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					 Dispelling the Myth
Working to Close Achievement Gaps
        … Once and for All




                                    2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                   2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
There‟s an Elephant in the Room!
  NAEP 8th Grade Mathematics
     Race, Ethnicity 2000
100%    5        9        12
 90%
 80%   27                          34      40
                31
 70%                      38
 60%                                               Prof/Adv
 50%                                               Basic
                                   43      35
 40%                                               Below Basic
       68




                                                                 2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 30%            60
                          50
 20%
 10%                               23      25
  0%
       Black   Latino    Native    White   Asian
                        American
       NAEP 8th Grade Math
        Family Income 2000
100%
         10
 90%
 80%               35
 70%     34
 60%                        Prof/Adv
 50%                        Basic
                   41
 40%                        Below Basic




                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 30%     56
 20%
 10%               24
  0%
        Poor     Not Poor
          African American and Latino 17
          Year Olds Read at Same Levels
               as White 13 Year Olds
       100%




                                                                                              2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
          0%
                       150               200               250           300          350
                White 8th Graders                             African American 12th Graders
                Latino 12th Graders


Source: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
       African American and Latino
      17 Year Olds Do Math at Same
      Levels As White 13 Year Olds
        100%




                                                                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
           0%
                          200                   250               300           350

            White 8th Graders                                African American 12th Graders
            Latino 12th Graders


Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)
                  Too Few 17 Year-Olds
                      Demonstrate
                  Strong Reading Skills
                                                  African   Latino   White
                                                 American
       Learn from Specialized                        1%       2%       8%
       Materials
       Understand Complicated                        17      24       46
       Information




                                                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
       Partial Skills                                66      68       87

       Make Generalizations                          95      97       98


Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables
                  Too Few 17 Year-Olds
                      Demonstrate
                   Strong Math Skills

                                                  African   Latino   White
                                                 American
     Multi-Step Problem                              1%       3%      10%
     Solving
     Moderately Complex                              27      38       70




                                                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
     Procedures
     Numerical Operations                            89      94       99



Source: USDOE, NCES, 1999 NAEP Summary Data Tables
But only a few are going
 to college anyway …

      … right???




                           2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         How Expectations Differ: Plans
         For Students After High School
                                     Responses From
        100                                                                2- or 4-yr college
                     79
                                                                           Work full-time
                                       68

                                                          51
          percent




                                                                28

                                             11




                                                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                           5

              0
                    Students           Parents           Teachers



Source: “Metropolitan Life, Survey of the American Teacher 2000: Are We Preparing Students for the 21st
Century?,” September 2000.
                Most High School Grads
                Go On To Postsecondary

                 Entered 2 Year Colleges                                                 22%
                 Entered 4 Year Colleges                                                 43%
                 Other Postsecondary                                                      7%




                                                                                               2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                 Total                                                                   72%

Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third (1994) Follow up; in, USDOE, NCES, Condition
of Education 1997, Supplemental Table 9-1
             Even Low Achieving Grads
              Go On To Postsecondary
                 High School                                       % Entering
              Achievement Level                                   Postsecondary
                    Low                                                49%
                           Middle                                            71%




                                                                                                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                             High                                            91%
                          Overall                                            72%


Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third Follow up (1994); in, USDOE, NCES, Condition of Education 1997,
p. 64
                    2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
What happens when
 they get there?
         College Freshmen Not
      Returning for Sophomore Year


                     4 year Colleges                                      26%
                     2 year Colleges                                      45%




                                                                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Source: Tom Mortensen, Postsecondary Opportunity, No. 89, November 1999
           African American and Latino
           Freshmen Complete College
                  at Lower Rates
         100%

                                                                                                        75%
                                                                     61%

                                  45%




                                                                                                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
             0%
                       African American                            Latino                               White

Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, “Answers in the Toolbox,” 1999.
        College Graduates by Age 26



                      Young People From                                             60%
                      High Income Families
                      Young People From                                               7%




                                                                                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                      Low Income Families



Source: Tom Mortenson, Research Seminar on Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Post Secondary, 1997.
                   2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
What About WORK?
 70% of the 30 fastest-growing jobs will
  require an education beyond high school
 40% of new jobs will require at least an
  associate’s degree
 Even trade apprenticeship programs
  demand higher-level math, science and




                                                                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  reading skills.

Sources: Getting Ready Pays Off!, US DOE, October 2000. And, in BLS, Occupational
Employment Projections to 2008, in NAB, Workforce Economics, vol. 6, Issue 1, Spring 2000.
And, on NATEF website, www.natef.org.
                         Requirements for
                        Tool and Die Makers
      Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or
       postsecondary training;
      Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and
       statistics;




                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
      Average earnings: $40,000 per year.



National Association of Manufacturers, GetTech website
                        Requirements for
                       Sheet Metal Workers

       Four or five years of apprenticeship;
      Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and
       technical reading;
      Average earnings: $32,000 per year.




                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
National Association of Manufacturers, GetTech website
             Requirements for Avionics
                   Technicians

       Postsecondary training;
      Physics, chemistry, advanced mathematics,
       computers, electronics;
      Average earnings: $40,000 per year.




                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
National Association of Manufacturers, GetTech website
   No Turning Back:

Our goal now must be to
prepare all students for
entry-level college work




                           2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  and success in the
  modern workplace.
               2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
… And that means
 closing the gap!
             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Does it have to
 be this way?
    What We Hear Adults Say:

 Their parents don’t make enough money;
 Their parents don’t care;
 Their friends discourage them;
 They aren’t interested in tough classes;




                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 They come to schools without breakfast;
 Not enough books at home;
 Not enough parents . . .
    In other words,
schools and districts and
        states …

   … are powerless.




                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
     But if that‟s right,
  then why are poor and
minority children performing
        so high in ...




                               2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                   2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Some schools ...
                           Mount Royal School
                             Baltimore, MD
        About 81% Low-Income
        About 99% African American
        Highest 5th grade math results in the state
         for two years in a row (1999-2000), and in




                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         top ten for three years in a row (1999-2001).



Source: Maryland Department of Education Website. 1999 and 2000 scores.
                Flying High: Longfellow
               School, Mount Vernon, NY
        About 83% Low-Income
        About 98% African American
        In 2001, performed as well or better than
         97% of NY schools in math and 88% of NY
         schools in language arts.




                                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Source: Education Trust. Dispelling the Myth Online. www.edtrust.org .
             Flying High: Lincoln School
                  Mount Vernon, NY

        About 43% Low-Income
        About 63% African American and Latino
        In 2001, performed as well or better than
         94% of NY schools in math and 89% of NY




                                                                       2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
         schools in language arts.



Source: Maryland Department of Education Website. 1999 -2001 scores.
        Closing Gaps: Lincoln School,
              Mount Vernon, NY
         Percent 4th graders meeting




                                       100%             98%
                                              89%                                       85%           88%
               state standard




                                       75%

                                       50%




                                                                                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                       25%

                                        0%
                                                 Math                                       English

                                                        African American                 White

Source: New York State Department of Education. Analyses by Student Subgroup of School Performance in English Language
Arts and Mathematics for Lincoln School in Mount Vernon City School District. March 7, 2002.
                                                 Poverty vs. Achievement
                                             in Kentucky Elementary Schools

                                   100
                                                                                                Source: Education Trust
                                   90                                                           analysis of data from
                                                                                                National School-Level
Elementary Math Percentile Score




                                   80                                                           State Assessment Score
                                                                                                Database
                                   70                                                           (www.schooldata.org).

                                   60

                                   50

                                   40




                                                                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                   30

                                   20

                                   10

                                     0
                                         0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100
                                                            Percent FRPL
                                                 Poverty vs. Achievement
                                             in Kentucky Elementary Schools

                                   100
                                                                                                Source: Education Trust
                                    90                                                          analysis of data from
                                                                                                National School-Level
Elementary Math Percentile Score




                                    80                                                          State Assessment Score
                                                                                                Database
                                    70                                                          (www.schooldata.org).

                                    60

                                    50

                                    40




                                                                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                    30

                                    20

                                    10

                                     0
                                         0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100
                                                            Percent FRPL
                                                 Poverty vs. Achievement
                                             in Kentucky Elementary Schools

                                   100
                                                                                                Source: Education Trust
                                    90                                                          analysis of data from
                                                                                                National School-Level
Elementary Math Percentile Score




                                    80                                                          State Assessment Score
                                                                                                Database
                                    70                                                          (www.schooldata.org).

                                    60

                                    50

                                    40




                                                                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                    30

                                    20

                                    10

                                     0
                                         0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100
                                                            Percent FRPL
Are there NO myth-busting
   secondary schools?




                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    Hambrick Middle School,
          Aldine, TX

 94% African American and Latino
  (state = 56%)
 85% Low-Income (state = 50%)
 Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas




                                                  2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  middle schools in both reading and math in
  both 7th and 8th grades over a 3-year period.
                                       Hambrick Middle School,
                                             Aldine, TX
     8th graders passing all tests



                                     100%                                             93%

                                                                                                    73%
                                     75%

                                                   46%
                                     50%
                                            28%
                                     25%




                                                                                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                      0%
                                              1993                                          2002
                                                   Hambrick             State Average

Source: New York State Department of Education. Analyses by Student Subgroup of School Performance in English Language
Arts and Mathematics for Lincoln School in Mount Vernon City School District. March 7, 2002.
                                                Kecoughtan High School,
                                                     Hampton, VA
                                         (1,800 students – 40% African American and Latino)
                                         100%                                                                92%
          Passing state Algebra I test




                                                                                         81%
                                                                                                                      78%
                                          75%

                                                                      52%
                                          50%
                                                40%




                                                                                                                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                          25%
                                          25%     17%


                                          0%
                                                 1998    1999        2000                2001               2002

                                                        Kecoughtan High          State Average

Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/2002SOLpassrates.html.
                                                  Norview High School,
                                                       Norfolk, VA
                                         (1,560 students – 70% African American and Latino)
                                         100%                                                                92%
          Passing state Algebra I test




                                                                       90%               89%

                                                            73%                                                       78%
                                         75%


                                         50%
                                                40%
                                                      33%




                                                                                                                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                         25%


                                          0%
                                                  1998      1999      2000               2001               2002

                                                            Norview High      State Average

Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/2002SOLpassrates.html.
                     2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Some districts ...
2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
   Aldine, TX: Raising Achievement
     for All While Narrowing Gaps

                            100%
   Passing TAAS math test




                            75%    72%


                                   55%
                            50%
                                   42%




                                                                                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                            25%


                             0%
                                   1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

                                         African American          Latino            White

Source: Texas Education Agency-Academic Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through 2002.
   Aldine, TX: Raising Achievement
     for All While Narrowing Gaps

                            100%                                                                97%
                                                                                                96%
                                                                                                92%
   Passing TAAS math test




                            75%    72%


                                   55%
                            50%
                                   42%




                                                                                                      2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                            25%


                             0%
                                   1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

                                         African American          Latino            White

Source: Texas Education Agency-Academic Excellence Indicator System Report 1994 through 2002.
                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
And some entire states ...
          Latinos in Virginia Write as Well
         or Better Than Whites in 7 States
                                              NAEP Grade 8 Writing 1998

                 Virginia                                                              146
                     Utah                                                              146
              Louisiana                                                                146
           Mississippi                                                                 146
               Missouri                                                                146




                                                                                                   2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        West Virginia                                                            145
              Arkansas                                                   143
                  Hawaii                                     140

                             136           138            140      142     144     146       148



Source: Education Trust, Education Watch Online, www.edtrust.org
And It‟s Not Just About
   Poverty Either ...




                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Closing These Gaps Demands
   Aggressively Collecting
       Information and
 Digging Deeper with Data …
         On All Levels




                              2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  It‟s Time to Recognize
Two Kinds of Education Gaps


 Achievement Gaps




                              2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  Opportunity Gaps
Achievement Gap Data
         +
Opportunity Gap Data

         =




                       2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  A More Complete
      Picture!
Digging Deeper on Teacher Quality
What’s in an average?
 The comparison we usually make:


Illinois Classes Taught     U.S. Classes Taught
by Out-of-Field Teacher   by Out-of-Field Teacher
          22%                       24%




                                                    2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Digging Deeper on Teacher Quality
   Disaggregate to complete the picture:


               Illinois Classes Taught
               by Out-of-Field Teacher
                         22%




                                              2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
            Low-Minority      High-Minority
              Schools            Schools
               17%                37%
Digging Deeper on Teacher Quality
   Disaggregate by race and poverty


                   Illinois Classes Taught
                   by Out-of-Field Teacher
                             22%




                                                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
    Low-Minority   High-Minority   Low-Poverty   High-Poverty
      Schools         Schools        Schools       Schools
       17%             37%            15%            47%
What Is Taught Matters Too!

  Students Can Rise to the
 Level of the Curriculum and
the Assignments Given Them.




                               2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  Grade 10 Writing Assignment
“A frequent theme in literature is the
conflict between the individual and
society. From literature you have read,
select a character who struggled with
society. In a well-developed essay,
identify the character and explain why




                                            2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
this character’s conflict with society is
important.”
 Grade 10 Writing Assignment
“Write a composition of at least 4
paragraphs on Martin Luther
King’s most important
contribution to this society.
Illustrate your work with a neat




                                     2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
cover page. Neatness counts.”
       „A‟ Work in Poor Schools Would
         Earn „Cs‟ in Affluent Schools

                                      100
                                            87                 Seventh Grade Math
                 Percentile - CTBS4




                                                              56

                                                                                 41
                                                     35                34




                                                                                                           2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                                                      22     21

                                                                                                      11

                                        0
                                                 A                 B              C               D
                                                                        Grades
                                                     Low-poverty schools     High-poverty schools

Source: Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE,
1997.
Why Not Adopt a Common,
Grade-by-Grade, Rigorous
      Curriculum?




                           2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
      When Kids Are Behind,
    Schools Must Provide More
     Instruction and Support:

 Kentucky provides extra time for struggling
  students in high-poverty schools
 Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and
  8th graders who need more support




                                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
 San Diego doubles time in literacy and
  mathematics for kids below grade level
What If You‟re Not in a Place
         Like That?




                                2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
The Full Year Calendar
                       2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Less Summer Vacation
Less Weekends, Holidays, & Summer Vacation




                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Less Professional Development Days & Early Dismissal/Parent Conferences




                                                                          2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa,
             Hannukkah, Awards, Assembles, & Concerts




                                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                  2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
Less State and District Testing
   Bottom Line:

Roughly 13-15 8-hr
Days of Instruction
   Per Subject
     Per Year




                      2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                    2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
TAKE IT BACK!!!!!
   “Without the possibility of
action, all knowledge comes to
  one labeled „file and forget,‟
and I can neither file nor forget.”

           -- Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man




                                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        Demanding and Acting on Data

                                                       “He demanded more data.
                                                       And soon he realized that
                                                       white students far
                                                       outnumbered blacks in
                                                       advanced middle-school
                                                       math classes. […]

                                                       “Promptly, he tore up the
                                                       schedules of 8,000 middle-
                                                       schoolers and started
                                                       reassigning them. He can’t




                                                                                         2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
                                                       really be ripping up a summer’s
                                                       worth of scheduling and
                                                       starting over, teachers gasped
                                                       when they heard. This can’t
                                                       be happening, parents wailed
                                                       when they called his office.”


Source: Washington Post Magazine, November 10, 2002.
If we had the courage and
creativity to change these
         patterns?




                             2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
        What If We …
 Put all students in a rigorous,
college-prep curriculum;
 Made sure all poor and minority
students had top-notch teachers;
Gave those teachers the resources




                                       2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
they need to do the job well; and
 Found the time to provide extra
help to all students who fall behind
                 …?
“By our estimates from Texas
  schools, having an above
average teacher for five years
running can completely close
the average gap between low-
income students and others.”




                                 2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
            Eric Hanushek
          Stanford University
www.edtrust.org




                                 2003 by The Education Trust, Inc.
College Begins in Kindergarten

				
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