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					                          Grade 7: First Nine Weeks
                                 Vocabulary
ammeter- a device that measures the amount of electric current in a circuit.

consensus- an agreement reached by a group after discussion of a question.

controlled variable- Variable that is intentionally kept the same.

defining characteristics- the characteristics that are specific to a given type of
interaction.

electrical conductor- a material that allows electric current to exist in it.

electrical non-conductor- a material that does not allow electric current to exist in it.

electric circuit**- the path followed by an electric current from a power source through
devices that use electricity and back to the source.

electric current- a flow of negative charges around a circuit.

electromagnet- consists of a coil of wire connected to a source of electricity. The coil is
usually wrapped around a magnetic metal.

evidence- in an experiment, the data collected by the researcher.

fair test- an experiment in which only manipulated and responding variables change
and all other variables are kept the same.

hypothesis-a statement that can be proved or disproved by experimental or
observational evidence.

magnetic materials*- metals that interact with metals.

manipulated variable (also called independent variable)-in an experiment, a variable
that can be deliberately changed by the scientist.

multi-loop circuit (parallel circuit)- a circuit in which two or more single loops connect
to the same cells.

relationship- an idea about what happens to one variable when a second variable is
changed.

                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 1 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
responding variable (also called dependent variable)- in an experiment, a variable that
responds to the change in the values of the manipulated variables.

simulator-a machine or computer program that models a given environment or situation
for the purpose of training or research.

single loop circuit (series circuit)- a circuit that has all its parts connected in a single
loop.

variable**- something in an experiment that changes or can be changed.




                                Orange County Public Schools
                                          June, 2006
                                          Page 2 of 9
                             * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                            ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
                       Grade 7: Second Nine Weeks
                                Vocabulary
acceleration**- how quickly an object speeds up.

amplitude**- the height of a wave crest. It is related to a wave’s energy.

analysis- a procedure that helps you understand a situation.

astronomical unit- a unit of measurement equal to the average distance between the
Sun and Earth.

atmosphere- the layer or envelope of gases that may surround a planet or moon.

average speed- the distance traveled divided by the time taken.

buoyant force- for an object that is placed in a liquid, the force exerted on the object by
the liquid.

characteristic property- a measurement (numbers) that is different for different kinds
of materials.

compound machine (or complex machine) two or more simple machines working
together.

compression (longitudinal) wave- a wave in which the motion of the material
(medium) is parallel to the direction of the motion of the wave.

constant speed- neither speeding up nor slowing down.

density*- the mass of an object or substance per standard unit of volume.

earthquake*- a sudden motion or shaking of the earth.

energy receiver- an object to which the energy is transferred.

energy source- an object that is the supplier of energy.

evaluation- a judgment of something.

explanation- the use of science ideas and information from an analysis to answer
questions about a situation.

                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 3 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
fault- a fracture in rock, along which the rock masses have moved.

fluid- a substance, such as a gas or liquid, that tends to flow and take the shape of its
container.

force*- a push or pull.

frequency**- the number of waves produced per unit time.

gas-giant planet- a large planet with a deep atmosphere that is mostly hydrogen and
helium, and a core of icy and rocky material; includes the outer solar system planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

graduated cylinder- a tall thin tube, marked off in units, used to measure volume.

gravitational potential energy- the energy of a system with two objects interacting
through gravity. The energy depends on the distance between the objects and their
masses.

gravity*- the force of attraction between two bodies due to their masses.

input force (or effort)- the force exerted on a machine.

kinetic energy*- the energy an object possesses because of its motion.

length- a measure of distance

light-year-a unit of measurement equivalent to the distance light travels in one year.

linear relationship- the relationship between two quantities that, when plotted against
each other on a graph, produce a straight line.

L wave- a seismic wave that travels along the surface of the Earth; they are the last to
arrive at a location.

mass*- the amount of matter a body contains.

mechanical energy- the energy transfer involved in an interaction that causes one or
both objects to change position.

mechanical interaction- an interaction in which objects touch each other while pushing
and pulling each other over a distance.
                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 4 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
moon (satellite)- a body that orbits a planet.

motion energy- the energy an object has because of its motion.

Newton- a unit of force.

nonlinear relationship- the relationship between two quantities that, when plotted
against each other on a graph, do not produce a straight line.

orbit- the path that an object takes as it moves through space, usually around another
object.

outliers- values far off from most others in a set of data.

output force (or load)- the force a machine exerts on an object.

pitch- the quality of a sound dependent mostly on the frequency of the sound wave.

potential energy*- the energy of an object that is dependent on its position.

property- a description of how the object interacts with another object.

P wave- a seismic wave that involves motion in the direction in which it is traveling; it is
the fastest of the seismic waves.

seismograph- an instrument that detects seismic waves.

slope- the tilt or slant of a straight line on a graph; the rise divided by the run.

simple machine- a simple device that affects the force required to perform a certain
task.

S wave- a seismic wave that involves vibration perpendicular to the direction the wave
is traveling; it arrive later than the P wave.

terrestrial planet- a small, dense planet similar to Earth that consists mainly of rocky
and metallic material; includes the inner solar system planets Mercury, Venus, Earth,
and Mars.

transverse wave- a wave in which the motion of the material (medium) is perpendicular
to the motion of the wave.

                                Orange County Public Schools
                                          June, 2006
                                          Page 5 of 9
                             * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                            ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
tsunami- a great sea wave produced by an earthquake (or volcanic eruption) on the
ocean floor.

ultrasound- compression waves at much higher frequency than animals or humans can
hear.

velocity**- how fast an object is moving in a given direction.

volume- the measurement of how much space something occupies.

wave- a continuous succession of pulses.

wavelength**- the distance between identical points along a wave.

weight- the force exerted by a planet on an object.




                              Orange County Public Schools
                                        June, 2006
                                        Page 6 of 9
                           * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                          ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
                           Grade 7: Third Nine Weeks
                                 Vocabulary
chemical interaction*- any type of interaction that results in at least one new material.

compound*- a single substance (chemical) that breaks down into elements during
chemical interactions.

converging lens- a lens shaped so that it is thicker than its edges. This type of lens
allows you to form images of objects.

element*- a single substance (chemical) that does not break down into simpler
substances during chemical interactions.

infrared radiation- radiation with energies lower than visible light.

luminosity- (of a star) a measure of the star’s brightness that does not depend on the
distance between the star and the observer.

metalloids (semi-metals)- elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.

nonrenewable energy resource*- an energy that cannot be replaced.

opaque- a material through which light cannot travel.

periodic- having a regular, repeating pattern

pH- a quantity used to represent how acidic a solution is.

phase change- the conversion of a material from one phase to another. Example: solid
to liquid, liquid to gas.

physical interaction*- any type of interaction that does not result in new material.

physical property- a description of measurement of what happens to a material during
a physical interaction.

refraction*- the change in direction (bending) of light when it passes at an angle from
one material to a different material.

renewable resource*- an energy resource that can be replaced in a short amount of
time.

                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 7 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
solution*- a mixture that does not have any visible pieces of the different substances.

suspension- a mixture that has visible pieces of at least one of the substances. The
pieces must be at least 0.2µm.

transparent- a material through which light can travel.

ultraviolet radiation- radiation with energies greater than visible light.




                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 8 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary
                          Grade 7: Fourth Nine Weeks
                                 Vocabulary
activation energy- the minimum motion energy that reactant particles must have when
they collide to break their chemical bonds.

bond- the attraction between particles (atoms, ions, or molecules)

cohesion- sticking or holding together to form a whole.

covalent bond- the attraction between specific pairs of atoms in a molecule.

diffusion- the spreading of on substance in the same phase.

endothermic reaction- reactions that absorb energy (require continued energy input).

exothermic reaction- reactions that produce (release) energy.

ion- a single atom or group of atoms that have either a positive or negative charge.

ionic bonds- the attraction between neighboring nonmetal and metal ions.

isotope- an element that has different numbers of neutrons.

metallic bonds- attractions between neighboring metal atoms.

monomers- the smaller molecules that are liked together t form giant molecules of
polymers.

plastics- synthetic polymers that can be molded or shaped.

polymer- a substance that is a giant molecule made up of many similar small molecules
(monomers) linked together in long chains.

product- end (new) substance made in a chemical reaction.

reactant- original substance in a chemical reaction.

scientific theory- a consistent set of related scientific ideas.




                               Orange County Public Schools
                                         June, 2006
                                         Page 9 of 9
                            * found in 5th grade FCAT Glossary
                           ** found in 8th grade FCAT Glossary

				
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