Absolutism Study Guide--------------------World History---------------------------Mr. Wiggins * In addition to this list, you are responsible for the readings that were assigned for this unit. Good luck! Spain’s Empire & European Absolutism What is absolutism? Absolute monarchs? Who was the only One that the absolute monarchs answered to? How did monarchs grow more powerful as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages? Goal of monarchs? Who were the Hapsburgs? Charles V—the Holy Roman Emperor & King of Spain -divided his empire betw. Philip II (son) = received Spain & its Amer. possessions, & Ferdinand I (bro) = received H.R. Emp. & the Austrian branch of Hapsburg family Peace of Augsburg (1555) Spain under Philip II -made Spain strong -built royal palace at El Escorial -1571: defeated large Ottoman fleet at Lepanto -1588: attempted to punish Protestant English w/Spanish Armada The weakening of the Spanish Empire -inflation? taxes? -had expelled Jews & Muslims (valuable artisans & businesspeople) -Who was the tax burden put on? -Why didn’t Spain ever develop a middle class? -Spanish kings borrowed money from German & Italian bankers to finance wars Why did the Dutch rebel against the Spanish? (3 reasons) Who led the Dutch rebellion? What type of battle tactics did the Dutch use? Once they won their independence, how did the Dutch economy prosper? How were the Dutch different from other European states? How did the Netherlands during the 1600s compare to Florence during the 1400s? Who was Rembrandt van Rijn? What did he paint? Who was Jan Vermeer? What did he paint? France in the Age of Absolutism Huguenots vs. Catholics? Henry IV of Navarre---the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)? Henry IV converted to Catholicism? Why? ---“Paris is well worth a mass!” Edict of Nantes? Tax farming? Whom did the tax burden fall on? Duke of Sully --- finance minister How did Henry IV die? Why? Louis XIII (Henry’s son & successor) Cardinal Richelieu (chief minister of France) -What was his opinion of the Edict of Nantes, and how did he approach the Huguenot issue? -What did he do to the nobles of France? Who were the intendants? What is skepticism & who were skeptics? Who was Michel de Montaigne what from of literature is he responsible for creating? Who was Rene Descartes and what did he write? Louis XIV (aka: the Sun King) -“I am the state!” ---what did he mean by this? -Cardinal Mazarin (Richelieu’s successor) ---greatest triumph was Thirty Years’ War -why did people in France, especially the nobles, hate him? -Who were the Frondeurs (the Fronde) ---How did their rebellion influence/affect Louis XIV? -Who was Jean-Baptiste Colbert? What did he do to help France achieve economic greatness? -How did Louis view the Huguenots? What did he do with the Edict of Nantes? How did this affect France economically? -What was the Palace of Versailles? What did Louis require the French nobility to do? How did this solidify & illustrate his absolute rule? -How did people view Louis and his spending habits? -Why did Louis adopt the sun as his personal emblem? -How much did Louis support the arts? Under Louis, what was the chief purpose of art----to glorify whom? -Under Louis, how did France become the most-powerful country in Europe? -How many wars did Louis fight? What was the purpose of these wars? -How did the other European countries maintain the balance of power? -What effects did Louis’s wars have on France? -What was the War of Spanish Succession? Why was it fought? What treaty ended it? Who was the major winner of this war? -What was the legacy of Louis’s reign? Absolutism in Central & Eastern Europe What was the Thirty Years’ War and why was it fought? -Ferdinand II (Holy Roman Emperor & head of Hapsburgs) ---What did he do in Bohemia? -Who was Gustavus Adolphus and what did he do? -What side did France take in this war? Why? -Where did most of this war take place? How did the war affect this region? -What was the treaty that ended this war? Who was the real winner? Why did strong states form more slowly in Central Europe than in Western Europe? (2 reasons) Who were the Hapsburgs? Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI became Austrian-Hapsburg ruler in 1711. What did he spend the later years of his rule doing? What was the Pragmatic Sanction? Who was Maria Theresa? Who was Austria’s chief rival? Who were the Hohenzollerns? Who was Frederick William (the Great Elector)? Who was Frederick I? Who was Frederick William I and how did he strengthen Prussia? Who was Frederick II and why was he considered so great? What was the War of Austrian Succession, who won, & what treaty ended it? Absolutism in Russia Who was Ivan III and what did he do? What is a czar, and who was the first czar of Russia? Who were the boyars? How did the first czar of Russia accuse them of? What was his reaction? What act did the first czar commit that proved to be a personal tragedy? What was the Time of Troubles? Who was Michael Romanov, and what dynasty did he begin? How long did they rule Russia? Who was Czar Peter I and why was he so great? Why did serfdom survive in Russia for so long? How was Russia isolated from the West? What religion were most Russians? What did Peter believe Russia’s future depended on? What was the “Grand Embassy?” What were Peter’s goals for this? -“For you know yourself that, though a thing be good and necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to.” How did Peter reform Russia to increase his power as an absolute ruler? In what ways did Peter attempt to westernize Russia? From whom did Peter win the “window on Europe” from? What was this “window?” Why was is so important to Russia? The English Civil War During her reign of England, what was a major argument Elizabeth had with Parliament over? Who was James Stuart and what did the Puritans hope he would’ve done? Who was Charles I and who was he constantly fighting (besides Parliament)? What was the Petition of Right? What were the provisions of this document? How did this petition contradict the theories of absolute monarchy? How did Charles end up getting money? How did Charles offend the Puritans and Presbyterians? What was the English Civil War (1642-1649)? Who was it fought between? Who were the Royalists or Cavaliers? Who were the “Roundheads” Who was Oliver Cromwell and how did he turn the tide of the war toward the Puritans? At the end of the war, what happened to Charles I? Why was this a monumental event? Who took over after Charles? -What type of government did he establish? Who was John Lambert, and what did he write? What type of government leader did Cromwell soon become? -How did the Irish react to this? What did Cromwell do? In what ways did Cromwell & the Puritans seek to reform English society? -Cromwell favored religious toleration for all Christians except whom? Who succeeded Cromwell in power? -Why is a period of his rule also known as the “Restoration?” What did he restore? What was habeas corpus? How did it protect the people? Who succeeded Charles II as king of England? What denomination was he? How did his subjects react? -Whom did he appoint to office? Who led the overthrow of James II? What was this called? What type of monarchy did England become under the rule of William and Mary? What was the Bill of Rights (1689)? What were its provisions? What was the cabinet, and what was their purpose?