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					 Biometrics
By: Christina Smith
A Brief history
   In ancient Babylon, fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business
      transactions.
     In ancient China, thumb prints were found on clay seals.
     In 14th century Persia, various official government papers had fingerprints
     1892: Sir Francis Galton published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint
      analysis and identification
     1892, Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police officer who had been studying
      Galton pattern types for a year, made the first criminal fingerprint
      identification
     1904 America's first national fingerprint repository, called the National
      Bureau of Criminal Identification
A not so Brief History



http://pagesperso-
orange.fr/fingerchip/biometrics/types/fingerprint_products_hist
ory.htm
Types
Type of Fingerprint Scanners
Capacitive
Thermalelectric
E-Field
Optical
Surface Pressure
Capacitive
The electrical environment changes when a human hand invades the fringe field,
with a portion of the electric field being shunted to ground instead of terminating
at the receiver. The resultant decrease in capacitance—on the order of
femtofarads as compared to picofarads for the bulk of the electric field—is
detected by the converter.
Thermalelectric
 The sensor measures the temperature differential between the
  skin ridges and the air caught in the fingerprint valleys.
 imaging the entire finger by           "sweeping" it across the
  sensor
Fingerprint Algorithms
 Features are used to narrow
  down possibilities
 The general shape is used to
  narrow matches
 Others use minutia (at least
  12)
Face Recognition
using the infrared patterns of facial

heat emission
Iris Detection
       Types of Error
False Match -You're Abe
  Lincoln



False Reject –You're nobody
Things that cause Error
 Nature machine rounding error
 Dust/ dirt/ pollen
 Temperature
 Humidity
 Distance
 Lighting
 Eyelids/ Eyelashes
Elvis goes to Amsterdam
                       Van Beek told CNN that making
                        the faked chip was not just easy,
                        but cheap too, costing less than
                        $100 in "off the shelf
                        equipment."
                       "What we did for that chip is
                        create passport content for Elvis
                        Presley and put it on a chip and
                        sign it with our own key for a
                        non-existent country. And a
                        device that was used to read
                        chips didn't check the country's
                        signatures."
       Giving biometrics the finger...print
Japan saw its first case of biometric fraud come to light when they
  arrested Lin Rong, a 27-year old Chinese woman, on account of
  her faking a marriage to a Japanese man.

  BBC reports that the police noticed peculiar scars on the woman's
  fingers. Further investigation into the matter discovered that she had
  plastic surgery during which the fingerprints of her left and right hand's
  thumbs and index fingers were swapped, with the purpose of
  tricking biometric checks carried on by the immigration control.

  She did so because she had been previously deported from Japan for
  overstaying her visa. The police said that the surgery cost her $15,000
  and was performed in China. They also believe that this practice is not
  so uncommon, which raises the question of security not only for
  Japan, but any other country that fingerprints visitors.
Dec 8, 09
Fooling Fingerprint
scanners



  http://security4dummies.wordpress.com
  /category/security/biometrics-security/
http://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/thesis/2010/biometrics.jpg----last.jep
http://misbiometrics.wdfiles.com/local--files/start/Biometrics_traits_classification[1].png---

types
http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/40-10/cap_sensors.html---
capacitive
http://media.giantbomb.com/uploads/2/28515/1049572-fingerprint_2_super.gif--prints
http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456993/img/noflash/fingerprint_416
_dc.gif

--3 step
http://www.ubergizmo.com/photos/2008/1/face-recognition-perfected.jpg
http://www.sciencearticlesonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/thermal-face-
recognition-

150x150.jpg
http://cnx.org/content/m12492/latest/Unwrap1.jpg--iris

Articles
http://s0.2mdn.net/1836541/tgdaily_platform_welcome_ad3.html?rfp=http://74.125.45.132/
search?q=cache:hpzJDVGEDA4J:www.tgdaily.com/security-brief/48573-elvis-bypasses-
biometric-border-control+biometric+faking&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us
http://www.bergdata.com/fingerprint.html?&L=
http://www.onin.com/fp/fphistory.html
http://pagesperso-orange.fr/fingerchip/biometrics/types/fingerprint_algo.htm

				
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