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									Enterprise Architectures
      that Matter

          Mark A. Forman
 Associate Director for IT and E-Government
     Office of Management and Budget

                  4/9/2011                    1
     E-Government Is the Key Initiative for Modernizing
      Government for Improving Service to the Citizen

The Vision: an order of magnitude improvement in the
federal government’s value to the citizen; with decisions in
minutes or hours, not weeks or months.

The Definition: the use of digital technologies to
transform government operations in order to improve
effectiveness, efficiency, and service delivery.

The Principles:
 Integral component of Five-part President’s
  Management Agenda
 Market-based, Results-oriented, Citizen-Centered
 Simplify & Unify

                           4/9/2011                      2
         The E-Government Initiative Is Focused on Results
                     that Matter to the Citizen
• The E-Gov Initiative is making government more responsive to
  citizens. Electronic commerce and Internet technology have made
   daily tasks easier and quicker and the U.S. government is working to
   do the same for U.S. citizens.

• The E-Gov Initiative gets agencies to use modern, secure
  technologies to become more productive and respond faster and
  better to the needs of American citizens, ensuring trust and privacy.

• The E-Gov initiative will get agencies to use e-business tools to
  lessen paperwork burdens.

• The E-Gov initiative will provide tools for all levels – local, state and
  federal – of government to work better together.

• Under the E-Gov Initiative, U.S. government websites are already
  providing an easier, smarter, faster way citizens to get the services
  and information they want. And there are more exciting innovations
  to come.                                                          3
            Why We Focus on E-government:
            We Live in a Web of Interdependencies


                                        Agency to
Inter- and Intra-                       business

                           Agency to the
                              public                76% of
                                                    online in 2001
                             4/9/2011                         4
             Recent Surveys on Citizen Wants

Pew Report: The Rise of the eCitizen: How people
    use Government Agencies’ Web-Sites - April, ’02
•   “Citizens on-line are learning to demand answers at Internet
•   68 Million American adults have used government Web sites –
    a sharp increase from 40 million in March 2000

Council for Excellence in Government: E-Government:
  To Connect, Protect and Serve – Feb. 26, 2002
Citizens overwhelmingly believe that E-Government leads to
    better government.

                                 4/9/2011                                 5
                    What do Americans want E-government
                             Investments to do?

      Make Information &                                                                                    70%
  Services Easier to Use
      Better horizontal &
Vertical Communications
Help Business Deal with
           Government                                                                             62%

                 Involve Public in
61% of Americans Expect E-government to Have a Positive Effect on
Government Operations
Source:Hart-Teeter Survey, in E-Government: To Connect, Protect and Serve, CEG, Feb. 26, 2002

                                                         4/9/2011                                       6
           The Genesis of E-Democracy:
       Americans View E-government as Critical to
               Improving Accountability

• 62% in Hart-Teeter poll say E-government
  will make government more accountable
• 42 Million use government websites to review
  policy information (2002 Pew Internet Survey)
• 23 Million use government websites to
  comment on proposed policies and
  regulations (2002 Pew Internet Survey)
• 65 Million downloads from the Federal
  Register website, 100 million for CFR website
  (NARA statistics for 2001)
                      4/9/2011                  7
                      Achieving Results from IT:
      Last Year’s Analysis Identified Six Chronic Problems

Paving Cowpaths: Agencies automated management problems, instead
  of leveraging e-business to fix them
Redundant Buying: Multiple agencies bought the same item, instead
  driving economies of scale or creating one-stop points of service
Program Management: Few delivered on time, on budget
Poor Modernization Blueprints: Few agencies had a business-driven
  enterprise architectures, a roadmap that showed what IT investments
  will be used to better improve performance
Islands of Automation:
    – Citizens have to deal with multiple agencies (22,000 websites) to get
      service, instead of going to a single point of service website or call center
    – Agencies cannot easily collaborate for key missions like Homeland
Poor Cyber Security: IT security is seen as an IT or funding issue,
  instead of agency management issue
                                    4/9/2011                                  8
           Four Segments in the Citizen-Centered

Individuals: building easy to find one-stop-shops for citizens --
creating single points of easy entry to access high quality government

Businesses: reduce burden on businesses through use of Internet
protocols and by consolidating myriad redundant reporting

Intergovernmental: make it easier for states and localities to meet
reporting requirements, while enabling better performance
measurement and results, especially for grants.

Internal efficiency and effectiveness: reduce costs for
federal government administration by using best practices in areas
such as supply chain management and financial management, and
knowledge management.           4/9/2011                             9
           E-Government Initiatives and Managing Partners
Government to Citizen                        Government to Business               Managing
                                Managing                                          Partner
                                                1. Federal Asset Sales            GSA
                                                2. Online Rulemaking
 1.   USA Service               GSA                 Management
 2.   EZ Tax Filing             TREAS           3. Simplified and Unified         Treas
 3.   Online Access for Loans   DoEd                Tax and Wage Reporting
                                                4. Consolidated Health
 4.   Recreation One Stop       DOI                                               HHS
                                                    Informatics (business case)
 5.   Eligibility Assistance    Labor           5. Business Compliance
      Online                                        One Stop
                                                6. International Trade Process    DOC

Government to Government       Internal Effectiveness and Efficiency
                                Managing                                          Managing
                                Partner                                           Partner

 1. e-Vital (business case)     SSA             1.    e-Training                  OPM
 2. e-Grants                                    2.    Recruitment One Stop        OPM
 3. Disaster Assistance                         3.    Enterprise HR Integration   OPM
                                FEMA            4.    e-Travel                    GSA
    and Crisis Response
                                                5.    Integrated Acquisition      GSA
 4. Geospatial Information      DOI             6.    e-Records Management        NARA
    One Stop                                    7.    Payroll Processing          OPM
 5. Wireless Networks           FEMA
                                           4/9/2011                                 10
             Our progress… WE ARE SEEING CHANGE

 Cabinet Department and Agency Progress (16 Greens on Progress)
 • Business Cases
 • Modernization Blueprints/Architectures
 • Security

Tangible Cross-Agency Results
• Firstgov: 3 clicks to service, search, etc., One of Yahoo’s 50 Most
  Incredibly Useful Websites
• IT Strategy Drove FY03 IT Budget
• Office of Citizen Services
• Strategic Modernization Blueprints
• Deployments of E-Government Initiatives (21 in May-Sept)
• Collaboration Tool
• Cyber security (GISRA Baseline, New Committee, FedCIRC, etc)
• FEA Business Reference Model
• Innovation and Cross Agency Cooperation Success Stories
  (GovBenefits >100 programs, USA Today endorsed;GOLEARN.gov)
• U.N. Rating: U.S. Number 1 in 4/9/2011
                                  E-Government                    11
So, is anyone here satisfied yet?

           4/9/2011                 12
                       E-Government Phase 2:
                       The Modern Enterprise
Citizens See Results: an order of magnitude improvement in the
federal government’s value to the citizen -- visibly better;
• Decisions in minutes or hours, not weeks
• No need for expensive help to make a government filing
• Businesses do not have submit the same date multiple           times
• The Federal government can report immediately how much grant money goes
to a state or Congressional District, instead of taking two months
• State and local emergency personnel can team with federal agencies to more
quickly respond, with measurable savings of lives and property
• Citizens can review and respond to any proposed rule or regulation, without
needing a law degree

Government is noticeably more simple and responsive to citizens,
including security and privacy

Agencies use teamwork, versus wasting resources buying their
own version
                                  4/9/2011                              13
                     E-Government Phase 2 Requires
                      “Breakthrough Performance”

• A new level of performance, not
  predictable based on past performance
• Outcomes are concrete, measurable, and
  important to those affected by the
  program or activity
• Requires a new way of thinking --
  Focused on Problem Solving

Source: Jonathan Breul, March 2002

                                     4/9/2011        14
   In the Future: Breakthrough Performance Will
     Be the Result of How We Manage Change
• Breakthrough thinking:
  “The experience with pacesetters shows another, more
    effective, path to change. Instead of beginning with denial,
    they start with curiosity about the future…It can still take time
    to get the business model right and remove barriers, but the
    results tend to be bigger and bolder actions on more fronts,
    laying the foundation for bigger returns.”
    Rosabeth Moss Kanter, EVOLVE!, p.95
• Manage Change using innovation, not control
• Breakthrough Performance
  – Leveraging technology to drive order of magnitude better
    results in performance
  – Focus on citizen, not agency needs
  – Delivering on time, on budget, as promised
                             4/9/2011                          15
         Increasingly, E-government Provides
        Collaboration and the Channel Needed to
              better service citizen needs

                 Internal Business Operations           Customer
Supplier                                                •Personalization and
                           Enterprise                   Service Quality
relationships              Resource
                                                        •Web-based access and
•e-procurement            Management                    delivery channels
•Supply chain                                           •Multi-channel
management                                              Customer Relationship
                   Enterprise Information
                                                        •Accessible to all
                       Management &
                   Integration (e.g. Portal)
                   Unifying Business & Infrastructure

                                 4/9/2011                                    16
         Architecting Change: Government Processes and
         Organization Structures Must Become Citizen-
         centered, Not Agency Centered

                                                         Services to Citizens
                                        Program Admin                                      Compliance
                                        Public Asset Management
                                                                                Regulated Activity Approval
 (On average 10 Cabinet                 Marketable Asset Management
                                        Defense & Nat’l Security Ops
                                                                                          Consumer Safety
                                                                                Environmental Management
 Departments and                        Diplomacy & Foreign Relations
                                                                                          Law Enforcement
                                        Disaster Management
 agencies per Line of                   Domestic Economy
                                                                                        Revenue Collection
 Business)                              Energy Management
                                                                                      Trade (Import/Export)
                                                                                    Workforce Management
                                        Public Health
                                        Recreation & National Resources
                                        Social Services
(On average 21 Cabinet                  R&D & Science

Departments and
agencies per Line of                             Support Delivery of Services
                                Legislative Management                      Controls and Oversight
Business)                       Business Management of Information          Public Affairs
                                IT Management                               Internal Risk Management and Mitigation
                                Planning and Resource Allocation            Federal Financial Assistance
(All 24 Cabinet                 Regulatory Management

Departments and
agencies per Line        Inter-Agency       Internal Operations/Infrastructure                                Intra-Agency
of Business)             Human Resources Financial Management
                         Admin           Supply Chain Management
                                                                          Human Resources Financial Management
                                                                          Admin           Supply Chain Management

                                                  4/9/2011                                                            17
        Government Workers Will Rely on Real Time
        Data and Collaboration to Do Their Jobs

                                                    Legacy LOB
               Document     Partner
                Library     Web Site
                                                       Apps         Portal Software,
                                                                 APIs, OLAP, Advanced
                 Enterprise Data                                   Search, KM tools
                   Integration              File

3rd Party      Tracking      Team
Web Sites         DB        Web Site
(e.g., .gov,                                 Enterprise
.org, PTO,
EDGAR)                                     Apps (ERP, etc)

                Enterprise Application Integration

                                       4/9/2011                                  18
What does this mean?
Users Must Have a Unified View of data and
Simple Business Processes In order to Reap
Benefits From E-Government
   There are opportunities throughout the Information Value Chain: But
   what are the binding constraints on better decisions?


                               •Data Collection Improvements do not
       Query                   necessarily affect results

     Distribute                • Data Sharing Problem Sometimes
                               Reflects too many conflicting Analysts or
      Analyze                  Decisionmakers

       Act                     •knowledge management tools improve
                               decisions, yielding better service, faster
                               and at lower costs

                         4/9/2011                                   19
Now, E-business Knowledge and Government
Expertise Are Needed to Create a Business Case
for Successful Initiatives

                 4/9/2011                  20
              Where is the Federal Government
• Developing a modernization blueprint
   – Component-based enterprise architecture that addresses the
     business lines, data, information, and technology necessary to
     meet our missions.
   – CIO Council/OMB Analysis identifying internal/external
     interrelationships and interdependencies at each layer
   – Within and across departments
• Privacy and security are key components of this architecture
• Eliminate investments in redundant IT capabilities
• Unify and Simplify: Shared investments and process
  integration to leverage common components in making
  government citizen centered and driving results
   – Common business functions
   – Vertical or horizontal integration needed to perform

                                4/9/2011                              21
      Some Fundamentals for Our Success in
             Applying Web Services

• Identify common functions, interdependencies,
  interrelationships, and evaluate barriers to
  information sharing
• Implement in a way that addresses both the
  opportunities and risks of a “networked”
• Leverage technologies to achieve benefits of
  interoperability while protecting societal values of
  privacy and intellectual property rights, etc.

                        4/9/2011                    22
        Key Web Services Opportunities Exist in
        Integrating Related Functions and Reducing
                                  Services to Citizens
Disaster Management              Immunization Management            Trade (Import/Export)
• Location of Assets            • Vaccine Inventory                 • Cargo Receipts
• Predictive Modeling Results • Demand Forecasting                  • Stock Lookup
• Availability of Hospital Beds • Availability, Locations           • Rejected Cargo

                            Support Delivery of Services
Strategic Planning               Information Collection             Project Planning
• Access to Capability            • Weather, Geospatial Data        • Remote Engineering
• Decision Support                • Criminal Records                • Real-time Monitoring
• Data Availability & Analysis    • Labor, Census Stats             • Access to IC / data

                          Internal Operations / Infrastructure
Financial Management             Benefits / Grant Management   Supply Chain Management
• Debt Collection                 • Benefit Availability         • Demand Forecasting
• Payment Processing              • Straight-thru Processing     • Supplier/ Buyer Integration
• Collection, Reporting           • Aggregate Reporting          • Automated Order Processing

                                              4/9/2011                                       23
                     Example “building block” approach to effectively
                    leverage disparate business services and
                                                      (Eligibility Assistance Online)

             Federal Enterprise Architecture                                        Participating Agencies / Programs
                                                                         150 Federal Benefit Programs
     Business Reference Model (BRM)
     Social Services                                                     FEMA - Disaster Housing Program     VA - G.I. Bill
       - Burial Services                                                        Individual / Family Grants        Rural Rentals
       - Housing Benef its                                                                                        Beneficiary Travel
                                                                         DOL -   Employment Service               Veterans / Survivors
       - Medical Services                                                        WIA Youth Activities
       - Monetary Benef its

                                                                                        Component-Based Architecture
     Application Capability Reference Model (ARM)
                                                                             Content Management              FirstGov.Gov
          - Collaboration         - Procurement
          - Data Management       - Financial
          - Commerce              - CRM                                     Business Rules Engine                  CRM
          - Search                - Human Capital Mgmt
          - Reporting             - Logistics                                                                       User Feedback
                                                                                 Data Management
          - Analysis / Logic      - Content Management                                                              Demographics
     Technology Reference Model (TRM)                                     Technologies                        Standards, Specif ications
          - Presentation          - Data Management                       JRun Application Server             http://www.java.sun...
          - Business Logic        - Graphics                              Enterprise Java Beans (EJB)         http://www.javasun...
          - Data Interchange      - Security                              Java Server Pages (JSP)             http://www.java.sun...
          - Internet Platf orms                                           Oracle, JDBC                        SQL 92

Page 24                                                         4/9/2011                                                        24
    Our Two-pronged Approach For Driving
    Progress: Each Cabinet-level Department and
    Agency is Rated Quarterly

• Agency E-government
  – Modernization Blueprint --
    Enterprise Architecture
  – Business Cases -- Capital
    Planning and Investment
  – IT Program Management
  – IT Security
• Multi-agency E-Government
  Initiative Involvement

                          4/9/2011            25
   Key Upcoming Submittals for FY04 Budget

• September 9: Budget Submission
• September 16: GISRA Agency
• September 25: GPEA Report
• October 1: GISRA Plan of Action and

                  4/9/2011              26
      In Conclusion, Success Requires A
            Passion for Solutions
• Measures of success linked to program
• Successful Management of Change
  Requires Innovation
• Transform: Unify and simplify around
  customer needs
• Address chronic problems, don’t ignore
  them, e.g.:
  – Good ideas that lack proper security and business case
  – Opportunities to leverage partially funded, redundant IT
    initiatives to get full benefit
• Prevent focus on just Web enabling
                           4/9/2011                        27

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