offer. The Korean company           ommended offer now,” one
and that is unlikely.”          more upside in their                                                   UK industry figure said.
KNOC would be able to           reserves than the market,”         always intended to strike a         “When you have so many
delist Dana with 75 per cent    says Anthony Lobo, a part-         friendly deal and could be          shareholders backing you,




                              This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
                            copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                              Publication : null
                                                                              Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                              Page : 13




‘hostile’ is maybe the wrong
word.”                              The mercurial route to results
  Dana’s shares yesterday
rose to £17.98 – implying the       KNOC’s offer for Dana            mindedness that has
market believes KNOC’s              Petroleum comes, in the          strained some of his
success is almost certain. If       words of Tom Cross, at           relationships with others in
the deal goes through, Mr           “the busiest exploration and     the UK oil industry.
Cross, who holds 2 per cent         development period in              “He is a mercurial
of its shares, will leave as a      Dana’s history”.                 character,” said one person
rich man, going some way               Dana’s chief executive        who knows him. “He can be
towards compensating him            has built the North Sea and      awkward and stubborn, but
for losing control of the           Egypt-focused oil explorer       he gets results”.
company he founded.                 up from scratch, founding          Mr Cross has been
                                    the company in 1994 with         expecting an approach for
www.ft.com/dailyview                just several hundred             his company.
                                    thousand pounds of seed            “It would be no surprise if
‘The Koreans                        capital.                         we were on people’s
                                       Via a string of deals and     shopping list as Dana is
probably couldn’t                   discoveries, Dana has grown      becoming an attractive
care about a                        into an FTSE 250 member          proposition for a larger
                                    and one of the UK’s largest      company,” he said earlier
recommended                         independent energy groups.       this year, before KNOC’s
                                    Its latest deal is the           approach.
offer now’                          proposed acquisition of a          “All you can do is try and
                                    string of North Sea oilfields    get the best premium for
                                    from Suncor of Canada.           your shareholders, but you
                                       Born in London, 49-year-      can’t stop [a takeover]
                                    old Mr Cross trained as an       happening”.
                                    engineer at Exeter
                                    University before joining the
                                    US oil major Conoco, later
                                    working for Thomson North
                                    Sea. He now lives in
                                    Aberdeen, and invests in
                                    property developments
                                    alongside his work at Dana.
                                       A private person, Mr
                                    Cross is respected by his
                                    industry peers for his
                                    intelligence and drive, but      Tom Cross: expected an
                                    has a reputation for a single    approach for Dana




               This cutting has been produced under licence by Adfero. It is protected by
             copyright. No further copies may be made except under licence from the NLA.
                                                                                                         Publication : null
                                                                                                         Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                                                         Page : 13




KNOC: UK acquisition trail                                                             Dana : the target
Oct 2007                                                                Nov 2007
                                                                        No
                                                                                                                                   £397m
                                                                                                                                       Sales 2009

  KNOC in talks
  with Burren
                        Burren
                        operates in                                Burren ag
                                                                          agrees                                                       £56m
                                                                                                                                  Pre-tax profit 2009
  Energy                west Africa and                           takeover b Eni
                                                                           by
                                                                    for £1.7bn
                                                                        £1.7
                        Turkmenistan
                                                                                              38,700                                 £1.7bn
                                                                                                                                 Market capitalisation
                                                                                            Production 2009 (boepd*)
                                                                                                                                 (latest)
                                                                                       Sales by customer location

Jun 2009                                                                Jun 2009            £3.3m       £47.4m       £47.5m

                                                                                                                                                UK
                                                                                            Other        Egypt       Norway
   KNOC approaches      Addax operates                             Addax agrees                                                              £299.1m
   Addax Petroleum      in west Africa                              takeover by
                                                                    take
   (dual-listed in      and Kurdistan                               Sino
                                                                    Sinopec for
   London and                                                         C$8.3bn
                                                                      C$
   Toronto)                                                          (£4
                                                                     (£4.4bn)
                                                                                       Production                               roved         probable
                                                                                                                               Proved and probableb
                                                                                       By location, 2009                       reserves
                                                                                       (boepd ’000)                            (Barrels of oil equivalent)
                                                                                       40                                          Other international 3m

                                                                                       35      Egypt (Western Desert)
Jun 2010                         Jul 2010                                Aug 2010                                                           Egypt 42m
                                                                                       30       Egypt (Gulf of Suez)
 KNOC makes Dana                                                                       25
                                     Schroders, Dana’s            KNOC refuses to           Europe (SNS* & Netherlands)
  an indicative offer                                                                  20
                                    largest shareholder,         increase offer and
  of £18 per share,                                                                                                                          Europe
                                    urges acceptance of           launches hostile     15              Europe
      valuing the                                                                                                                            178m
                                      the offer. KNOC              offer, claiming               (Central North Sea)
 company at £1.7bn                                                                     10
                                        proves it can           backing of 48.6 per
 which Dana’s board
                                      finance the deal             cent of Dana’s       5
   says is too low
                                                                    shareholders             Europe (NNS** & Norway)
                                                                                        0
                                                                                      *SNS = Southern North Sea **NNS= Northern North Sea
                                                                                       boepd = barrels of oil equivalent per day                  Source: company




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                                                                  Publication : Magazine
                                                                  Publication date : 21 August 2010
                                                                  Page : 42




               GREEN
               FINGERS
               Slugs and snails are    travel to get “home”.
               a huge problem for         Organisers also
               many of us, but one     want to hear from
               gardener, Ruth          people whose swap
               Brooks, thinks she’s    is unsuccessful.
               found there’s more to      If you’d like to take
               snails than their       part, visit www.bbc.
               appetite for lettuce    co.uk and search for
               and petunias.           “snail swap”. You’ve
                  She collected all    got until the end of
               the snails she could    the month to send in
               find in her garden,      your findings.
               put them in a bucket
               and took them to a
               nearby piece of
               wasteland. She was
               astonished to find
               they made their way
               back to her garden
               every time she
               removed them.
                  Brooks contacted
               Dr Dave Hodgson of
               Exeter University
               and, as a result, BBC
               Radio 4’s Material
               World programme
               has launched a
               national “snail swap”
               experiment to see if
               Brooks’s findings are
               commonplace.
                  If you and a
               neighbour would like
               to take part, collect
               snails from your
               garden in a bucket,
               tag them with nail
               varnish on their
               shells and swap
               buckets with your
               neighbour,
               remembering that
               their varnish must be
               a different colour.
               Snails move slowly,
               but it should be fun
               testing out this idea
               and seeing the
               distance they will




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                                                                 Publication : null
                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 16




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                                                                 Publication : Achievement 2010
                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 2,3




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                                                                 Publication : Achievement 2010
                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 2,3




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                                                                 Publication : Achievement 2010
                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 2,3




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                                                                 Publication : Achievement 2010
                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 2,3




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                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 3




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                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 7




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                                                                 Publication date : 23 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 3




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                                                                 Publication date : 24 August 2010
                                                                 Page : 3




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                                                                 Publication date : 24 August 2010
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BY DAVID WILCOCK
                                          Labandeira, from the Smithsonian
A 48-million-year-old fossilised leaf     Institution in the USA, and Torsten
has revealed the oldest known evid-       Wappler, from the Steinmann Insti-
ence of a macabre part of nature –        tute in Germany, to search for po-
parasites taking control of their hosts   tential evidence of the fungus at work
to turn them into zombies.                by studying the fossilised remains of
  The discovery has been made by a
research team led by Dr David P
Hughes, from the University of Ex-        ‘This is the oldest
eter, who studies parasites that can
take over the minds of their hosts.
                                          evidence of parasites
  All manner of animals are sus-          manipulating the
ceptible to the often deadly body in-
vasion, but scientists have been
                                          behaviour of their hosts’
trying to track down when and where
such parasites evolved.                   Dr David P Hughes
  Dr Hughes, from the university’s
School of Biosciences, said: “There
are various techniques, called a mo-       leaves. After studying leaf fossils
lecular clock approach, which we can       from the Messel Pit, a site on the
use to estimate where and when they        eastern side of the Rhine Rift Valley
developed, and fossils are an import-      in Hesse, Germany, they found clear
                                           evidence of the death grip bite in a
ant source of information to calibrate
                                          48-million-year-old leaf specimen. Dr
such clocks. This leaf shows clear
                                          Hughes said: “The evidence we found
signs of one well-documented form of
                                          mirrors very closely the type of leaf
zombie-parasite, a fungus which in-
                                          scars that we find today, showing that
fects ants and then manipulates their
                                          the parasite has been working in the
behaviour.”
                                          same way for a very long time.
  The fungus, Ophiocordyceps uni-
                                             “This is, as far as we know, the
lateralis, appears to take over the
                                          oldest evidence of parasites manip-
mind of infected ants – causing them
                                          ulating the behaviour of their hosts,
to leave their colonies and head for a
                                          and it shows this parasitic associ-
leaf which provides the ideal con-
                                          ation with ants is relatively ancient
ditions for the parasite to reproduce.
                                          and not a recent development.
  When the ant gets there it goes into
                                             “Hopefully we can now find more
a “death grip”– biting down very
                                          fossilised evidence of parasitic ma-
hard on the major vein of a leaf. This
                                          nipulation. This will help us shed
means that when the ant dies, its
                                          further light on the origins of this
body stays put so the fungus has time
                                          association so we can get a better idea
to grow and release its spores to
                                          of how it has evolved and spread.”
infect other ants.
                                             The paper, titled Ancient Death-grip
  The death grip bite leaves a very
                                          Leaf Scars Reveal Ant-fungal Para-
distinct scar on the leaves. This
                                          sitism, is published in the latest edi-
prompted Dr Hughes, together with
                                          tion of Royal Society journal Biology
research        partners       Conrad
                                          Letters.




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THE SOVEREIGN’S PARADE
The Sovereign’s Parade, held at the     University of Southampton, RE;            Michaelhouse High School,
Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, on   Naismith D.F.E., Llanidloes High          University of Exeter, QRL; Purdon J.
Friday, Aug 13, 2010, continued:        School, University of London, Queen       C.R.B., Eton College, University of
                                        Mary and Westfield, RLC; Nash A.,          Edinburgh/Oxford Brookes
Maddock D.S.H., Bishop Perowne C        Calthorpe Park School, AGC (RMP);         University, IG; Ramsay G.D.J., High
of E, MERCIAN; Maguire L.P., Neath      Nelson J.M., Poole Grammar,               School of Dundee - Senior School,
Port Talbot College, University of      University of Kent, AAC; O’Brien P.L.,    University of Aberdeen, SCOTS;
Wales, Swansea, R WELSH; Mason          Welbeck College, University of            Reynolds G.A., Malmesbury School,
L.T.J., Haileybury School, University   Southampton, REME; O’Grady L.M.,          University for the Creative Arts,
of Newcastle upon Tyne, YORKS;          Bretton Woods, RA; O’Shea S.,             PWRR; Riley M.J., Castle Hall School,
Mathieson N.D., King’s School,          Sheringham High School and Sixth          RAMC; Roberts A.A., Torquay Girls’
University of Portsmouth, RLC;          Form Centre, AGC (SPS); Owen G.,          Grammar School and Welbeck
Maxwell A.S., Rhyl High School and      Gian Afan Comprehensive School            College, Loughborough University, R
Welbeck College, University of          and Welbeck College, University of        SIGNALS; Roberts E.L., The College
Newcastle upon Tyne, REME;              Northumbria at Newcastle, R               of Estate Management, University of
McCubbin R.A., Kepler-Gymnasium,        SIGNALS; Patel B.B., Merchant             Durham, R SIGNALS; Robertson N.S.,
Germany, Berufsakademie Mosbach,        Taylors’ School, Northwood,               Riddlesdown High School, Harris
RAMC; Menelaou A.D., Nower Hill         University of Reading, RE; Pelling H.     Manchester College, Oxford, SG;
High School, Royal Holloway,            J., Nonsuch High School for Girls,        Robinson A.R., Bedales School, The
University of London, INT CORPS;        Royal Holloway, University of London,     Royal Agricultural College, SG;
Merry J., Highfield School,              AGC (RMP); Pelton D.K., Wrekin            Robinson J.A., Bishop Wordsworth’s
Nottingham University, RA;              College, University of Edinburgh, RE;     School, University of Southampton,
Middleton H.G.V., Wellington College,   Philpott J.K., The King’s School,         INT CORPS; Rowe T., Tarleton High
University of Edinburgh, RA;            University of Chester, RA; Pincombe       School, R SIGNALS; Russell S.W.,
Middleton T.P.P., Falkland Islands      M.J., Norwich School, University of       Falkirk High School, University of
Community School, University of         Sheffield, RAMC; Politowicz G.S.,          Aberdeen, SCOTS; Ryan T.P., Cardinal
Birmingham, MERCIAN;                    Highsted Grammar School, University       Griffin RC High School, The
Montgomery E.H.J., Trinity College      of Exeter, AGC (ETS); Potts R., East      Nottingham Trent University, PARA;
Dublin, University of Dublin, Trinity   Durham and Houghall College, AAC;         Sargison L.V., Monkton Combe
College, PARA; Mortimore A.L.,          Pountain B.M.G., Uppingham School,        School, Oxford Brookes University,
Weymouth College, University of         University of Durham, GREN GDS;           RA.
Wales Institute, Cardiff, RLC;          Pugh D.K., The Skinners’ School,
Morwood L.N., St Joseph’s School,       University of Leeds, RA; Purbrick A.J.,   To be continued.




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                    That’s a weight
                    off my mind...
                    ANN ENGLISH, Hamrow
                    Cottage, Whissonsett.
                    Thank goodness scientists
                    at the University of Exeter
                    have been using their time
                    productively to discover that
                    48 million years ago ants were
                    infected by a zombie parasite
                    fungus (EDP, August 19). No
                    longer will I have to wonder
                    why armies of staring ants
                    of the undead are nightly
                    attaching themselves to
                    the fossilised leaves of my
                    tomatoes.




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THE SOVEREIGN’S PARADE
The Sovereign’s Parade, held at the Royal   School, Loughborough University, RE;      School, University of Plymouth, RA;
Military Academy, Sandhurst, on Friday,     Tollemache T.A.H., Eton College,          Williams P.A.N., Radley College,
Aug 13, 2010, continued:                    University of Newcastle upon Tyne,        University of Edinburgh, AAC; Willson
                                            COLDM GDS; Tomlinson D.,                  D.C., Exmouth Community College,
Scott T.J., The King’s School, RTR;         Shoreham College, University of           University of Plymouth, AGC (SPS);
Scott-Barrett J.H., Oundle School,          Sussex, R ANGLIAN; Tomsett G.C.,          Wilson L.G., Wisbech Grammar School
University of St Andrews, SG; Seath D.      Mereway Upper School and Welbeck          and Welbeck College, Loughborough
B., St Columba’s RC High School,            College, University of Newcastle upon     University, REME; Winter J.G., Brighton
University of Aberdeen, RA;                 Tyne, RE; Torrens-Spence D.J.,            College, RLC; Winterbourne P.B.,
Sherbrooke L.L.P., Ampleforth,              Sherborne School, University of           Bishop of Llandaff Church in Wales
University of Newcastle upon Tyne,          Birmingham, RDG; Towler T.J.H.,           High School, University of Newcastle
KRH; Shorland Ball T., Downside,            Winchester College, University of         upon Tyne, REME; Withers D.M., Worle
University of Exeter, RDG; Simpson R.       Exeter, SCOTS; Toy J.A.M., Eastbourne     School, RLC; Wood O.J., Northampton
T., Wimbledon College, University of        College, University of Exeter, PARA;      School for Boys, Aston University, RE;
Manchester, R SIGNALS; Smith A.M.,          Treasure C.M., Richard Huish College,     Wooldridge J.P.M., Radley College,
Whitgift School, University of Durham,      RA; Trehane J.M., Ferndown Upper          Oxford Brookes University, RLC; Yaxley
RDG; Smith B.H.R., King Edward VI CE        School, MERCIAN; Trypanis G.A.F.,         L.H., Icknield High School and
(C) Upper School, University of             Harrow School, University of St           Welbeck College, Loughborough
Portsmouth, MERCIAN; Southall B.R.,         Andrews, QRH; Turner A.B., All            University, R SIGNALS; Yell B.I.,
Hagley Park Sports College, Coventry        Hallows RC School, University of          Krugersdorp High School, RLC.
University, RE; Spain H., St Mary’s,        Huddersfield, R SIGNALS; Turner
Cambridge, University of Sheffield, RA;      H.J.A., Royal Grammar School,             The following Overseas Cadets also
Stafford N.J., Malvern College,             Newcastle and Welbeck College,            passed out with a view to being
University of Durham, RTR; Stamp J.L.,      University of Newcastle upon Tyne,        commissioned into the Armed Forces
Gresham’s School, Oxford Brookes            REME; Van Dijk L., Billanook College,     of their countries:
University, RA; Steer A.J., Repton          UCL University, REME; Waite T.C.,
School, Cardiff University, INT CORPS;      Blessed Robert Johnson School and         Faisal Bin Khalifa Bin Faisal Al Khalifa,
Stein J.A., Monmouth School, Cardiff        Welbeck College, University of            Bahrain; Mohammed bin Rashid Al
University, RE; Strange B.A., The Royal     Newcastle upon Tyne, RE; Wallis D.J.,     Khalifa, Bahrain; Nasser Khalifa Al
Wolverhampton School, Coventry              Welbeck College, University of            Fedhala, Bahrain; Claudio Kadir Quiroz
University, REME; Sudlow J.G.,              Southampton, R SIGNALS; Watson S.L.,      Requena, Belize; Erwin Joel Rodriguez,
Millfield School, The Royal Agriculture      Cockshut Hill Technology College and      Belize; Zhang Chi, China; Atta Junior
College, H CAV; Sutherland J.G.O., The      Welbeck College, University of            Kwarteng, Ghana; Kadri Berisha,
Edinburgh Academy, University of            Southampton, RLC; Watts D.A.S., The       Kosovo; Ali Masood Said Jaboob,
Northumbria at Newcastle, RIFLES;           Boswells School, University of Essex,     Oman; Yousuf Salim Mohammed Al
Swannick J.T., Kirkbie Kendal School,       RAMC; Webb J.M., St Edward’s School,      Mashikhi, Oman; Essa Abdullal H Al
University of Chester, RAMC; Tait J.R.,     Oxford, University of Southampton, RE;    Mannai, Qatar; Khalil Misfer Al
Blundell’s                                  Wellum-Kent A.J.N., East Norfolk Sixth    Shahwani, Qatar; Ramsey Simba,
School, SCOTS; Taylor T.D.A., Taunton       Form College, University of Cambridge,    Rwanda; Prince Lindani Dlamini,
School, Cardiff University, RRF;            RRF; Westlake S.L., Haywards Heath        Swaziland; Ahmed Mohamed Fahad Al
Thomas J.M., Cranleigh School,              College, University of the Arts London,   Duhaim, UAE; Majid Bin Saud Al
University of Leeds, PWRR; Thompson         PARA; Whinton O.S., Sheldon School,       Mualla, UAE; Tariq Ali Saleh Al
A.K., Brentwood School and Welbeck          The Royal Agricultural College,           Marashda, UAE; Paul Roussel
College, University of Newcastle upon       University of Portsmouth, R SIGNALS;      McCready, USA; Khaled Ali Abdullah
Tyne, RE; Thorne M.R., Cranleigh            Wiggins C.A., Kingdown Community          Saleh, Yemen.




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Stour presented with Windo of opportunity
                                        beyond their resources.                             (Worcester), Matt Thomas (Exeter Uni), Matt Bra-
OPTIMISM usually abounds at
                                                                                            dley (Manchester), Luke Cozens (Portugal), Chris
most clubs in pre-season but it is a     And everyone there knows it:                       Surman (Cheltenham), Cameron Brown (Lough-
little more intoxicating at Stourton    “There is a great buzz at the club,”                borough Uni), Charlie Hayter (Nottingham), Ben
                                                                                            Geatches, Charlie Fellows (Worcester), Jon Hall
Park than in previous summers.          says director of rugby Mitchell.                    (unattached), Simon Frewin (Coventry), Jamie
  Of all the pieces of business done    “The trick is to get a blend between                Hearn (Saracens), Thinus Delport (Kubota
                                                                                            Spears).
in the region in the off-season,                                                               OUT: Andi Lawrence (released), Ben Gerry,
                                        Stourbridge and Worcester, I think
Stourbridge’s formalised link with                                                          Ben Barkley, Sam Robinson (all Bees), Harry Col-
                                        we have done that. Thinus and                       lins (Hartpury), Ollie Atkinson (released), Seb
Worcester offers the greatest poten-                                                        Pearson (Coventry), Duncan White (Old Haleso-
                                        Tony have come in with the right
tial dividend.                                                                              nians), Jon Higgins (Dudley Kingswinford),
                                        attitude. They see this as a chance                 Adam Billig (Malvern).
  Not only have Stour appointed
                                        to progress themselves. It is not
Warrior legend Tony Windo as
                                        going to be Shangri-La but we will
head coach and his former team-
mate Thinus Delport to run the          work through it and it is much bet-
                                        ter than it would have been with-
backs, they now have access to
                                        out it.”
several talented youngsters from
                                          Especially after ten senior play-
the Sixways academy.
                                        ers, such as Adam Billig, Jon Hig-
 Even better, many of the club’s        gins, Ben Gerry and Ben Barkley
own players will be given the           left the club. Mitchell must now
opportunity to train at Worcester,      hope his combination of gifted
a fact that makes most of Neil          young players and more estab-
Mitchell’s men full-time rugby          lished National One operators
players.                                blend in time for the visit of Mac-
 So while Stourbridge’s budget          clesfield on September 4.
will be far from the biggest in           IN: Will Davies, Jordan Page (both Worcester),
National One, London Scottish can       Liam Wordley (Cornish Pirates), Charlie Thomas
                                        (unattached), Pete Fitzgerald (Walsall), Chris
boast that, the Black Country boys      Derrick (unattached), Will Betts (Bees), Joe Car-
have depth and opportunity              penter (Burton), Tim Pickard, Nathan Roy-Smith,
                                        Lucas Roy-Smith (all Nuneaton), James Freeman




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