Engineers Without Borders

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					  Engineers Without
       Borders
  University of Delaware Chapter
Potable Water Project for Bakang,
             Cameroon
        About the Organization
• EWB National established in 2000
• Currently 231 student and
  professional chapters across the
  nation
• EWB-UD founded in Spring 2006
• Committed to designing and
  implementing sustainable solutions to
  problems in developing communities.
           Bakang, Cameroon
• Contacted a Cameroonian
  student from the John
  Hopkins EWB chapter
• The mayor of Bamendjou gave
  a proposal of a potable water
  solution for the village of
  Bakang
• Unsafe surface water is the
  current source for the
  majority of the population
About Bakang




      • Located in the Western
        Province
      • 3,000 of the Bamiléké
        ethnic group
    Phase I: Site-Assessment Completed
                          • Team: 4 students, 1
                            faculty advisor, 1
                            professional hydro-
                            geologist



• Health Survey
• Land Survey
• Mapping
• Water Quality Testing
Sanitation
Water
The Water Fair
                  Health Survey Results
                    % Respondents Top 5
                    Most Significant
                    Diseases
Diarrhea            69.6 %
Malaria             56.5 %
Stomach Illness     39.1 %
Typhoid             30.4 %
Dysentery           26.1 %
Fever               26.1 %
Cholera             13.0 %

• 23 surveys completed
• Lack of clean water and hygiene
  cited most often as cause of illness
     Water Quality: Surface Waters




•   Low flow
•   High fecal coliform levels
•   Turbid
•   Originate largely from
    runoff, some go dry
Water Quality Results – Surface Waters
                                                Surface Sources
 Location                                                       W1    W4      W5     W12    S2
 Arsenic (ppb)                                                  0      0       0      -      -
 Pesticides                                                     0       -      0      -      -
 Temperature (C)                                                20     22     26     23.6   24.4
 Conductivity (mS/cm)                                           21    17.2    21     12.3   12.8
 TDS (mg/L)                                                      -    12.3    20.7    -      -
 pH                                                             6.8    6.2    6.2    6.2    6.2
 Total Alkalinity (ppm)                                         0      0       0      0      0
 Total Hardness (grains per gallon)                             0      0       0      0      0
 Free Chlorine (ppm)                                            0      0       0      0      0

 Total Chlorine (ppm)                                           0      0       0      0      0
 Fecal Colif orm Count: per 100 mL * (5 mL sample)              140    40      0     80      0
 Fecal Colif orm Count: : per 100 mL * (1 mL sample)            0      0       0     tntc    0
 Nitrite (ppm)                                                  0      0       0      0      0
 Nitrate (ppm)                                                  0      0       0      0      0
 Flow-Rate (f t^3/s)                                            1     0.025   NA      2     NA
  * Highest recorded Fecal Colif orm count
 tntc : too numerous to count
 -: Not tested

 NOTE: all samples had significant non-fecal bacterial growth
Water Quality: Hand-Dug Wells
                       Water Quality Results - Wells
                                                                           Wells
Location                                                       W2    W3       W6**     W7    W8    W9    W10    W11   W13    W14
Arsenic (ppb)                                                  0      -            -    -     -     -     -      -     -      -
Temperature (C)                                                61    26       24.7     23    23    23     -     24    22.9   22.7
Conductivity (mS/cm)                                           61    62        21      21    22    19     -     28    21.7   44.3
TDS (mg/L)                                                      -    46       14.5      -     -     -     -      -     -      -
pH                                                             6.2   6.2       5.5     6.2   6.2   6.2    -     6.2    -      -
Total Alkalinity (ppm)                                         0     40        0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Total Hardness (grains per gallon)                             50    50        0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Free Chlorine (ppm)                                            0     0         0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Total Chlorine (ppm)                                           0     0         0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Fecal Colif orm Count: per 100 mL * (5 mL sample)              0      -        0       0     0     0      -     60     -      -
Fecal Colif orm Count: per 100 mL * (1 mL sample)              0      -        0       0     100   0      -     400    -      -
Nitrite (ppm)                                                  0     0         0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Nitrate (ppm)                                                  0     0         0       0     0     0      -      0     -      -
Depth to water (f t)                                           62    46       75.2     84    66    57    52.7   41    77.7   81.1
Depth to sediments (f t)                                        -     -            -    -    69    58    52.5   42    79.4   81.7
 * Highest recorded Fecal Colif orm count
 tntc : too numerous to count
 - : Not tested
** Borehole well

NOTE: all samples had significant non-fecal bacterial growth
Water Table
Elevation

                                     11
      6


                                10
                        13 14
                                     7

                        3


                  8,9




              2
               Well Records from Neighboring
                          Villages
                                    Government Well Records

                                                de Fotouni
                   de Meji a    de Messeng a                    de Sedembom a
Location                                          Ecole a                        de Meji    de Peng a Meji
                    Gouang          Peng                           Djomghuo
                                                Bamendjou

                                               Latist- Centre                      Meji-
Village             Gouang         Peng                           Djomghuo                      Mehi
                                                 de Sante                       Kouomekah

Longitude (DM)     E10 20.837    E10 21.486      E10 17.3        E10 23.964     E10 24.16     E10 21.68

Latitude (DM)      N5 26.885     N5 26.352       N5 22.15         N5 21.253      N5 23.84     N5 24.22

Altitude (m)         1558          1524            1616             1565          1574          1556

Flow Rate (m3/h)      0.7           0.5             1.2              3             0.7            2

Flow Rate (GPM)       3.08          2.2            5.28             13.2           3.08          8.8

Depth (m)             54.4         48.35           42.72            37.95         60.85         43.61
   Well Record for the Existing Drilled
            Well in Bakang
Village             Bakang

Longitude (DM)     E10 22.633

Latitude (DM)      N5 25.017

Altitude (m)         1475

Flow Rate (m3/h)      1.2


Flow Rate (GPM)       5.28

Depth (m)            25-32
Surveying
 Results
  Project Plan for Phase II:
      Implementation
• General Project Goals
  Include:
   – To provide the community
     of Bakang with safe and
     easily accessible water for
     drinking and cooking.
   – To begin implementation of
     a solution in June 2008.
                    Specific Objectives
Objective                      Description


Improve Water Quality          Provide water sources free of harmful contaminants
                               to reduce the occurrence of waterborne diseases
                               and illnesses in the community.



Improve Water Quantity         Provide a larger supply of water that adequately
                               meets the needs of all community members,
                               particularly during the dry season.

Increase Water Accessibility   Provide water sources located strategically
                               throughout the village to reduce the travel time of
                               women and children collecting water.
                        Success Criteria
Objective                      Success Criteria
Improve Water Quality          No fecal coliform present in new water source.
                               Nitrate < 50mg/L
                               Nitrite < 3mg/L
                               TDS < 500 mg/L
                               pH – 6.5-8.5
                               Arsenic < 0.01mg/L
                               Chlorine < 5 mg/L

                               (WHO Water Quality Guidelines)
Improve Water Quantity         15 L minimum potable water provided per villager
                               per day primarily for the purposes of drinking and
                               cooking.
Increase Water Accessibility   A maximum of 1 km walk from villagers’ homes to a
                               potable water source.
        Possible Design Solutions

•   Drilled Wells with Submersible Pumps
•   Drilled Wells with Hand Pumps
•   UV Filtration
•   Rainwater Catchment
•   Retrofitting Hand Dug Wells
Drilled Wells w/ Submersible Pumps
                       • Considerations
                            – Number of wells
                            – Site location
                            – Solar array sizing
                            – Storage and distribution
                       • Sustainability
                            – Maintenance costs
                            – Technical expertise
                       • Advantages
                            – Quality of water
                            – Scope of impact
                       • Disadvantages
                            – Implementation cost
                            – Seasonality
                 Two Cost Scenarios for a Solar
                    Powered Pump System
                                                   Assumed Component Costs
                                        Solar Cost per panel of 125 W         $700
                                        Grundfos solar water pump             $1,407
                                        Grundfos control unit                 $255
                                        Grundfos interface box                $104
                                        Pole mount                            $742
                                        Grundfos level switch                 $23


                           Scenario 1 Scenario 2                                           Ideal Cost   Worst Case
Maximum Well GPM               15          5
                                                                Total cost for PV panels    $14,700      $18,900
Number of Wells                 3          9
                                                                Total pump cost              $4,221      $12,663
Well Flow Rates (GPM)        13.52       4.51
                                                                Total control unit cost       $765        $2,295
Water HP                      0.45       0.15
                                                                Total interface box cost      $312         $936
Water Watts                  334.37     111.46
                                                                Total pole mount cost        $2,226       $6,678
Wire to Watts efficiency           0.42
                                                                Total level switch cost        $69         $207
Single Array Watts          804.09      268.03
Cost per panel                     $700
                                                                Total                       $22,293      $41,679
Number of 125 W solar
                               7              3
panels per system
Total number of PV
                              21              27
panels needed
    Drilled Wells w/ Hand Pumps
• Considerations
   – Number of wells
   – Site location
   – Storage and distribution
• Sustainability
   – Technical expertise
• Advantages
   – Water quality
   – Time to implement the system
• Disadvantages
   – Implementation cost
   – Distance to water source
                        UV Filtration
• What is involved
   – UV light deactivates bacteria
   – UV disinfection system is powered by solar panels
   – Can be combined with a pressurized sand filtration system which will
     remove particulates and some bacteria
• Sustainability
   – Maintenance costs
   – Technical expertise
• Advantages
   – Water quality
   – Implementation cost
• Disadvantages
   – Scope of impact
   – Distance to water source
                Rainwater Catchment
• What is involved
   – Rainwater collected in an open storage
     tank
   – Tank located on roof of individual homes,
     pipe delivers water to a tap
   – Requires periodic disinfection of pipe and
     tank
• Advantages
   – Distance to water source
   – Implementation cost
• Disadvantages
   – Seasonality
   – Maintenance
   – Lifespan
        Retrofitting Hand Dug Wells
• What is involved
   –   Cleaning debris from the bottom of wells
   –   Deepening hand dug wells
   –   Installing covers on the wells
   –   Disinfecting with chlorine
   –   Installing hand pumps for the wells
• Advantages
   – Implementation cost
   – Distance to water source
• Disadvantages
   – Time to implement the system
   – Water quality uncertainties
Solutions Matrix
          Other EWB Activities
• Awareness
  – Lift the Burden


• Fundraising
  – Grant applications
  – Rotary presentations
  – Company solicitations
Short Term Cost Projections

                Cost for January Assessment Trip

           Airfare                          $10,000

      In-Country Travel                       $600

           Lodging                            $600

    Retrofitting Equipment                    $500

      Mark II Hand Pump                       $700

        DC Resistivity                        Free

  Food, Water, Misc Expenses                 $2,000

    Travel Insurance, Visas                  $1,100

             Total                          $15,500
Long Term Cost Projection
For 3 Drilled Wells w/ Submersible Pumps

     Cost ranges for preliminary planning purposes

         Wells                     $35,000 - $60,000

         Power                      $8,000 - $23,000

      Water castle                  $1,000 - $6,000

   Distribution system               $800 - $5,000

      Construction                       Free

     Travel (2 trips)              $20,000 - $40,000

          Total                    $64,800 - $134,000
            Drilling Estimate - BBBB
•   $2,200 – mobilization/demobilization costs
•   $12, 100 per drilled well
•   $1,100 – 24 hour pump test
•   Minimum of 2 wells
•   Well siting capabilities
    –   Vertical Electric Survey (VES)
    –   Very Low Frequency (VLF) Survey
    –   Aerial Photography
    –   3 locations provided
    Drilling Estimate – Societe Buns
•   $4,400 – mobilization/demobilization costs
•   $17,600 per drilled well
•   $3,300 – 24 hour pump test
•   no minimum number of wells
•   Well siting capabilities
    –   Analysis using geological form and structure
    –   Electromagnetic survey to locate fractured zones
    –   Resistivity
    –   2 locations sited per day (depending on distance between
        locations)
     Goals for January 2008 Trip
• DC Resistivity
• Contact local well drillers, obtain drilling
  estimates & determine capabilities
• Determine materials that can be obtained in-
  country, their costs, and suppliers
• Pilot program for hand dug wells – clean one
  well bottom, disinfect, cover
     Goals for January 2008 Trip
• Continue work with existing Water Committee
• Education of safe water and sanitation
  practices
• Visit local health clinic
Thank you!
                Discussion
Overall approach to alternatives comparison
Details on specific alternatives
Cost Estimation
Additional Fundraising Strategies

				
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