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Exploring how the Sun Affects the Earth

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					                                                                    Educational Product
  National Aeronautics                                            Educators     Grades
  and                                                             & Students     K-4
                                                                     EG -     11-  G
                                                                         1999- xxx- SFC




1RUWKHUQ#/LJKWV#DQG##6RODU#6SULWHV
      Exploring how the Sun Affects the Earth
                             or de t        i tes n        ence
                    A n Educat G ui w ih A ctvii i Space Sci
Sol St m s and You i avaiabl i el r c f -
   ar or            s     l e n ectoni or
     hr                 i         he
m att ough N A SA Spacelnk -one oft A gency’s
  ectoni es ces pecii l
el r c r our s fcaly devel             or e
                                 oped f us by
 he     i             t
t educatonalcom m uniy.

     ys em           s     he olow ng
The s t m ay be acces ed att f l i ad-
  es :
dr s
            t /s      i nas gov
           htp:/ pacelnk. a.
             National Aeronautics
             and
                                                                      EG-1999-11-xxx-GSFC




           1RUWKHUQ#/LJKWV#DQG#6RODU#6SULWHV
                 Exploring how the Sun Affects the Earth
                                        or de t        i tes n        ence
                               A n Educat G ui w ih A ctvii i Space Sci




  s    i i s n he       i      n
Thi publcaton i i t publc dom ai and i notpr ect by copyr ght Per i s on i notr
                                     s      ot ed        i . m si s               r or       i i
                                                                               equi ed f duplcaton.
                           Acknowledgments

   . en        d
D r St O denw al
       M
      I A G E Educaton and Publc O uteach M anager
                    i          i    r
                    d       i      er
      N A SA G oddar Space FlghtCent
      Gr       t    yl
         eenbel,M ar and
            d@  er gs c. a.
      odenwal bol o. f nas gov

   .     e M co
M s A nni D i ar
           y
       H ol Redeem erSchool
            i on,    yl
       K ens ngt M ar and



            ulant :
Teacher Cons t s
                                                     This resource was developed by the
M s Sue H i ey
   .      gl                                           NASA Imager for Magnetosphere-
      Cher y H ilM i e School
           r l ddl                                           to-Auroral Global Exploration
      El on,M ar and
         kt      yl                                                               (IMAGE)

D r Far M ahootan
   . zad          i                                         More information about this
       G onzaga H i School
                  gh     ,                                 spacecraft and the mission’s
       W as ngt D .
           hi on, C.                                     education and public outreach
                                                                 program is available at
   .        t
M r Tom Sm ih
      Brggs Chaney M i e School
        i            ddl      ,                         http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry
        l     i       yl
      SiverSprng,M ar and


        t k:
Cover ar wor

   . ol l
M s Car H al
        goni    em ar
      Li erEl ent y School
        goni , ndi
      Li er I ana




                                                           National Aeronautics and
                                                           Space Administration
                                                           Goddard Space Flight Center
                                e        ent
                             Tabl ofC ont s



1                 ars   n he      .....................
     H ow M any St A re i t Sky? ......................            1

     D o A l St H ave t Sam e Bri nes ? ................
           l ars       he       ght s ................             5
2
3                          i                          ..........
     H ow D oes Y our Locaton C hange W hatY ou See? ..........    7

4               ents s e es        ? ....................
     W hy D o Sci i t U s Tel copes .....................          11

                nt ars       t .........................
     W hy D o Fai St Look W hie?.........................          13

                     elie    nt      t .....................
     H ow D oes a Sat lt G eti o O rbi? ......................     15

                ents s    i      elies ....................
     H ow D o Sci i t D es gn Sat lt ? .....................       17

                     elie         cat t he       h? .........
     H ow D oes a Sat lt C om m uni e w ih t Eart .........        23

          s hi ct        ..................................
     W hati t s Pi ure? ..................................         31

10               he   s    ace    ke? .................
     W hatD oes t Sun’ Surf Look Li    .................           33

11             es       i      l o         ..................
     W hatC aus C onvecton C els t Form ? ..................       37

12                   i      l         ........................
     H ow do C onvecton C els M ove? ........................      39

13                    i      l         f erentShapes ..........
     W hy D o C onvecton C els H ave D if           ?...........   41

14             rol he                  i     l ? ..........
     W hatC ont s t N um ber ofC onvecton C els ..........         43

15        s        im   .................................
     W hati M agnets ? ..................................          47

16                    i el ? ............................
     W hatA re M agnetc Fi ds ............................         49

17        s he    ace he    o
     W hy i t Surf oft Sun s A ctve? ..................
                                 i   ..................            51

18        s he Sol   nd’ .............................
     W hati t ‘ ar W i ? ..............................            57

19        s he       os       ...........................
     W hati t M agnet phere? ...........................           59
   Science Process Skills
         for Solar Storms and You!



                                s    ts i        o s s eacher i i egr i t ac-
                             Thi char i des gned t as i tt   s n nt atng he
                              i tes    ai    n he de t      si     r cul
                             tvii cont ned i t gui wih exi tng cur i a.




                                                     i t
                                                 A ctviy
                            1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

    ervi
O bs ng
   as iyi
C l s f ng
           catng
C om m uni i
      uri
M eas ng
 nf ng
I erri
      ctng
Predi i
        m    al i
Experi ent D es gn
    heri
G at ng D at   a
        zi
O rgani ng D at a
      roli       abl
C ont lng V ari es
       opi
D evel ng a H ypot ihes s
Ext      ng
    endi Sens   es
R esearchi ng
Team W ork
M at        i
     hem atcs
 nt s plnary
I erdi ci i
 nt        ory
I roduct A ctviy  i t
               i t
A dvanced A ctviy
Science and Mathematics Standards
for Solar Storms and You!


                                       s    ts i        o s s eacher i i egr i t
                                    Thi char i des gned t as i tt   s n nt atng he
                                       i tes    ai    n he de t      si     i a.
                                    actvii cont ned i t gui wih exi tng cur cul




Science as I  nqui ry
St      ure
  ruct and Energy
    he       h
oft Eart Sys em    t
    gi
O ri n and H i ts ory
    he
oft Eart     h
     h n he ar
Eart i t Sol Sys em       t
            cal
G eochem i C ycl     es
      i
Phys calSci   ence
       atons
Popul i and Ecos t s     ys em
         t     ng
U nders andi about
Science and Technol    ogy
Sci       n
   ence i Pers    onaland
     al
Soci Pers         i
             pectves
   s ory           ure
H i t and N at ofSci         ence
       em
Probl Sol ng   vi
M eas urem ent
          aton
C om put i and Es i atontm i
           caton
C om m uni i
         ry
G eom et and A dvanced
M at        i
     hem atcs
  ats i
St i tcs and Probabiiy   lt
N um ber and N um ber
    atons ps
R el i hi
    t
Pat erns and Functons i
        "St     s houl be actvel engaged i l ni t vi t wor d s entfcaly.
           udent s    d      i y         n ear ng o ew he     l ci ii l
         They s    d
               houl be encour     o k      tons         ur    o eek wer ,
                             aged t as ques i aboutnat e and t s ans s
           l hi ,                  ur hi ,           iatve er i , gani e
        colectt ngs countand m eas e t ngs m ake qualt i obs vatons or  z
                        l i           er i          s s i ngs "
                     colectons and obs vatons and di cus fndi .
         A    i      s aton or he                 ence;Benchm ar f Sci
        ( m ercan A s oci i f t A dvancem entof Sci                          t -
                                                                ks or ence Lier




          ents s             l en har       i     i iy      he     l
       Sci i t and young chidr s e an actve curos t about t w ord. A tue  r
 ci i t     nt ns hat nqui ii         iy        i
s ents m ai ai t i s tve qualt and contnues t ques i   o             or
                                                            ton, expl e and
i    tgat n        opi hi
 nves i e. I devel ng t s book,t e i an atem ptt s i ul e an actve curos t
                                   her s     t     o tm at       i      i iy
       he    Earh         i
aboutt Sun- t Connecton. Sci i t have been l ni m or abouts
                                 ents s         ear ng    e            ci
                                                                 pace s ence
and technol           hi nf m i eadiy          l e o hos         e nt es ed.
           ogy m akes t s i or aton r l avaiabl t t e w ho ar i er t
    i tes n hi        em             a r   at lt hat           d    ory
A ctvii i t s book us i ages and dat f om s elies t w as unhear off t year  s
ago.

                    t    s er       fer       n he     hi
            "W hen s udent obs ve dif ences i t way t ngs behave or get
              fer     es t n epeat i tgatons t s
            dif entr uls i r                               d us
                                   ed nves i i , hey houl s pectt  hat
                om hi      fer r    r al o r al      r o i        .
               s et ng dif s f om t i t t i ,and t y t fnd outwhat"
                                 ( A A S Benchm ar )
                                  A               ks

          s              i      o ovi eacher w ih actvii t alow s udent t
       Thi book w as des gned t pr de t        s t      i tes hat l      t     so
    or opi el ed o he                t        i           t e      i
expl e t cs r at t t Sun - Earh Connecton.The unis ar des gned f us i     or e n
    uncton t             r      rcul
conj i w ih your cur entcur i um as i vi            es ons
                                          ndi duall s oras a uni. Thrt     oughout
 he es ons you w il fnd actvii t r r t s udent t m ake obs vatons and
t l s             l i        i tes hat equie he t       s o           er i
 ecor hei i ngs          er i            ecor
r d t r fndi . O bs vatons can be r ded i Sci                   ni       , our s
                                                  n ence Lear ng Logs j nal
       gani i nt           t
orby or zaton i o chars orgr     aphs Each uni has a cul i i actviy des gned t
                                     .        t        m natng i t         i     o
   p he t      s gani um          i              cat he
hel t s udent or ze,s m arze,and com m uni e t new know l          edge gained. In
 he is     t he t     s      or he t s n he ky.
t fr tuni t s udent expl e t s ar i t s The s                 t ooksatt s elie
                                                      econd uni l       he at lt
            caton oces es and as a m eans f expl i t s ar i s
as com m uni i pr       s                  or     orng he t s n pace. The l t  as
   t l      he t       o      y he nf m i hat ci i t            ear
unis alow t s udentt appl t i or aton t s ents s have l ned t ough t    hr      he
  e    at lt o       or he un' ur ace       he un' f s
us ofs elies t expl e t s s s f and t s s ef ect on t earh.   he t

          t n        t he il      he es on s i        o        nquiy
       W ihi each uni,t tte oft l s i des gned t be an i r ques i t be    ton o
    or hr          he i tes ncl
expl ed t oughoutt actvii . I uded i t pr               e ectons e
                                          n he ocedur s i ar ques i t     tons hat
   l urher       age ci ii nquiy.            es on     ns t
w il f t encour s entfc i r Each l s begi w ih a des i i of t        crpton     he
   i tes n      ch he t       s l       tci e          ovi
actvii i w hi t s udent w il par i pat and pr des gener backgr       al      ound
 nf m i            ectves ncl       or     es on ghlght he ci
i or aton. The obj i i uded f each l s hi i t s ence pr                     s kil
                                                                        oces s ls
 he t     s l       op     l       etng he i tes
t s udent w ildevel w hie com pl i t actvii . The pr               es ven or
                                                            ocedur gi f each
 es on e      al                ed o      he
l s ar gener and can be adapt t m eett know l                    opm al evel
                                                   edge and devel ent l s of
 he t     s       es ons        ens on i tes hat e i             o
t s udent .M any l s have ext i actvii t ar des gned t have t s udent   he t     s
    y he
appl t new know l   edge i gr
                           n ade appr i e actvii . K ey t m s ar i uded t
                                       oprat    i tes         er      e ncl      o
 urher
f t enhance t t          '     or evelw ih t m at i .
               he eachers com f tl       t he     eral
                       ars    n
          H ow M any St A re I The Sky?

I
N      Student w ill atphot aphs of s ar and colectdat aboutt
              s l ook          ogr         t s      l     a      he
T                  t s n hei      ogr     or     ant he
       num ber of s ar i t r phot aph ( quadr of t phot aph  ogr
R
O       or          t    s. t s s m        t   or he t    s o ealze
       f younger s udent ) I i al o i porantf t s udent t r i
D       hat he     ogr
       t t phot aph does nots             l he t s n he ky,
                                   how al t s ar i t s butj ta us
U         ton
       pori oft s            t        as     ee ai er t s n he am
                 he ky. Beter cam er can s f nt s ar i t s e
C
        egi     he ky. udent w ilw or asa cl st com pl e a char of
       r on oft s St           s l      k      as o      et     t
T
I       he            t s een n          ogr          as
       t num berofs ar s i each phot aph. A s a cl s ori gr n- oups
O       he t     s l s s he nf m i n he              t hey eat
       t s udent w ildi cus t i or aton i t char t cr ed.
N

O
B                                                       A
                                               M A TER I LS N EED ED :
      ·St     s l l            gani
         udent w ilcolectand or ze
J                                                .Phot aphs ofs ar
                                               1.. ogr          t s
        a r       er i        t
      dat f om obs vatons ofs ar
E
C         ogr
      phot aphs ..                               .Char f r di
                                               2..    t or ecor ng
T     ·St     s l
         udent w ilanal t dat
                       yze he a.                 .Pencis
                                               3..     l
I     ·St     s l          cat i ngs
         udent w ilcom m uni e fndi
V      o as m es
      t cl s at .
E
S
            t    s l ear hat her
      The s udent w il l n t t e ar   e
C         e t s n he ky han        iy
      m or s ar i t s t can eas l be
O          ed. tonom er us t es
      count A s r       s e el copes to
N      ee     e ais he ect n he ky
      s m or det l oft obj s i t s
C      n der t i iy t obj s The
      i or      o dentf he    ect .
L     st     s      d          ed
        udent shoul have count about
U              ar n
      2000 st s i       each G rade 3-6
S
          ogr                  n
      phot aph, and about 900 i each of
I
       he 2      ogr
      t K - phot aphs  .
O
N
S




                       k2-   35-   35-   68-
A A A S Benchm arks 4a- 1,3a- 3,4a- 2,3a- 2
                   :
        s rbut he    ogr        t s      s gn he t     s      ant .
    · D i ti e t phot aphs of s ar or as i t s udent quadr s The
     t     s houl us a t l s t , gr
    s udent s   d e aly ys em                i      ndi dual countng t
                                    oup countng, or i vi          i o
       er ne he          t s n hei     ogr
    det m i t num berofs ar i t rphot aph orquadr .  ant
P
R            he t   s ecor n he as        t he        t s n hei
    · H ave t s udent r d i t cl s char t num ber of s ar i t r
O        ogr         ant hen t t n he oom .
    phot aph orquadr t pos i i t r
C             he es t    he a.        t
    ·Look att r uls of t dat The s udent s         d k hem el
                                            s houl as t s ves w het   her
E    her    e   t ns
    t e ar pater , w het  her al par s of t char t s e, w het
                               l    t      he     t he am         her the
D       ogr      e he ie ky,             her l t       he ky
    phot aphs ar oft entr s and w het al pars oft s w oul appear d
     he am          he as n     s s on              hey
    t s e? Lead t cl s i a di cus i aboutw hatt have s       een,have the
U    t    s ecor hei
    s udent r d t robs vatons i t rSci
                        er i     n hei              ni
                                           ence Lear ng       Log.
R
           he t    s ook he t s n he      ogr     n; e hey e o ee
    ·H ave t s udent l att s ar i t phot aph agai ar t abl t s
E     f er     n he t s       t    s houl r d t dif ences t s i
    dif ences i t s ar ? The s udent s  d ecor he f er    hey ee n
     hei ear ng ogs
    t rl ni l .




    Gr ades 2-3
    ·St      s          e hes ct es       t s t hei            er i
       udent can com par t e pi ur ofs ar w ih t row n obs vatons oft      he
      ght ky. The s udent can fnd t aver num ber ofs ar i a gi pi ur
    ni s            t    s     i he      age       s    t sn      ven ct e
             ant . f he t    s e        hem i l eady t fnd aver
    by quadr s I t s udent ar notm at atcaly r            o i           , hey
                                                                    ages t
E          e he aphs f a vi ualaver
    m ay us t gr       or s         age. The s udent can cr e bargr
                                              t    s       eat      aphs
X   s     ng he f er         w     n he ct es
     how i t dif ences bet een i t pi ur .
T           y: tonom er us t es
    Sum m ar A s r                  o ee t s hat e       ai er hat he
                       s e el copes t s s ar t ar m uch f nt t t
E            ee.       one       ee l hat her s n pace t s
    eye can s The eye al can nots al t t e i i s       o ee.
N
    Gr ades 4-6
S   ·St      s
        udent can com par pi ur ofs ar i dif entgal es orpars ofdif ent
                         e ct es    t s n f er     axi      t    f er
I      axi .            i he     age      s    t s n hes ct es
    gal es They can fnd t aver num ber ofs ar i t e pi ur . They can
O     eat
    cr e bargr  aphs s    ng he f er       w     he ct es          e: he
                      how i t dif ences bet een t pi ur .Forexam pl t
     i hape,and brght s ofobj s i t pi ur
    s ze,s           i nes       ect n he ct e.
N
S           y: f er     nds     ect n pace have m any dif ents
    Sum m ar D if entki ofobj s i s                    f er        . -
                                                              hapes A s
     r       s t     e hape" t fgur outw hatobj s i s
    tonom er ofen us "s      o i e                          e,
                                              ect n pace ar and how t he
       ect           or
    obj s m ay have f m ed.
        l     ars n t ari !
A Sky Ful ofSt i Sagit us
          G
         ( rades 3-6)
       t              ng ar
The Las Traces ofa D yi St .
          G
         ( rades K -2)
          l he ars n he         he       ght s
    D o A l t St i t Sky H ave t Sam e Bri nes ?

I
N
T
         i        ogr       t s he t        l ear hat t s e
      U s ng a phot aph ofs ar ,t s udentw ill n t s ar ar notal t l he
R      am     i nes ,          n       f er     i nes es caled
      s e brght s butcom e i m any dif entbrght s ( l
O      m     t    ’    tonom er ) They w ildi covert t e ar f m or
      ‘ agniudes by as r       s.         l s      hat her e ar       e
D      ai t s han i       t s        l       et       aph
      f nts ar t brghts ar .They w ilcom pl e a bargr com parng ti he
U
C
      evel       i nes or hei      ogr      n he     eres
      l s ofbrght s f t rphot aph. I t nexts i ofactvii ,t     i tes he
T      t     s l      or       act s
      s udent w ilexpl e w hatf or m ake t s ar appeart have dif ent
                                           he t s       o       f er
I     evel       i nes .
      l s ofbrght s
O
N


O     ·St     s l
         udent w ilcom par s ar f om a
                          e t sr                               A
                                                      M A TER I LS N EED ED :
B         ogr
      phot aph.
J                                                    .Phot aphs ofSt s Ther ar
                                                   1.. ogr            ar .   e e
E                                                        s    al n hi      o
                                                          ever i t s book t choose
C     ·St    s l l             gani
         udent w ilcolectand or ze
        a aken f om t phot aph.
      dat t     r    he    ogr                            r
                                                         f om .
T
                                                    .G aph       -    em at or
                                                  2.. r paper ora t pl e f a
I
V       udent w ilanal colect dat
      ·St   s l      yze l ed a.                         bargr aph
E                                                    .Pencis orcr
                                                   3..     l     ayons
S


      The st       s l ook cl el at
             udent w il l        os y
C       ct es     t s o ee f her
      pi ur of s ar t s i t e appear
O      o       f er    evel
      t be dif ent l s of brght s i nes
N
       m     t
      ( agniude)             t     s
                   . The s udent w il  l
C
L       as i y he t s
      cl s f t s ar by t apparhe      ent
U           t             der t
      m agniude. The ol s udent w ils l
S             edi i          he r aton
      m ake pr ctonsaboutt cor el i
I        w      i            t
      bet een s ze and m agniude.
O
N
S




                   : k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 2,9a- 1,12a- 1,3a- 3,9b- 2
                             k2-    k2-   35-   35-
        epar           W    -
    · Pr e a “K now - antLear          K W L)    t t he l en
                                 ned” ( - - char w ih t chidr about t r    hei
    know l          t s ts         t vi      nt hr abel         t
          edge of s ar . I’ a char di ded i o t ee l ed pars - "W hat w e
                              o earn",and "W hat w e Learned".I t "W hatw e
    K now ","W hat w e W ant t l                                n he
            ecton, i t he hi    he l en               t s n he
    know " s i ls t t ngs t chidr know abouts ar . I t "w hatw e W ant
     o ear ecton; i t he l en’ ugges ed ques i aboutw hatt d lke t
    t l n" s i ls t chidr s s              t      tons              hey’ i o
        or                   et l he i tes              t s       et he
    expl e. W hen you com pl e al of t actvii abouts ar ,com pl e t "W hat
P   w e Lear      ecton    i tng he t     s
            ned" s i by ls i t s udent new know l                         e he
                                                      edge. Y ou m ay updat t
                    o ear      he           ear     ectons
    "W hatw e w antt l n" and t "W hatw e l ned" s i atany tm e.  i
R
O        s r but     ogr        o t   s       op s s on
    · D i t i e phot aphs t s udent ; devel di cus i about w hat t   he
C       ogr
    phot aphs s  how . The di cus i s   d ncl    he edi i      he t   s
                            s s on houl i ude t pr ctons of t s udent ,
         e he     ogr                    r          d he t    s ect
    w her t phot aphs m ay have com e f om , and coul t s udent det any
E      t ns hi          nt es .
    pater ort ngs ofi er t
D
U      r he t         s o as iy he t s    hei evelofbrght s A r t f nt
    ·D iectt s udent t cl s f t s ar by t rl          i nes . e hey ai ,
          at       i ?       t    s houl m ake a bar gr
    m oder e or brght The s udent s     d                     he evel
                                                       aph of t l s of
R     i nes n hei        ogr
    brght s i t r phot aph. D i pl t com pl ed gr
                                  s ay he       et        n he oom s t
                                                     aphs i t r     o hat
E     lt     s      ee hem
    al s udent can s t .

            he oups com par t r uli bar gr
    · H ave t gr           e he es tng           . s s on       d evol
                                             aphs D i cus i coul r ve
    ar         her her e t ns       ch evelofbrght s t e w as t m os of
      ound w het t e ar pater ,w hi l          i nes her       he   t ,
          d he es tng aphs m at t pr ctons H ave t s udent r d t r
    and di t r uli gr          ch he edi i .        he t     s ecor hei
        er i    n hei ear ng ogs
    obs vatons i t rl ni l .

        i at s s on       o      her ght       f er evel       i nes n he
    ·Stm ul e di cus i as t w hy t e m i be dif entl s ofbrght s i t
     t s        e he W L       t t           s      i     he t    s
    s ar . U pdat t K - - char w ih any new di coveres of t s udent . K eep a
     i t he t      ’ edi i .
    ls oft s udents pr ctons

E
       ade 6
    G r 2-
X   ·St     s
       udent coul go back and r as iy t s ar by s ze. Si r
                  d            ecl s f he t s    i                 d
                                                       ze anges coul be
T    hos ar      han
    t e l gert 5m m ,bet een 1- m m ,and s alert 1m m . The s udent
                            w      5         m l hat             t    s
E   can m ake gr        ctng he i      t s n hei ct e. i at         s -
                aphs depi i t s zes ofs ar i t rpi ur Stm ul e a di cus
     i             her her s     r aton w      i        i nes .
    s on aboutw het t e i a cor el i bet een s ze and brght s
N
S   Sum m ar The s ze ofa s aron a phot aph t l us aboutis brght s Lar
            y:      i      t          ogr    els         t i nes : ge
I    t m                 i er t .     e,        a      ualy s n he ual
    s ari ages m ean a brght s ar N ot no cam er can act l di cer t act
     i        t        e hey e o ar
    s ze ofa s arbecaus t ar s f aw ay.
O
N
S
                           i
      H ow D oes Your Locaton C hange W hatYou See?

I
N
T      St     s l e                   i      o    op        s andi
         udent w ilus hands on experences t devel an under t ng
R               he s ance of t obs ver changes t appear
       of how t di t              he     er          he         ance
O
        brght s         t . t            w t s e      l          f ,
       ( i nes )ofa s ar A lhough no t o s ar ar exacty as pow er ul
D
U       t s tl r hat he arher            t s e he ai er hey l
       i i s iltue t t f t aw ay s ar ar t f nt t w ilbe.
C         s olow         eci e aw
       Thi f l s a pr s l caled t I             s      e
                                     l he nver e Squar Law . The
T       t     s l s          or       he    er ’ ocaton
       s udent w il al o expl e how t obs ver s l i changes t     he
I
O
          cepton
       per i ofw hati s   s een.
N


O
      · St      s    l           edi i
           udent w il m ake pr ctons                    A
                                               M A TER I LS N EED ED :
B
J             he nfuence di t
      about t i l           s ance has on
      appear ance ofan obj .
                          ect                   .Thr dentcal l hlght - or
                                              1.. ee i i fas i s (
E
C     · St  udent w il i
                 s    l nves i e t
                               tgat he         r t i        bs
                                              f os ed lghtbul on a l p)
                                                                   am
T     di t     per i el i hi
        s ance- cepton r atons p.               .D k oom orar
                                              2.. ar r         ea
I     · St        s
             udent w il com m uni e
                        l            cat        .Caroon
                                              3.. t copi ont col ed
                                                             ed o or
V
      obs vatons t cl s at .
         er i       o as m es                 paper
E                                               .Seven fas i s oft s e s ze
                                              4..       l hlght    he am i
S


C
O         t     s l       or
     The s udent w ilexpl e how t  he
N
        er ’ ocaton l
     obs ver s l i w ilchange t     he
C
L    appear        t s        t     s l
           ance ofs ar . The s udent w il
U     ear hat he s ance bet een an
     l n t t di t            w
S       er        he ect l
     obs verand t obj w ilchange
I     he t
     t s arappear       n i
                  ance i s ze and
O      i nes .
     brght s
N
S




                            k2-   35-   68-
    A A A S Benchm arks 11d- 1,3a- 2,3a- 2
                       :
           hr t        s t        oxi el                eet r  he es
    ·H ave t ee s udent s and appr m at y 10,20 and 30 f f om t r tof
     he as ,         di     l hlght     b.
    t cl s each hol ng a fas i orbul D ar t r ken he oom and have the
     t     s ur     he l hlght       bs hat hey e di
    s udent t n on t fas i s orbul t t ar hol ng.Then have t        he
     es    he as       er
    r toft cl s obs ve w hi lghtappear t be brght . The cl s s
                               ch i       so      i er        as houl d
      s s       hi         taton s el ed o he yi evel          i nes
    di cus how t s dem ons r i i r at t t var ng l s ofbrght s of
     he t s hat
    t s ar t w e s   ee.
P
              t      t       he       he l         di he t
    ·H ave a s udents and att end oft halw ay hol ng t caroon w ih t
R       i         es    he t
    capton. The r toft s udent s s houl ty t gues w hatt s udenti
                                        d r o      s     hat t     s
O      di        ft        or      he t             ow d he as l y i
    hol ng and i i has col . H ave t s udentcom e t ar t cl s s ow l untl
C    he as          er ne       s ng d.           as      s s
    t cl s can det m i w hati bei hel The cl s can di cus how t s   hi
           taton s el ed o
    dem ons r i i r at t how di t                 he
                                   s ance changes t appear         ect .
                                                          ance ofobj s
E
D   ·H ave s      t
            even s udent s and i a lne w ih fas i s W hen t r
                        s t     n i       t l hlght .          he oom i s
U   darkened,t s udent s
               he t            d ur      he l hlght .         he t
                        s houl t n on t fas i s Then t s udent s       s hould
      r      hem el    o ook i          t l i uch       he g pper
    ar ange t s ves t l lke a cons elaton s as t Bi D i . O nce
R    hey e r
    t ar ar anged,as i ts gn hem each a s arnum ber (
                                         t                   t     s     d
                                                   . Som e s udent coul be
E    itng          i
    s ti orkneelng on t foor .The r toft cl s s
                          he l )        es                  d
                                              he as houl w al ar k ound and
        er he r                 t      t s         k he t       s       e t
    obs ve t ar angem entofs udents ar . Then as t s udent w ho ar s ar#1
            o ake our t      tai
    and #6 t t f s eps s r ghtback. St            t s
                                            udents ar #3 and #7 s     d ake
                                                                  houl t 2
     t     or d. udents ar#2 s
    s eps f w ar St         t     houl t one s ep back. H ave t r toft
                                      d ake      t                he es     he
      as     k ound t new l ar anged s ar ,and obs ve t changes D i cus
    cl s w al ar      he      y r        t s         er he           . s s
     hei     er i .          t tl ook i he g pperf om al s des
    t robs vatons D oes i s ill lke t Bi D i              r     li ?
            e hi o     er ng he t s r        f er ocatons
    Com par t s t obs vi t s ar f om dif entl i on t earh.       he t

        s s he t      s    er i            e he W L       t      he
    ·D i cus t s udent ’obs vatons and updat t K - - char. H ave t
     t     s ecor hei    er i    n hei ci      ear ng ogs
    s udent r d t robs vatons i t rs ence l ni l .



E   Gr ades 2-3
X   ·St      s
       udent can pr ctw het al t ee chidr w ih fas i s w oul have t
                   edi       her l hr    l en t l hlght         d       o
T           l he am
    be exacty t s e di t        r   he er s o         he i s         o
                        s ance f om t obs ver t have t lght appeart have
     he am     i nes evel         t
    t s e brght s l . The s udent s   s houl des gn experm ent t expl e
                                            d i          i   so      or
E    hi urher nii e       s s on            t s n pace ar dif entdi t
    t s f t . I tat a di cus i abouthow s ar i s         e f er     s ances
N    r         ew
    f om ourvi on earh.t
S
    Sum m ar The I
            y:        s       e     ays hat or w dentcal am , he
                  nver e Squar Law s t f t o i i l ps t one
I    hat s w ce  ar r     he er       l         4
    t i t i as f f om t obs verw ilappear1/ as brghti .
O
N
S
         Grades 4-6

             er al
         M at i s :
                t         t bs n am .
         40 w at & 100 w at bul i l ps
  E
  X      ·St      s       edi he s ance t t s udenthol ng t caroon w oul have
            udent can pr ctt di t          hat he t      di he t            d
          o        o hat he      er s     d er ne             ng d.
         t m ove s t t obs ver coul det m i w hatw as bei hel The s udent  t     s
  T      s     d i
          houl des gn a m et f r di t di t
                             hod or ecor ng he s ance t obs verneeds t be f om t
                                                       he er          o    r    he
  E         ect ng        er      nii e    s s on
         obj bei obs ved. I tat a di cus i abouthow s ar i s             e f er
                                                            t s n pace ar dif ent
  N        s ances f om ourvi on earh. A s t s udent s f om t dem ons r i w ih
         di t       r         ew       t      he t   s aw r    he       taton t
          he t
         t caroon,di t                      cepton  he t s
                       s ance changes ourper i oft s ar .
  S
  I      Sum m ar The f t aw ay an obj i ,t l s det lt obs vercan s
                 y:    arher         ect s he es  ai he er         ee.
  O
                   t     s    or     he            t         he s ance -brght s
         ·To have s udent expl e how t pow erofa s archangest di t        i nes
  N       el i hi t        s     d e w t            w t bs n am .        n he is
         r atons p,s udent coul us 40- at & a 100- at bul i l ps A si t fr t
  S         i t it       e, he t
         actviy ls ed her t s udent s
                                    s houl s and i dif entpl
                                          d t    n f er          n he l         t
                                                            aces i t halw ay w ih
          he am .       t     s e    orng        t hat      s ai     d ualy
         t l ps The s udent ar expl i how a s art appear f ntcoul act l be
           os han      gher pow ed t hat s arher
         cl ert a hi - er s art i f t aw ay.



K ey Term s




                 t b
          100 W at Bul




                                          t b
                                    25 W at Bul


                s ance=20 f
              D it         eet        s ance=10 f
                                    D it         eet
          s     one n pace,as any gl
The Sun i notal i s                         he ght ky     d el         ow s i e
                                    ance att ni s w oul t lyou.Bel i a fgur
 hat how s SO M E oft brghts ar i t s i t m s oft rdi t
t s                  he i    t s n he ky n er                    r    he un
                                                     hei s ance f om t s w hi i ch s
 ocat      he
l ed att cent oft dr i
                 er he aw ng. W ihi t s r on ofs
                                     t n hi egi           hat ends outt a di t
                                                     pace,t ext          o    s ance
        i       s her e ualy om            000 t s pr          e    es
of 260 lghtyear ,t e ar act l s e 100, s ar s ead outm or or l s evenl Thes y.     e
    e
m or num er      t s e     o
            ous s ar ar 10 t 100 tm es l s pow er ult t Sun s t ar m uch f nt
                                  i    es        f han he     o hey e          ai er
 han        he her t s hat e oted n he i e ow
t any oft ot s ar t ar pl t i t fgur bel .
                                    ents s e es
                          W hy do Sci i t U s Tel copes?


  I
  N       St      s l e                   i       o ear        he i
            udent w il us hands on experences t l n how t s ze of an obj     ect
  T        nfuences ourabiiy t s i. St
          i l                                 s l      or       he i       t
                           lt o ee t udent w ilexpl e how t s ze ofa s arcan
  R        nfuence is appear
          i l       t       ance t our eyes The phot aphs on t s page s
                                  o        .         ogr        hi      how how
  O
  D
             ect n pace l dif enty dependi on i you ar on t gr
          obj s i s       ook f er l           ng    f       e            ooki
                                                                  he ound l ng
  U             t                      i     el cope t s m or det l The Space
          up w ih your naked eye, or us ng a t es     o ee      e ai.
  C            te
          Shutl can be s        t ound- ed t es
                         een w ih gr                             ogr
                                         bas el copes and phot aphed t r o eveal
  T                 t     ais       he                d     y ee he
          m any of is det l , but t naked eye w oul onl s t Shutl as a   te
  I
  O
           as -    ng pot i ,         ns he
          f tm ovi s oflght agai tt backgr              t s
                                                  ound s ar .
  N

  O          ·St      s l gani            as iy
                 udent w il or ze and cl s f
  B             ect      i
             obj s by s ze.                                 A
                                                   M A TER I LS N EED ED :
  J
             · St      s l      e     pm
                  udent w il us equi ent t    o
  E                                                 .A    i y    ect or he
                                                  1.. varet ofobj s f t
  C             her a
             gat dat and ext         he ens
                                end t s e of
                                                   t    s o e or
                                                  s udent t us f com parsi ons
  T           i .
             s ght
                                                    .Tw l hlght       f er
                                                  2.. o fas i s ofdif ents ze -i
  I          · St     s l nves i e t s ze -
                 udent w il i    tgat he i
  V                                                or       e:         ant n
                                                  f exam pl pocketand l er
             appear       el i hi
                    ance r atons p.
  E          ·St      s l           cat i ngs
                udent w ilcom m uni e fndi
  S
              o as m es
             t cl s at .
  C
  O
  N              t     s l ear hat he i
            The s udent w ill n t t s ze of
  C
  L
             he t           he
            t s archanges t appearance oft he
  U          t o he er . tonom er can
            s art t obs ver A s r        s
  S            y     oxi e he i        t
            onl appr m at t s ze ofa s ar
  I          i    he t s e o ar        r
            s nce t s ar ar s f aw ay f om
  O          he t
            t earh.                                     B
  N
  S

   ct
Pi ure A .. s elie
           .A at lt
  r ng os he
steaki acr s t
 ky chi         i
s cat ng a glntof
 i     r
lghtf om t she un.
     e he i
N ot t fxed back-
gr        ar .
  ound st s
  ct
Pi ure B.. es
           .Tel cope
  ew     he
vi oft Space
      te n bi
Shutl i or tas s   een
 r     he ound.
f om t gr
  ct
Pi ure C ..     te
           .Shutl
          t am
m odelw ih s e or- i
ent i as i Pi ur
    aton     n ct e
                                                    A
                                                               C

                                      k2-   35-
              A A A S Benchm arks 11b- 2,9e- 1
                                 :
                 t       ck
    ·H ave each s udentpi an obj f          n he oom .I s al gr
                                  ect ound i t r       n m l oups the
     t     s har he t
    s udent s e t iem s and r t              he e n      ch he ect
                                ank hem by t eas i w hi t obj coul be  d
     dentfed         een r
    i ii w hen s f om a di t                  he m l oup          et he
                                 s ance.O nce t s al gr has com pl ed t
P    anki , he as               oget o s s hei          er i .
    r ngs t cl s can com e t hert di cus t robs vatons The s udent   t      s
R   s    d ee
     houl s a pater oft l gerobj s bei eas ert i iy f om a di t
                    t n    he ar       ect    ng i o dentf r          s ance.
O
            w t       s t      he      he oom . G i each oft s udent a
    ·H ave t o s udent s and att end oft r        ve        he t    s
C    l hlght      ch e f er      i .
    fas i ,w hi ar dif ents zes D ar t r                     he t    s ur
                                        ken he oom and have t s udent t n
E       he l hlght . s s he f er          n he
    on t fas i s D i cus t dif ences i t appear             he i s
                                                     ance oft lght . D oes
D    he i      he i                he er ’
    t s ze oft lghtbeam change t obs ver s per i             us he ocaton
                                                 cepton? A dj tt l i
       he t      s o hat he i     he i        s he am o he er .
    oft s udent s t t s ze oft lghtappear t s e t t obs ver The
U    t
    s udent s
           s houl r i t t s alers ce oflghtw oul have t be cl ert
                  d ealze hat he m l our        i       d      o    os o
R    he er s              e hi o he i      t s he t     s aw n he
    t obs ver . Com par t s t t s zes ofs ar t s udent s i t
         ogr    ,    n he ky.
    phot aphs and i t s
E
        s s he t     s     er i
    ·D i cus t s udent ’obs vatons oft dem ons r i . The s udent s
                                     he       tatons      t    s hould
          e      hei    er i    o ie        n hei ear ng ogs
    choos one oft robs vatons t w rt abouti t rl ni l . U pdat t   e he
       W L     t t he t      s          edge.
    K - - char w ih t s udent ’new know l




    Gr ades K -6
E   St      s l e          f ng as es
      udent w il us m agniyi gl s or m i os          o     or ool ed
                                           cr copes t expl e t s us by
X    ci i t o      er t      hat e ar         oo m l o ee. For cl s oom s
    s ents s t obs ve iem s t ar f aw ay or t s al t s           as r
T        e y         f ng as es e     l e, he t     s l       o ck m l
    w her onl m agniyi gl s ar avaiabl t s udent w ilneed t pi a s al
     t n he as r               t t     ncl        l har ng, um , m l
    iem i t cl s oom .Sugges ed iem s i ude penci s peni cr bs s al
E   pieces off ood,ora pi of a l . The s udent w ildr t iem as s w ih
                        ece     eaf     t    s l aw he t          een t
N    hei      .
    t reyes Then t s udent w ilvi t iem agai undert m agniyi
                     he t    s l ew he t         n       he     f ng
S     as .       t        l aw he t       t he         ais hat
    gl s The s udent w il dr t iem w ih t new det l t can be s        een.
    St      s houl r d t fndi i t rl ni l
      udent s     d ecor he i ngs n hei ear ng og.
I
O    n as r           e
    I cl s oom s w her a m i os
                            cr cope i avaiabl t s udent w il fnd a s al
                                     s    l e, he t   s l i         m l
       ect o ew        aw he t      een t hei     .    t
    obj t vi and dr t iem as s w ih t reyes The s udents          d hen
                                                              houl t
N     ew he t       n t he cr cope. The s udentw ildr t iem w ih t
    vi t iem agai w ih t m i os             t      l aw he t       t he
S          ais hat
    new det l t can be s       udent s
                          een.St         d ecor he i ngs n hei ear ng
                                    s houl r d t fndi i t rl ni
                                nt ars       t
                     W hy D o Fai St Look W hie?

         t         ew     he i es t s n he ky
      A lhough a f of t brght t s ar i t s can s            ed, ange or
                                                       how r or
I        l       or , he    t   ort
      yelow col s t vas m aj iy of f nt s ar al ays l
                                         ai er t s w            t o he
                                                         ook w hie t t
N     naked-         or blnd t     s                 e o ee ed, ange or
             eye.Col - i s udent m ay noteven be abl t s r or
T        l     eary. udent w ilus hands on experencest i iy w het an
      yelow cl l St         s l e                i    o dentf      her
R
O         er ’               si s      f er     or .       l     or he
      obs ver s eyes can di tngui h dif ent col s They w il expl e t
D       f er      or     t s        de f he i nes     he t nfuences t
      dif entcol s ofs ar and deci i t brght s oft s ari l            he
U        lt o ee t       or       ods n       etna e    e ens tve o i
      abiiy t s is col . The "r " i your r i ar m or s ii t lght
C
T
      than t "cones w hi gi us col i or aton. Thats w hy f nt s ar
            he        "    ch ve       or nf m i        ’       ai t s
I       m t ook w hie, even t
      al os l          t       hough t           ualy        or i ed,
                                      hey m ay act l have col s lke r
O     or            l
        ange,oryelow .
N

O
B
       · St       s     l
             udent w il conduct an                       A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
J      i    tgaton o er ne
        nves i i t det m i how col      or
                     er ’      cepton.
       changes an obs ver s per i                .Paperdi cs (
                                               1..       s about4 i nches
E
C      · St          l           edi i
           udent w il m ake pr ctons
                s                                am er
                                               di et ) -col s -r or
                                                             or ed, ange,
T             he el i hi
       about t r atons p of col andor          yelow ,gr
                                                  l     een,bl and w hie
                                                               ue      t
I      t per ur i s ar .
        em at e n t s                            .Fl hlght
                                               2.. as i
V
       · St  udent w il com m uni e
                  s     l             cat        .Pl tc ap        l
                                               3.. as i w r -yelow ,r and
                                                                     ed
E                                              blue
S         er i      o as m es
       obs vatons t cl s at .

C
O     The s udent w il l n t t s ar
           t     s l ear hat he t s                    2                  2
N
        e f er       or ,   he er ’
      ar dif entcol s butt obs ver s
C
L                         e o si s
      eyes m ay not be abl t di tngui h
U      hat or
      t col . A s r         s e    e o
                    tonom er ar abl t
S       si s         e or or t s t
      di tngui h m or col f s ar w ih
I      he p      tong el copes
      t hel ofs r t es        .                                1
O
N
S


                                                   1                1




                                                     n he      ct e, he t    or
                                                    I t above pi ur t s arcol s
                                                      e:    ue- t
                                                    ar 1 = bl w hie,2=orange


                            K 2, 35-     35-
    A A A S Benchm arks 11b- 2- 3a- 2,9e- 1
                       :
           w t       s t       he       he l         di      s       f er
    ·H ave t o s udent s and att end oft hal,each hol ng a di c ofa dif ent
       or       es    he as houl deci w hi col i eas ert di tngui h
    col . The r toft cl s s       d    de    ch or s i o s i s
     r    hat s ance. Contnue t have pais ofchidr hol up t di cs untlal
    f om t di t            i    o        r     l en d      he s       i l
P         natons                et         t
    com bi i have been com pl ed. The s udent s     d      e o der he
                                               s houl be abl t or t
       or r        i t o des o s i s
    col s f om eas es t har tt di tngui h.
R
O      ace l hlght t             he    f er      or it s pl tc ap) he
    ·Pl a fas i w ih one oft 3 dif entcol fler ( as i w r att
C          he l             t    s houl pr ctt col oft fas i beam
    end oft halw ay. The s udent s     d edi he or he l hlght
     ocat      he ar       he l               hi i t t he em ni
    l ed att f end oft halw ay. Repeatt s actviy w ih t r ai ng
E    it s          ew ng t s ai t s            o      t egar es     hei r
    fler . W hen vi i s ar ,f nts ar appeart be w hie r dl s oft rtue
D      or        e         hr      he e he ods n
    col becaus youreyes t ough t us oft "r " i youreyes att    , hat
U     s ance onl det bl and w hie. St s ar cl s fed by col s as r at t
    di t        y ect ack           t    ar e as ii          or   el ed o
     hei ur ace em at e.             es t s e ange,t r yelow ,gr
    t rs f t per ur The cool ts ar ar or               hen ed, l       een,
R     ue      i l ue- t             t
    bl and fnaly bl w hie. The s udent s        d        edi i
                                          s houl m ake pr ctons aboutw hat
E      or       d    s at       t he t t s         hi ng            hi
    col s w oul be as oci ed w ih t hoters ar by t nki aboutw hatt ngs
     hey       een hat e .
    t have s t ar hot

       s s he t      s     er i            e he W L      t
    ·D i cus t s udent ’obs vatons and updat t K - - char.




                        m natng   i t
                     C ul i i A ctviy
    ·St     s     d         l
       udent coul m ake a fap book. Take a 12x18 s          tucton
                                                  heetofcons r i paperand
     ol t nt hids          r    hid l          he t     s il        or hei
    f d i i o t r . The f ontt r w ilbecom e t s udent ’tte page f t r
             t s            h l     e     he t      s houl gl t ee cicul
    book on s ar . W hen bot faps ar open,t s udent s     d ue hr      r ar
      l "             he ectons             he l     he t
    "faps on each oft s i . O n each oft faps t s udent s          d aw
                                                             s houl dr
     hr    f er    t s t f er        i        or .              he l , he
    t ee dif ents ar w ih dif ents zes and col s U ndereach oft faps t
     t    s houl w rt i or aton aboutt s ari t rpi ur I s
    s udent s     d ie nf m i                                        d ncl
                                         he t n hei ct e. t houl i ude
     t em s hat efect nf m i hat s           he W L        t n hei ear ng
    s at ent t r l i or aton t i on t K - - char ori t rl ni
     ogs             e,    s t s i , g          ed. t s obabl cl e t w her
    l . Forexam pl "Thi s ari brght bi and r I i pr           y os o       e
            er ng t"           t s ed, ar           ai ,
    Iam obs vi i. or“The s ari r f aw ay and f nt and i l             t
                                                            t ooks w hie”
                        at lt    nt     t
           H ow does a s elie geti o orbi?



I
N       t t     s l           hat o      om hi nt pace you need a
    M os s udent w il know t t get s et ng i o s
T   rocket butt m ay notr i t r
          ,    hey          ealze hat ocket do nothave t ‘ h of ’oft
                                           s           o pus f       he
R     m pher t get i o s
    at os    e o       nt pace. A l o, you don’ have t keep pus ng a
                                    s           t      o         hi
O
D
     at lt o        t     ng n pace becaus t e i no f i i i s
    s elie t keep i m ovi i s              e her s     rcton n pace t o
U       e hi      o l             n hi     i t t       s l ear
    caus t ngs t s ow dow n. I t s actviy, s udent w il l n how
C        on’               i              i o he aunchi of r
    N ew t s Law s of M oton can be appled t t l          ng          s
                                                                 ocket :
T         y eacton      es
    “Ever r i caus and equal and oppos t r i  ie eacton”. St      s l
                                                             udent w il
I
O
        or         at lt s aced i or t The s udent w ilexpl e how a
    expl e how a s elie i pl       n bi.        t    s l      or
N    at lt em ns n t bi.
    s elie r ai i is or t

                                                     A
                                            M A TER I LS N EED ED :

                                            .Baloon
                                          1.. l
    · Student w il expl e N ew t s
              s l         or       on’      .G it
                                          2.. lter
O                                           .Bal t s
                                          3.. l-enni
B
                i        hei     i i
    Law s ofM oton and t rapplcaton
    t r
     o ocketl aunching.                     .Sti
                                          4.. rng
J
E   · Student w il expl e N ew t s
              s l         or       on’      .Cos eat e i t optonal
                                          5.. tf ur ls ( i )
C               i        hei     i i
    Law s ofM oton and t rapplcaton
T    o at lt bis
    t s elie or t .
I    St
    · udent s       l
                 w il devel    op    an
V
E
         s andi       he     s ons hat
    under t ng of t deci i t a
S    ci i t                     i ng
    s ents m akes w hen des gni a
     at lt
    s elie.



    A r           ks      ectng
        ocket w or by ej i gas and,
C
O
           e          on’     r aw
    becaus of N ew t s Thi d l of
N       i     hi oduces an equal and
    M oton, t s pr
C         ie or      n he r i
    oppos t f ce i t di ecton t     he
L   r        r s         ents s
     ocket t avel . Sci i t have t   o
U      i at lt               y ef
    des gn s elies and be ver car ulof
S    he ot       ght he at lt
    t t al w ei oft s elie.H eavy
I
O
     at lt         ve hem m or dat but
    s elies m ay gi t          e a,
N    hey e s               e     i o
    t ar al o m uch m or expens ve t
S     ace nt bi t ocket
    pl i o or tw ih a r        .


                            : 35-
         A A A S Benchm arks 9e- 1
                     at lt    nt        t
        H ow does a s elie geti o an orbi?

           ace om     it ns de     l       ow     he l           d he
        ·Pl s e glteri i a baloon. Bl up t baloon and hol t open end.
             t    s houl pr ctw hatw oul happen w hen t baloon i r eas The
        The s udent s    d edi            d             he l      s el ed.
           l en l         o   er     ef l o ee                       et     t
        chidr w ilneed t obs ve car uly t s w hathappens w hen you l go. A fer
         he er i         s s hat he r ng el ed               ed
        t obs vaton,di cus t t ai bei r eas w as m odel by t glterthe it hat
  P             .       it       n      r i
        cam e out The glter w enti one diecton w hie t baloon w enti t oppos t
                                                   l he l          n he     ie
          r i        ss          e       on’     r           i
        diecton. Thi i an exam pl ofN ew t s Thid Law ofM oton.
  R
  O            he t     s m ne hat hey e ng o i          kat    d.
        ·H ave t s udent i agi t t ar goi t rde a s eboar The s eboar  kat   d
  C          he i     e h tl.         i um      f he kat    d, epr entng
        and t rderar bot s il The rderj ps of t s eboar r es i an
           i        kat     d es      o hi i       r i n he          ie r i
        acton.The s eboar r ponds t t s acton by tavelng i t oppos t diecton
  E        he i . s s         her       e      on’    r           i
        oft rder Thi i anot exam pl ofN ew t s Thid Law ofM oton. W hen
  D     launchi a r
               ng ocket t acton i t expeli ofgas outoft engi Thi acton
                         , he i s he        lng            he    ne.    s i
  U        hr t     t    tongert t m as orw ei oft r
        ort us m us be s r       han he   s                    o it he ocketof
                                                ght he ockett lf t r          f
         he aunch pad and i o s
        t l               nt pace.
  R
  E                  at lt t n       t
        H ow does a s elie s ay i orbi?

            t       l o ti          ng he l ound i a cicl H ave t s udent
        ·A tach a bal t a s rng. Sw i t bal ar      n    r e.      he t     s
           er hat he h         he l t     n   r ar t n         hat he or
        obs ve t t pat oft bal s ays i a cicul pater and t t f ce on t        he
         ti s he l centiugal
        s rng i t bal ( rf )has t be balo                  uggi      t gr t o
                                             anced by yourt ng on i ( aviy)t
              t ng n       r e.    s s he   hat at lt em ns n bi.
        keep i goi i a cicl Thi i t w ay t a s elie r ai i or t A s elie   at lt
             t or d hr t        ch s f et he l          aviy ow ds he t
        has is f w ar t us ,w hi i of s by t pul ofgr t t ar t earh. Thi        s
               he at lt r i n t bi.            on’ r t            i      ai
        keeps t s elie ciclng i is or t N ew t s Fis Law ofM oton expl ns how
         he at lt em ns n bi.
        t s elie r ai i or t




Ext i
   ens ons     Gr ades 3-6
                ·St     s l      i     es ch at lt     i i he es ch
                   udent w ildes gn a r ear s elie,cons derng t r ear
                   s he       ed        or he oj      he t he at lt
               goal ,t budget m oney f t pr ectand t cos oft s elie
                 i he t         ns r i           t.
               us ng t atached i tuctons and chars
             i
         D es gn Your O w n R es         elie!
                                earch Sat lt



I
N           ci i t           neer     i   es ch at lt ,
    W hen s ents s and engi s des gn r ear s elies m any
T     f er hi          o        i ed o       i h he es ch hey
    dif entt ngshave t be cons der t accom pls t r ear t
R
O         o    r out n hi       i t t      s l     i hei
    w ant t car y- . I t s actviy, s udent w il des gn t r ow n
D    at lt          l s           he es ch    s      at lt
    s elie.They w ildi coverhow t r ear goal ofa s elie have
U    o
    t be bal         he t he at lt
            anced by t cos of t s elie and how m uch m oney t he
C
     ci i t        o pend t conduct t r r ear f om s
    s ents s have t s      o          hei es ch r      pace. The
T
I       e          he at lt o      or     he    er t l
    m or you w antt s elie t do f you,t heavi i w ilbecom e,
O        he    et l      t o aunch i!
    and t m or i w ilcos t l        t!
N
          ect he    i    s hat        d i he at lt o
    1.Sel t experm ent t you w oul lke t s elie t accom pls   ih
     r        t     ie
    f om Char 1. W rt dow n t m as needed f each ofyourchos exper-
                             he    s       or              en      i
         s hen i he ot        s             l s        o ie
    m ent t fnd t t alm as needed. Y ou w ilal o need t w rt dow n
     he        n  t        l      or l         i    s hen i he ot
    t pow eri w ats you w ilneed f al yourexperm ent t fnd t t al
        t
    w ats needed.

         ect he pacecr tm as f om Char 2 by us ng t num berofexper-
    2.Sel t s         af    sr        t       i he                i
P       s              en o     et
    m ent you have chos t com pl e.
R        ooki         t i he       t      o                i   ,
    3.By l ng atChar 3 fnd t w ats needed t pow eryourexperm ent
O       he    tonalm as needed t tans tt pow er
    and t addii        s       o r por he       .
C
          i he and ot         s
    4.To fnd t gr t alm as needed t l               at lt
                                      o aunch yours elie,add yourt  o-
E    al   sr         t
    t m as f om Char 1,yourm as t s
                                s o uppor experm ent f om Char 2,and
                                         t     i     sr         t
D           so             at lt r        t     nd         and ot
    yourm as t pow eryours elie f om Char 3. Fi yourgr t alm as      s
U    n    t o er ne he          oprat aunch vehi e and is cos .
    i Char 4 t det m i t appr i e l             cl       t    t
    (     i    s    s
     Experm ent m as + Spacecr tm as + Pow erm as = G r t alm as )
                              af    s            s     and ot     s
R
E   5.St    s
        udent can contnue t com pl e t s actviy as m any tm es as t
                       i   o      et hi i t               i       hey
        d i       i y        i he f er          i             i
    w oul lke by s m pl choos ng t dif entexperm entorexperm ent t  s hat
     he at lt      d
    t s elie coul accom pls i h.
                            ect he   m    s          o e.
                 C hart1: Sel t experi ent you w antt us

          Instrument                  Mass (kg)       Power               Experiment Function
                                                      (watts)
     Neutral Atom Imager                 7.5            9.5           -detects and maps pictures of
                                                                    atoms in gas clouds around earth
    Far Ultraviolet Camera
              SI                         8.7           6.0           -detects hydrogen gas around
                                                                                  earth
             WIC                         1.9           3.0                   -detects aurora
     Radio Plasma Imager                 11.0          11.8          -detects plasma clouds around
                                                                                  earth
          Antenna                        14.4           4
      Telemeter Package                  5.1           5.0             -transmits/receives data from
                                                                                   ground
     Spacecraft Electronics              18.0          18.5            -keeps spacecraft working in
                                                                                    space
     Attitude Torque Rods                15.4          5.3            -part of the spacecraft pointing
                                                                                   system
Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectometer           30.4           12            -detects and classifies particles
                                                                         according to type of atom
  Solar Wind Ion Composition             10.5           12           -composition of solar wind and
         Spectrometer                                                  high energy charged particles
         Magnetometer                    2.5           2.4           -Measures direction strength of
                                                                     local magnetic field near space-
                                                                                     craft
Electrical Field and Wave Sensor         15.5           8            -measures change in local elec-
                                                                    tron fields within the plasma sur-
                                                                          rounding the spacecraft
  Solar Wind Plasma Analyzer             12.2           18              -composition of solar wind
                                                                              charged particles
   Large Angle Coronograph               55             10              -to photograph solar corona




                                      ect he pacecraf m as t
                            C hart2:Sel t s          t    so
                                  s       he      m
                                   upportt experi ent .s

                              Number of experiments          Mass (kg)
                                        1-5                    100
                                       6-10                    500
                                      11-13                   1000
               ect he i    he ol
    C hart3: Sel t s ze oft s ar pow er s     y o
                                         uppl t run the
          m   s      he  ght he         ys em
    experi ent ,and t w ei oft pow er s t .



                   Watts needed                 Mass
                      1-10                      10 kg
                      11-20                     25 kg
                      21-35                     40 kg
                      36-55                     50 kg
                      56-80                     60 kg
                     81-100                     70 kg
                    101-200                    100 kg




               erm ne he t he aunch vehi e
  C hart4: D et i t cos oft l          cl




Grand Total Mass              Launch vehicle                Cost
    450 kg                       Pegasus                 $90 Million
    1100 kg                    Delta II-8925            $115 Million
    1800 kg                   Delta II- 7925            $105 Million
    3000 kg                      Atlas II               $150 Million
                       elie         cat   t he
       H ow D oes a Sat lt C om m uni e W ih t Earth?


I
N                  lt y s    at lt ake ct es t         ual im
          Som e m iiar ‘ py’s elies t pi ur w ih act fl .The fl     im
T             s er e ect          o   t            n d- r         tng
          cani t s ar ej ed back t Earh and caughti m i ai by w aii
R
O           r af.     t     n at lt end hei ci ii          a     o t n
          aicr t M os m oder s elies s t rs entfc dat back t earh i
D          ong ti             s     e       s ovi nf m i
          l s rngs of num ber .Thes num ber pr de i or aton aboutt     he
U           i nes       li       m    pi s aken by s elie- n,el r c
          brght s ofm ilons ofi age ‘ xel ’t          at lt bor ectoni
C
                as n hi i t t         s l                     i     n he
          cam er .I t s actviy,s udent w ilhave hands on experences i t
T
I                  caton oces es ofs elies
          com m uni i pr      s     at lt .
O
N


O         ·St     s l ear hat at lt
             udent w ill n t s elies                     A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
B           e r m ter        ecei
          us a tans it and r vers t  ys em
J                                                .Fl hlght
                                               1.. as i
          ofs    ng nf m i
              endi i or aton.
E
C         · Student w ill n how a s elie
                   s l ear         at lt         .M r or
                                               2.. ir
T         com m uni es t i or aton i has
                  cat he nf m i t                .5x5 i aph
                                               3.. grd gr paper
I         gat ed.
             her                                 .10x10 grd gr paper
                                               4..        i aph
V                                                .Li t      di es
                                               5.. s ofcoor nat
E
S
                                                     fed   o how i ‘ xel ’
                                              A m agnii phot s   ng pi s

C
              t     s l ear         at lt
         The s udent w ill n how a s elie
O
N                 cat nf m i o he t
         com m uni esi or aton t t earh.
C                l e     or it s o oduce
         They w ilus "col " fler t pr
L             m
         an i age t         m cs he w ay
                     hat m i i t
U         nf m i          m     s ent r
         i or aton abputi ages i s f om
S           at lt
         a s elie.
I
O
N
S




                       : k2-     k2-    k2-   35-   35-   35-   68-
    A A A S Benchm arks 8b- 2,8d- 2,11b- 2,1c- 2,3a- 2,8d- 2,8d- 1
         ken he oom ,and s ne t fas i att m ir .H ave t s udent
    ·D ar t r             hi he l hlght he r or         he t     s
       er he h        he i .    at lt ends is dat by r l i of
    obs ve t pat oft lght A s elie "s        "t   a   efectng f
      r or      r i t o he at lt s          he t s ur ace     s ant
    m ir s and diectng i t t s elie di h on t earh’ s f ata di t
       nt
    poi .

    ·St      s houl pl t "gos i gam e,w her a m es age i r
       udent s     d ay he      s p"         e     s           ed r
                                                        s epeat f om
     t      o t      .     t      s he r m ter        ayi he      s
    s udentt s udent The s udenti t "tans it " w hen s ng t m es age
     o    as m e,      s he ecei "           i he    s     r
    t a cl s at and i t "r ver w hen hearng t m es age f om a
      as m e.     l om t        s e ng he r m ter ,
    cl s at W hie s e s udent ar bei t tans it s m ake s e   om
    backgr        s          e hi o at lt nt f ence.
           ound noi e.Com par t s t s elie i er er

              at lt s         catng t
    ·W hen a s elie i com m uni i i does nots     n     ds
                                             peak i w or ,buti n
           s      e       s r pond t a l i on t grd s t . I
    num ber . Thes num ber cor es      o ocaton    he i ys em n
          ns ances t tans i s on oft e num ber i done t ee tm es once
    m any i t     , he r m s i       hes       ss      hr i ,
     r           he     as        et        s r m ted ef s o
    f om each oft cam er . Each s ofnum ber tans it r er t a col   or
     it .        he     et it s e ace        op          her he r
    fler W hen t com pl ed fler ar pl on t ofeach ot ,t tue
P      or n he m       e een. The actvii bel us t s grd s t t
    col s i t i age ar s             i tes ow e hi i ys em o
R    r m t nf m i r             t       o  her
    tans i i or aton f om one s udentt anot .
O      ade
    Gr K
C         t     s l
    ·The s udent w ilbe "r        et         s hat r pond t t l i
                          ead" a s ofnum ber t cor es      o he ocaton
E       he i         t      eadi he nf m i o he her t
    on t grd. O ne s udentr ng t i or aton t t ot s udentcan
            i h hi , he eachercan r i t t cl s The s
    accom pls t s ort t               ead t o he as .        e hat
                                                         quar att
D    ocaton l         or n he r pondi col . The s udent w ilbe
    l i w ilbe col ed i t cor es           ng or      t     s l
U    ead hr i t .        eas hat e or n l               m
    r t ee ls s The ar t ar col ed i w ilm ake an i age as a
R    at lt             tr m t
    s elie does w hen i tans is dat  a.
E    Grades 1-3
          t     s l
    ·The s udent w ilbe "r         r       di es or ocaton
                          ead" a pai ofcoor nat f a l i on t  he
        di e aph. O ne s udentr ng t i or aton t t ot s udent
    coor nat gr            t      eadi he nf m i o he her t
                i h hi    he eachercan r i t t cl s The s udent w il
    can accom pls t s ort t             ead t o he as .     t  s l
       or he quar is cor es
    col t s       et             ng or      t he hr     it s     or
                         r pondi col . A fert t ee "fler " orcol s
               r m ted, he or l or             m        at lt
    have been tans it t col s w ilf m an i age as a s elie does w hen
     tr m t
    i tans is dat a.

    Gr ades 4-6
          t     s l
    ·The s udent w ilbe "r          r      di es or ocaton
                          ead" a pai ofcoor nat f a l i on t he
        di e aph. O ne s udentr ng t i or aton t t ot s udent
    coor nat gr            t      eadi he nf m i o he her t
                i h hi            ead t o      as .      t s l or
    can accom pls t s oryou can r i t yourcl s The s udent w ilcol
     he quar is cor es
    t s      et             ng or      t he hr      it s   or
                    r pondi col . A fert t ee "fler " orcol s have
          r m ted, he or l or             m         at lt        t
    been tans it t col s w ilf m an i age as a s elie does w hen i
     r m t      a. eas       e hat he    di e aph or hes t
    tans is dat Pl e not t t coor nat gr f t e s udent i a     ss
              i
    10 x 10 grd.
    Gr ades 1 -3
    ·St      s houl dr a s ofpi ur w ih captons t s
       udent s     d aw et       ct es t      i    o how t she equence
E
X         a r m si r          at lt          d       t n equence
    ofdat tans i s on f om a s elie. They coul m ake i i a s
T    r      or      n t y or .
    f am e f m atori s or f m at
E
N   Grades 4-6
S   ·St     s houl devel t r"ow n" pi ur t be tans it vi t r
       udent s    d      op hei       ct es o   r m ted a hei
I    as m es
    cl s at .They s      d ie he     di es     ng n nd hat he hr
                     houl w rt t coor nat keepi i m i t t t ee
O
N
      i y or          d     xed o or   her or .        d hen
    prm ar col s coul be m i t f m ot col s They coul t m ake
S   as         r     o how t s eps i ved i s elie tans i s on.
      equence f am e t s    he t   nvol   n at lt r m s i



    When reading or giving these coordinates, remember to have the student’s color
    with the correct color. You will actually be reading three lists of coordinates.

    Kindergarten graphing coordinates:

                                 Yellow: 1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 16,
                           17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, and 25

                                 Red: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 13, and 15

                                 Blue: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 15, 22, and 24

    Grades 1-3 graphing coordinates:

                                 Yellow: (1, 1), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (1, 2),
                            (3, 2), (5, 2), (2, 3), (3, 3), (4, 3),
                            (2, 4), (4, 2), (1, 5), (3, 5), (5, 5)

                                 Red:        (3, 1), (2, 2), (4, 2), (1, 3), (5, 3),
                            (1, 4), (3, 4), (5, 4), (2, 5), (4, 5)

                                  Blue:      (1, 1), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (1, 2),
                            (3, 2), (5, 2), (2, 3), (3, 3), (4,3),
                            (2, 4), (4, 4), (1, 5), (3, 5), (5, 5)
Grades 4-6 graphing coordinates:

                           Yellow: (7, 2), (7, 3), (8, 3), (3, 4), (4, 4),
                       (5, 4), (6, 4), (7, 4), (8, 4), (3, 5),
                                                (4, 5), (5, 5), (6, 5), (7, 5), (3, 6),
                       (4, 6), (1, 7), (2, 7), (3, 7), (4, 7)

                              Red: (5, 1), (6, 1), (4, 2), (5, 2), (6, 2),
                        (4, 3), (5, 3), (6, 3), (5, 6), (6, 6),
                                                 (7, 6), (8, 6), (5, 7), (6, 7), (7, 7),
                        (8, 7), (9, 7), (1, 8), (2, 8), (3, 8),
                                                 (4, 8), (5, 8), (6, 8), (7, 8), (8, 8),
                        (2, 9), (3, 9), (4, 9), (5, 9), (6, 9),
                                                 (7, 9), (3, 10), (4, 10), (5, 10)

                           Blue: (1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 1), (7, 1),
                         (8, 1), (9, 1), (10, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2),
                                             (3, 2), (7, 2), (8, 2), (9, 2), (10, 2),
                         (1, 3), (2, 3), (3, 3), (7, 3), (8, 3),
                                                  (9, 3), (10, 3), (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4),
                         (4, 4), (5, 4), (6, 4), (7, 4), (8, 4),
                                                  (9, 4), (10, 4), (1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5),
                          (4, 5), (5, 5), (6, 5), (7, 5), (8, 5),
                          (9, 5), (10, 5), (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 6),
                          (4, 6), (9, 6), (10, 6), (1, 7), (2, 7),
                          (3, 7), (4, 7), (10, 7), (9, 8), (10, 8),
                          (1, 9), (8, 9), (9, 9), (10, 9), (1, 10),
                          (2, 10), (6, 10), (7, 10), (8, 10), (9, 10), (10, 10)




                                   m natng   i t
                                C ul i i A ctviy
                ki n         atve oups t s udent w ilcom pl e a "lf cycl ofa
            W or ng i cooper i gr        he t     s l       et     ie    e"
             at lt       he der t      s        i      es ch at lt he
            s elie. Fort ol s udent w ho des gned a r ear s elie,t cycl      e
                ns t he       s on oces . Fort youngers udent ,t cycl begi
            begi w ih t deci i pr       s      he        t     s he     e    ns
               t he aunch oft s elie on t r
            w ih t l          he at lt             .       oup'
                                           he ocket Each gr s m ur s      d n-
                                                                    al houl i
              ude ct es          i            at lt   s nt      em ns n bi,
            cl pi ur and captons ofhow a s elie get i o and r ai i or t
                       at lt         cat nf m i
            and how a s elie com m uni es i or aton. St      s      e ong ol
                                                        udent can us a l r l
                        m l        s t      oget . s ay he           et
            ofpaperors alerpaper atached t her D i pl t com pl ed pr ect .oj s
           ndergart G raph
          Ki       en




21   22       23      24     25



16   17       18      19     20



11   12       13      14     15



6    7        8       9      10



1    2        3       4      5
          3
G rades 1- G raph
Grades 4-6 Graph
                                 s hi ct
                            W hati t s pi ure?




        I
        N
                 ur t how s us t s e ki of pater i m any dif ent
             N at e ofen s         he am    nds       t ns n        f er
        T
        R     eti .        i     hes     t ns
             s tngs Som etm es t e pater can be cl         o      s andi
                                                       ues t under t ng
        O          s ng      n      am lar ys em
             w hati goi on i an unf ii s t orobj .St            s l ook
                                                       ect udent w ill
        D    ats    al    ogr          e ii hi ng kil o dentf he
                ever phot aphs and us crtcalt nki s ls t i iy t
        U
        C
                ect    ents s
             obj . Sci i t have now f         hat he un’ ur ace
                                        ound t t s s s f appear t      s o
        T               i      l     t      t
             have convecton cels on i. The s udent w ilbegi t expl e w hy
                                                  s l      n o    or
        I     he un’ ur ace      d      hes
             t s s s f w oul have t e cels     l.
        O
        N


                                                             A
                                                    M A TER I LS N EED ED :

                                                .Phot aphs ofot obj s t
                                              1.. ogr          her ect hat
                                               es    e he un’ ur ace
                                              r em bl t s s s f
       O
       B     ·St     s l e ii
                udent w ilus crtcal             .V i             l e o he
                                              2.. arous books avaiabl t t
       J      hi ng kil o dentf
             t nki s ls t i iy                 t    s
                                              s udent
       E       ct es
             pi ur .
       C
       T                                        .Phot aphs oft s s s f
                                              3.. ogr        he un’ ur ace
       I
             ·St     s l ear hat he
                udent w ill n t t
       V      ur ace he un
             s f oft s has                      .Paperf r di obs vatons
                                              4..      or ecor ng er i
       E            i     l     t
             convecton cels on i.
       S



        C
        O
                 ur       i
             N at e som etm es has
        N    the sam e ki   nds of
        C       t ns
             pater      in    m any
        L      f er     ect .
             dif ent obj s Thes   e
        U       t ns om i
             pater s etm escom e
        S     r     he am
             f om t s e caus ,   es
        I
              uch          i
             s as convecton.
        O
        N
        S

                   : k2-     35-   35-
A A A S Benchm arks 9b- 1,9e- 1,2c- 1

                                                      i      l n ouds
                                                Convecton cels i cl
                 he t   s he ct es          t
        ·Show t s udent t pi ur . The s udent s         d ook at each pi ur and
                                                  s houl l             ct e
                edi i     o            ct e s        d hei edi i .
        m ake pr ctons as t w hateach pi ur i . Recor t rpr ctons

        · Pr    he t     s o   or              ct e s hr         toni
            obe t s udent t expl e w hat each pi ur i t ough ques i ng. For
               e,    her hey               i     t hr           hei ens , f
        exam pl w het t m ay have experenced i t ough one of t r s es i
         hey em        eei he ct e om         e or          hey    d i
        t r em ber s ng t pi ur s ew her bef e,or how t coul fnd out
P           e      he ct e.
        m or aboutt pi ur
R
            l he t      s o ook n    , ear he nt net      ton
        ·A low t s udent t l i books s ch t I er orques i you ort r hei
O         as m es o i          he ct es e. f hey         t her tat es
        cl s at t fnd outw hatt pi ur ar I t com e up w ih ot s r egi ,
C        olow hr       t hem
        f l t ough w ih t .
E
               hem w or i gr
        ·H ave t                  o     ch he our      he ct es t he ct es
                       k n- oups t m at t s ce oft pi ur w ih t pi ur .
D        n he i y ades you m ay w antt have t choi vi i e t t s udent .
        I t prm ar gr                      o      he     ces s bl o he t       s
U             he t      s ecor       hey eel hei
        H ave t s udent r d w hy t f t r m at               e r .           l he
                                                     ches ar cor ect W hen al t
R       groups have fni hed, r
                     i s            he our       he      ogr    , avi he un’
                              eveal t s ce of t phot aphs s ng t s s
         ur ace f l t The pi ur of t s s s f
        s f      or as .       ct es     he un’ ur ace s         he
                                                           how t appear  ance of
E              i     l.
        convecton cels

            n      W L    t        he t    s           he un.
        ·Begi a K - - char on w hatt s udent know aboutt s




                  Gr ades 2-3
                  ·St      s   d i hei           ct es hat e   et
                     udent coul fnd t row n pi ur t ar notcom pl e and
                        hei as m es er ne he dentt           d eat
                  have t rcl s at det m i t i iy. They coul cr e a
                         y         t         r     ct es
                  m em or gam e w ih m any pais ofpi ur .
       ens ons
    Ext i
                  Gr ades 4 -6
                  ·St      s   d i      aw hei    ct es hat e
                     udent coul fnd ordr t row n pi ur t ar notcom -
                    et or as m es o dentf
                  pl e f cl s at t i iy.
                        he  s     ace    ke?
             W hatdoes t Sun’ Surf Look Li



    I
    N          un s ar r    ng eat el s l           ,
         The s i f f om bei a f ur es bal ofgas even t     hough w hen
    T         ee t    he  i
         w e s i on t horzon i l
                               t ooks r her borng! St
                                       at      i          s l ook
                                                     udent w ill at
    R
    O         ogr        he un’ ur ace and colect dat about t
         phot aphs of t s s s f                   l       a         he
    D            r i            s eat es
         concentatons of num ber , f ur and s            he
                                               hapes of t convectoni
    U       l hat hey ee.        l e                i      o ear
         cels t t s They w ilus hands on experences t l n w hat
    C
              es he    yi eat es     he un’ ur ace n he ubs
         caus t var ng f ur on t s s s f i t s equent
    T
    I     es ons
         l s .
    O
    N


                                                          A
                                                 M A TER I LS N EED ED :
    O
    B
                t     s l l          a
          ·The s udent w ilcolectdat about        .Phot aphs oft s s s f
                                                1.. ogr          he un’ ur ace
    J     t f ur on t s s s f
           he eat es     he un’ ur ace.           .Paperf r di obs vatons
                                                2..      or ecor ng   er i
    E     ·The s udent w ilor ze and
                t     s l gani                               cul i
                                                       and cal atons
    C     anal t colect dat
              yze he l ed a.                      .Earh em at
                                                3.. t t pl e
    T            t    s l           cat
          · The s udent w ilcom m uni e
    I      hei i ngs o as m es
          t rfndi t cl s at .
    V
    E
    S


    C             f          he
         The sur ace of t Sun i ver    s    y
    O          i ed,        os up ew how
         com plcat and cl e- vi s s
    N
                 i     l      ch e
         convecton cels w hi ar cons antyt l
    C
    L           ng hapes These convecton
         changi s         .               i
    U       l
         cels can be t hous           l    er
                            ands of kiom et s
    S       os ;    l      g       t      i
         acr s neary asbi as N orh A m erca.
    I         pot            g he t
         Suns scan be asbi ast Earh,and
    O          nt es i      t ns o hem
         have i er tng pater t t .
    N
    S




                   : k2-     k2-   k2-   k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 3,2a- 1,2b- 2,2c- 1,
                      k2-   k2-   35-   35-
                   9a- 1,9b- 1,2c- 1,9b- 1,
                      35-   35-   68-
                   9e- 1,9c- 6,2b- 1
  os        uns . e he anul i       he ol ur ace,and t
Cl eup ofa s pot N ot t gr aton oft s ar s f         he
 iam s        l ng ong       i id i    n he er egi
fl ent ofgasfow i al m agnetc fel lnesi t out r on of
he uns . s ew s           000 l    er de.
t s pot Thi vi i about13, kiom et s w i
                   he t   s ook he        ogr       un’ ur ace. They s
            H ave t s udent l att phot aphs ofs s s f                 hould
    P       ook or t ns hapes and num ber ofcels w ihi t rearh t pl e.
            l f pater ,s         ,          s      l t n hei t em at
    R         s s he f er hi         hey ee.
            D i cus t dif entt ngs t s D oes ever          s ct e      he
                                                      yone’ pi ur have t
             am     t ns hapes and num berofcels i i?
            s e pater ,s                      l n t
    O
    C                  t      dentfes he t ns hapes and num berofcels t
            ·A s each s udenti ii t pater ,s          ,               l , hey
    E       s     d ecor hei a n         t or
             houl r d t rdat i char f m and s              oup     aph
                                                   ave.A gr bargr can be
                     he es t r             l       he t     s      e he es t
            m ade oft r uls f om each chid. H ave t s udent com par t r uls
    D          hei aphs They s
            oft rgr        .      houl s t t e w er a varet off ur on
                                      d ee hat her    e     i y   eat es
    U        he f er         ogr
            t dif entphot aphs      .
    R
                   e he W L     t        he t    s           he un’
            ·U pdat t K - - char on w hatt s udent know aboutt s s
    E        ur ace.
            s f


          1 udent
        K- St     s
        ·St     s    d
           udent coul countt num berofconvecton cels i each oft pi ur . U s
                            he              i      l n        he ct es     -
         ng aly ys em ght          pf . i tes        i he
        i a t l s t m i be hel ul A ctvii com parng t num berofcels i l n
              ct e     d        et
        each pi ur coul be com pl ed.

        ·St     s    d
           udent coul go on a s            o i hi      n he as r
                               cavengerhuntt fnd t ngs i t cl s oom ors chool
         hat      he am hapes as t convecton cels t f
        t have t s e s             he      i    l hey ound. They s    d
                                                                  houl m ake
           t s he hapes oft cels by dr i t s
        pos er oft s          he l                      hen aw ng hi
                                         aw ng he hape t dr i t ngs t    hey
        f        t he am hape.
         ound w ih t s e s
E
        ·St      s    d    or hei as r
           udent coul expl e t rcl s oom s and s    s or t ns i he un’
                                                chool f pater lke t s s
X        ur ace. Forexam pl chais r ,veget es orcl hi St
        s f               e,    r , ugs   abl ,                s houl com -
                                                    ot ng. udent s   d
T         et          agr         i he un’ ur ace o      hi hey ound i t
        pl e a V enn di am com parng t s s s f t one t ng t f        n he
E         as r
        cl s oom .

N          ade 3 udent
        G r 2- St        s
S       ·St     s
           udent coul countt num berofconvecton cels i each oft pi ur oft
                      d       he                i     l n          he ct es he
         un’ ur ace      he her et      ct es es    i he un’ ur ace. A ver
        s s s f and t ot s ofpi ur r em blng t s s s f                      age
I                    l     d
        num berofcels coul be det m i
                                  er ned. I yours udent ar notr
                                            f     t    s e            o er ne
                                                                eady t det m i
O       aver        hem i l hey         d ook he aphs t cr ed f a "vi ual
            ages m at atcaly,t coul l att gr              hey eat or       s "
N       aver          t     s
            age. The s udent coul com par t e aver
                                 d       e hes          o
                                                   ages t aver     hat e
                                                              ages t w er done on
         he her ect hat es         e he ur ace he un.
        t ot obj s t r em bl t s f oft s
S
        ·St      s    d i hi     n he as r    hat     he am hapes as t con-
           udent coul fnd t ngs i t cl s oom t have t s e s          he
            i      l.    r ng em at o      ch he hapes t s on t s s s -
        vecton cels By taci t pl es t m at t s         hey aw    he un’ ur
        f      he t    s houl ty t ftt iem s t herlke a puzzl t duplcat w hat
         ace,t s udent s    d r o i he t     oget i          eo     i e
              een    he un’ ur ace.
        w as s on t s s s f
E
    (   i
     Contnued)
X
T      ade 6 udent
    G r 4- St       s
E   ·Student s   d     op r i     o how t num berofone ki of
            s houl devel f actons t s   he              nd
    s     o he ot
     hape t t t alnum berofshapes.
N
S   ·St     s houl pi one convecton cel i t rpi ur They w ilm ea-
        udent s  d ck             i   l n hei ct e.           l
I    ur t n     i er . i he cal               l   er / i er hey
    s e i i centm et s U s ng t s e of 1000 kiom et s centm et t
       l cul e he r i          he     i
    w ilcal at t tue s ze oft convecton cel.l
O
N   ·St     s houl cal at how bi t pi ur oft s s s f w oul
       udent s    d cul e       g he ct e he un’ ur ace  d
S        o    o    ch he cal   he t em at
    have t be t m at t s e oft earh t pl e.

    ·St     s houl fnd a f ur oft s s s f
       udent s    d i                           a iam , uns ,
                          eat e he un’ ur ace,( fl ent s pot
      c.     ur t       e he cal        l   er / i er cul e
    et )m eas e i and us t s e of1000 kiom et s centm et cal at
     he r i       he eat e.
    t tue s ze oft f ur




          i iam s ur oundi a pai ofs pot wih a Nor h and Sout t pol iy
    M agnetc fl ent s r  ng    r uns s t          t         h-ype ar t
                                 es       i
                       W hatC aus C onvecton?




I
N
T
                i s     ur s             ng     gy r          ace o
        Convecton i N at e’ w ay of m ovi ener f om one pl t anot       her
R          y ckl           i       i          ns de t s n he
        ver qui y.Convectve m otons happen i i s ar ,i t deep i erornt i s
O            anet ,     n
        of pl s and i a pot of opaque s      ham poo! St     s l       or
                                                        udent w il expl e
D              i        er ng
        convecton by obs vi a pot of heat s                 t     s l ee
                                           ed ham poo. The s udent w il s
U
C
         hi        taton                       s   he un’ ur ace.
        t s dem ons r i as a m odelofw hatoccur on t s s s f
T
I
O
N

        · The st       s    l ear
                  udent w il l n t    he                  A
                                                 M A TER I LS N EED ED :
O
B
                   s
        com ponent needed t    o m ake
J       convecton.
               i                                  .H pl e
                                                1.. ot at
E             t
        ·The s udent w ilcolectdat about
                     s l l        a               .Cl      ex
                                                2.. earPyr pan orpot
C        hei
        t robs vatonsofconvecton cels
                er i             i    l.          .O
                                                3.. paque sham poo
T       · The st      s l      yze t r
                 udent w il anal     hei        4..           bl
                                                  .Rock orm ar e
I       colect dat and com m uni e i t
           l ed a                cat t o          .Pi ur        s ur ace
                                                5.. ct e ofSun’ s f
V
E
          as m es
        cl s at .
S

C
O            t   s l s            hat her
       The s udent w il di cover t t e
N      ar             s
         e com ponent neces ar  s y f   or
C              i         t     s l ear
       convecton. The s udent w il l n
L      t     he ur ace of t sun has
        hat t s f             he
U
S
               i    l hat r em bl t
       convecton cels t       es     e he
I              i     l ound i heat
       convecton cels f          n      ed
O      sham poo.
N
S




              i    ouds
        Convectng cl
                                                           i n            l
                                                     Convecton i a potofoi.
                       : - 1        k2-   35-
    A A A S Benchm arks 4f k2- ,11b- 2,9e- 1
    ·St     s ai t m o ee                  s e equied o
       udent br ns or t s w hatcom ponent ar r r t m ake convectoni
       l. l t       , or       e f her s      t em at e?
    cels W ili occur f exam pl i t e i a cons antt per ur They should
          een r       t es on hat
    have s f om a pas l s t heati r r s equied.

P        i       i t or 1 i t             ed ham poo actviy bel )
    ·O ptonalA ctviy f K - (ns ead of heat s            i t    ow
            f        t     s or
    H ave hal ofyours udent f m a group undera sheetorpar     e.        l
                                                          achut They w il
R     s ay he     act i tcs           i l d       appi        he heet
    di pl t char ers i of a convectng fui by t ng undert s ,and
O        ng f m l l .           her f he oup             he er . l
    poppi of s al bals The ot hal oft gr can be t obs ver A low
C    he oups t s ich pl .
    t gr       o wt     aces
E            4 nch
    ·H eat 1/ i of opaque s    ham poo,s udent s
                                        t          d    er he i      n he
                                             s houl obs ve t actons i t
D      .
    pot Puta r ock or m ar e i t s
                          bl n he ham poo. They s       d ee      i     l
                                                    houl s convecton cels
U          i           ss     he un’ ur ace. The s udent s
    m uch lke w hat exi t on t s s s f             t          d    er he
                                                         s houl obs ve t
      f er    i
    dif ents zes and s                i     l,         hey
                       hapes ofconvecton cels and how t change and m ove.
R
E      s s t he l en hat hey aw          i   l    he    ogr
    ·D i cus w ih t chidr t t s convecton cels on t phot aph of
     he un.       nf m i      hi ve he t   s       he un? U pdat
    t s W hati or aton does t s gi t s udent aboutt s          e
     he W L        t t he   nf m i
    t K - - char w ih t new i or aton.


                       i     l     he    s ur ace
                 Convecton cels on t Sun’ s f
                                   i     l
                   H ow do C onvecton C els M ove?




  I      St      s l n              s andi            i     r s
           udent w ilgai an under t ng ofconvecton cur ent .A convecton   i
  N
  T
            r akes pl w heneverlqui orgas ar heat unevenl A s t
         cur entt        ace           i ds        es e     ed        y.   he
  R          eral s      ed, t i es o he ur ace,and s eads outt ar t edges
         m at i i heat i rs t t s f                  pr         ow d he      .
  O          t         arher r     he       our he
         A s i m oves f t f om t heats ce,t m at i cool and s nks back
                                                        eral     s     i
  D       ow d he t            he           he    er er
         t ar t botom oft pan. A s t cool w at m oves t ar t heatow d he
  U
  C       our t                 m        i es o he ur ace    n.
         s ce,i becom es w ar erand rs t t s f agai The s udent w ilt    s l
  T       ear hat he un’ ur ace s s                 e
         l n t t s s s f i al o an exam pl ofconvecton cur ent i     r .
  I
  O
  N


                                                         A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
  O
  B           t     s l nves i e
        ·The s udent w ili    tgat            1.. x 13-nch Pyr pan
                                                .9     i      ex
  J     convecton cur entt ough hands on
               i     r hr            -          .3 yr oam cups
                                              2.. St of
  E     experences
             i     .                            .Tap
                                              3.. w at  er
  C           t
        ·The s udent w ilcom m uni e
                    s l          cat            .H
                                              4.. otw ater
  T
  I
        t rfndi t cl s at .
         hei i ngs o as m es                    .Food col i
                                              5..        orng
  V                                             .Sal
                                              6.. t
  E                                             .Pi t
                                              7.. pete
  S

  C
  O    St     s l ear hat he un’
         udent w il l n t t s s
  N
         anul i
       gr aton celspr        y     n
                     l obabl m ove i
  C
  L      r ar convecton cur ent .
       ci cul           i      r s
  U        m    es l       he
       W ar gas fow up t cent ofer
  S     he l           , hen l
       t cel and cool t fow back
  I     nt he un      he er
       i o t s at t out edges of
  O     he anul , us i
       t gr es j t lke w at or er
  N    s        n      ed .
        ham poo i a heat pot
  S



                   : k2-     k2-   k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 3,4b- 1,9b- 1
                      k2-   35-
                  11b- 2,9e- 1

                                                 er    he   s        he ur ace s
                                         The cent oft Sun i hotand t s f i
                                                   er o he nt i             s n
                                         m uch cool , s t i er or gas convect i
                                           der o r por      o he ur ace.
                                         or t t ans theatt t s f
          olow ng i t             et      he
    ·The f l i actviy can be s up on t over            or      e as
                                                 head f a w hol cl s
            taton or he          t     s f ied, der t
    dem ons r i f t youngers udent . I des r ol s udent can    s
          et n        atve oups Filt Pyr di h 2/ f loft w at .
    com pl e i cooper i gr       . l he ex s 3 ul             ap   er
P      n w      he         i
    Tur t o oft cups ups de dow n and us te hem t s      t he s
                                                 o uppor t di h. Fill
     he hid       t he         er      ace t       he
    t t r cup w ih t hotw at and pl i undert cent oft pan.er he
R       l he     er t    t           ,      ew ai        al o he ood
    W hie t w at s ops is m ovem ent add a f gr ns ofs tt t f
O      orng.        he    er s tl, ace        op
    col i W hen t w at i s il pl one dr oft f col i he ood orng
C     r l        he              er ace econd dr overone oft
    diecty overt cup ofhotw at . Pl a s             op            he
    s      t    .
     uppor cups The s udent s
                       t           d   er                 o he ops
                            s houl obs ve w hathappens t t dr .
E
D         t
    ·The s udent s
                s houl dr a pi ur oft robs vatons and l
                      d aw    ct e hei      er i       abelit
U      t     i      crbi he oces . M ake s e t t s udents
    w ih captons des i ng t pr   s        ur hat he t   ’
      aw ngs ncl     he           he ops     s s he eas
    dr i i ude t m ovem entoft dr . D i cus t r ons f t s  or hi
R   m ovem ent.
E
          t     s ear   hat her e       i     l     he un’ ur ace.
    ·The s udent l ned t t e ar convecton cels on t s s s f
     nii e    s s on         her      i    r s       d s     s
    I tat a di cus i on w het convecton cur ent w oul al o exi ton
     he un. U pdat t K - - char w ih t s udent new i or aton.
    t s           e he W L       t t he t     s     nf m i



E   Gr ades 2-6
    ·St      s
        udent can r     he oces by changi t l i oft hotw a-
                   epeatt pr   s         ng he ocaton    he
X    er     o he s de          he
    t cup t t out i edges oft pan. St   udent s
                                             s houl obs ve car uly
                                                  d    er     ef l
T    or          n he           r i      he ood orng.
    f a change i t m ovem entdiecton oft f col i
E
    ·St     s
       udent can repeatt pr
                       he oces by fli t pan w ih i w at . St
                              s    ilng he      t ce    er u-
N       s houl obs ve car uly f a change i t m ovem entoft f
    dent s    d    er    ef l or         n he            he ood
S      orng.
    col i
I
    ·St      s houl ty t fnd ot ar i t rlves w her t m i
       udent s    d r o i     her eas n hei i         e hey ght
O    ee        i            i     r s            e, n he t s i
    s convecton and convecton cur ent . Forexam pl i t earh’ cl-
N       e, he      ,    he    her
    m at t oceans and t w eat .
S
                             i     l f erentShapes
            W hy are C onvecton C els D if        ?




  I
  N                       i    l or n          i
       W henever convecton cels f m i a confned s f ur ace s       he
                                                            uch as t
  T     ur ace      t             er he l os l          her o hat hei
       s f ofa s arora potofw at ,t celsj te each ot s t t r
  R
  O    s           t l          n es     e o
        hapes cons anty change i r pons t how m any nei         s hey
                                                           ghbor t
  D                t     s l e                 i      o   er ne
       have. The s udent w il us hands on experences t det m i w hat
  U         es he        i    l o        f er
       caus t convecton cels t have dif ents    hapes The s udent w il
                                                     .     t     s l
  C
       l        he     ogr       he un’ ur ace o      y
        ook at t phot aphs of t s s s f t appl w hatt have    hey
  T
  I     ear           he or i
       l ned aboutt f m aton oft s                    i     l
                                   he hape ofa convecton cel.
  O
  N


                                                        A
                                               M A TER I LS N EED ED :
  O
  B
               t    s l nves i e how
         ·The s udent w ili    tgat             .Cl
                                              1.. ay
  J            i     l
        convecton cels getdif ents
                            f er    hapes.      .Phot aphs oft s s s f
                                              2.. ogr           he un’ ur ace
  E                               cat
                    s l
              t
        ·The s udent w ilcom m uni e           r   hi
                                              f om t s w orkbook.
  C      hei i ngs o as m es
        t rfndi t cl s at .
  T           t     s l      y hei
        ·The s udent w ilappl t r
  I      i ngs o        s er
        fndi t w hati obs ved on a
  V
  E
            ogr       he un’ ur ace.
        phot aph oft s s s f
  S



  C         un’ ur ace s
       The s s s f i a confned s i    pace,
  O                      i     l or hey
       and w hen convecton cels f m , t
  N
             o     h hei
       have t pus t r nei         s i o
                             ghbor as de t
  C
  L    m ake r             i     l
              oom .Convecton cels can take-
  U           i     i e          r c hapes
       on varous s m pl geom et i s
  S            ng    he
       dependi on t num berof nei   ghbor s
  I     hey
       t have s          rangl ,
                  uch as ti es pent  agons,
  O    and hexagons .
  N
  S




                   : k2-     k2-    k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 2a- 1,2c- 1,11b- 2
                      35-   35-    35-
                   2c- 1,9e- 1,11a- 1
           t      s ven ay.
    ·Each s udenti gi cl They s          d hape t cl i o 10 bals about
                                     houl s     he ay nt       l
        nch n am er
    an i i di et . Then t s           d r      hei l      ay nt
                             hey houl ar ange t rbals ofcl i o a
      r e t he em ni          l ns de.     r      e ng o ay he t
    cicl w ih t r ai ng bal i i Thei hands ar goi t pl t par
       he or     hat s         her e         i    l
    oft f ces t exi tw hen t e ar convecton cels and pus th he
P           i     l " oget .       r i s houl pus each cl bal on t
    "convecton cels t her Thei fnger s          d  h      ay l he
R      s de t      f er
    out i w ih a dif entf ce. They s
                          or              d ee hat f er
                                       houl s t dif ents             l
                                                          hapes ofcels
O        d    or        he s de l .
    w oul be f m ed on t out i bals
C        ur oundi t centalbal w ih dif entnum ber ofnei
    ·By s r      ng he      r    l t f er        s          s
                                                       ghbor and
E         es i hem i ar ,t s udent w ilcr e dif entgeom eti
    com pr s ng t     nw ds he t     s l eat f er           rc
D   shapes f t i erorbal. Forexam pl havi 6 nei
            or he nt i      l        e,   ng         s     d eat
                                                ghbor w oul cr e a
                   or     e    i
    hexagon w hen f ces ar appled.
U
R         t
    ·The s udent s
               s houl cr e a dr i and w rt an expl i aboutt
                     d eat     aw ng      ie      anaton  he
E   shape t w as f m ed f om t dif entnum berofnei
          hat     or     r   he f er                  s
                                                 ghbor .

           he t     s ook he     ogr        he un’ ur ace.The
    ·H ave t s udent l att phot aphs oft s s s f
     t     s houl des i how t dif ents
    s udent s    d crbe      he f er                   i     l
                                         hapes ofconvecton cels w ere
     or           e he W L     t t hi        nf m i           he un.
    f m ed. U pdat t K - - char w ih t s new i or aton aboutt s




           s    t n s      l Vor          s l i . t s        i e,
        Thi pater i caled ‘ oni Tes elaton’ I i a s m pl m at atcal   hem i
           t n hat des i
        pater t                        fer       i     ys em       e i t
                        cr bes m any dif ent phys cal s t s wher lm ied r    e-
         our      e     l e, uch as t s
        s ces ar avaiabl s                                 i     l n     i t
                                       he hapes of convecton cels i a lm ied
        s         he          i      he oot ys em
         pace,or t boundar es of t r s t of pl s i a crant n              ot
                                                                  owded pl of
        l     t s      cr bes
         and.I al o des i huntng r ons f a com m uniy ofpr
                                  i egi     or           t          or !
                                                               edat s
                   rol he                  i      l?
         W hatC ont s t N um ber ofC onvecton C els




 I
 N              he l          gy s       f m uch as on t s f of a
      W henever t fow of ener i notunior s              he ur ace
 T     t i        un, he        s    i
      s arlke ours t num ber and s zes ofconvecton cels w ilchange t
                                                 i     l l           o
 R     ui he       i
      s t t phys cal condii . The s udent w il be expl i t
                             tons        t   s    l         or ng he
 O
 D
             r i              i     l      he eas     or hes
      concentatons of convecton cels and t r ons f t e var ng     yi
 U           r i .         t     s l       i                 i
      concentatons The s udent w il be us ng hands on experences t   o
 C    produce varatons i convecton cels Then s udent w il l
                 i i    n         i    l.       t    s l ook at t   he
 T        ogr        he un’ ur ace or yi           r i
      phot aphs oft s s s f f var ng concentatons ofconvecton      i
 I
 O
         l.
      cels
 N


                                                      A
                                             M A TER I LS N EED ED :

 O    ·Student w ili
              s l nves i e t caus
                      tgat he    es          .H    at
                                           1.. otpl e
 B    of var ng concent atons of
             yi          r i                 .Cl      ex
                                           2.. earPyr pan orpot
 J
      convecton cels
            i      l.                        .O
                                           3.. paque sham poo
 E
 C                                           .I
                                           4..ce cube
 T    · St      s    l ook at t
           udent w il l             he       .Rock orm ar e
                                           5..           bl
 I        ogr
      phot aphs of t s s s f and
                    he un’ ur ace            .Phot aphs oft s s s f
                                           6.. ogr          he un’ ur ace
 V      ovi    eas     or he
      pr de r ons f t var ng      yi
 E           r i           i     l.
      concentatons ofconvecton cels
 S


 C
 O                          i     l hat
      The num ber of convecton cels t
 N     or
      f m s depends on m any physi   cal
 C     act s uch as t r
      f or s            he ange of t  he
 L     em at e f er            w
      t per ur dif ence bet een t     he
 U
 S
         t        he op     he l d,
      botom and t t of t fui and
 I     t s iy.          he ol ur ace,
      is vi cos t O n t s ar s f
 O     hes
      t e condii                   r
                 tons can change f om
 N      ace o ace          e he l
      pl t pl becaus t fow of
 S          r    ns de he un s
      heat f om i i t s i not t       he
       am      yw e.
      s e ever her



                   : k2-      k2-   35-
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 3,11b- 2,9e- 1
            epar he   ex              ai ng
        ·Pr e t Pyr pan or potcont ni a 1/ i l4-nch ayer of sham poo,on
         he      at
        t hotpl e. St udent s
                           s houl l agai att cels The s udent s
                                 d ook    n he l .        t     s houl d
            er he t ns          e he l e os oget          ar
        obs ve t pater ofw her t cels ar cl e t herorf apar. H elt     p
         he t     s ealze hat     e her s he     t   , her
        t s udent r i t w her t e i t m os heat t e w oul be a    d
           i t    t n n he        i
        defnie pater i t convecton cels A dd an i cube t one s de of t
                                       l.       ce     o       i     he
                      he t     s    er              hat e een i t
        pot and have t s udent obs ve any changes t ar s           n he
  P            r i        l.
        concentatons ofcels
  R             he ce       t       he ham poo has r
        ·O nce t i has m eled and t s                   ed, ace ock or
                                                    eheat pl a r
  O         bl n he . udent s
        m ar e i t pot St       s houl l
                                      d ook car uly at t convecton cels
                                               ef l     he       i      l
  C      ur oundi t r orm ar e. The r w ils ay cool t t s
        s r      ng he ock      bl       ock l t        er han he ham poo
         or onger perod of tm e, t convecton cels ar
        f al           i      i    he       i    l ound t r he ock should
  E      es     e hos hat ur ound t s poton t s ss f
        r em bl t e t s r         he uns                       A uns
                                              he un’ ur ace. ( s poti   s
  D          ea         he un’ ur ace hat        er em at e han he es
        an ar ofgason t s ss f t hasa cool t per ur t t r t
  U        he ur ace,m aki i l lke a dar s .
        oft s f          ng t ook i       k pot)
  R           t
        ·The s udent s
                   s houl com pl e a s m pl com par and contas char i t r
                        d      et i e              e        r t    t n hei
  E      ear ng ogs o how how t per ur changes caus varatons i t
        l ni l t s               em at e                 ed   i i     n he
               r i     he       i
        concentatons oft convecton cels l.

        · St     s houl exam i t phot aphs of t s s s f
            udent s    d      ne he       ogr       he un’ ur ace. The
         t     s houl be abl t i iy s fc pater or concentatons of
        s udent s    d      e o dentf pecii       t ns        r i
               i     l       s bl     es n he   ogr    .   e he W L
        convecton celsand pos i e caus i t phot aphs U pdat t K - -
            t t he       nf m i           he un’ ur ace.
        char w ih t new i or aton aboutt s s s f



             Grades 2-6
   ens ons
Ext i
                          t    t uper s on,t s udent coul expl e con-
             ·A thom e,w ih adul s    vi i he t    s     d   or
                 i      e hor      y      tng f er     eral nt he .
             vecton m or t oughl by puti dif entm at i s i o t pot
                       e, he t      s    d    i      t    m , oup,and
             Forexam pl t s udent coul experm entw ih oat eal s
              i d oap.
             lqui s
                     m natng   i t
                  C ul i i A ctviy

   G rades K -3

         t   s l        et        l       he     s f         t .
   The s udent w ilcom pl e an "A l A boutt Sun' Sur ace" pos er
      ve      t
   G i each s udent a phot       ed ct e       he un' ur ace t
                           ocopi pi ur of t s s s f            o
     ace n he      er    he
   pl i t cent of t pos er The s udent s
                                t .       t          d abel t
                                                s houl l      he
    eat es    he un' ur ace. U ndereach l ,t s udent s
   f ur on t s s s f                       abel he t    s houl d
     ve    i     crpton     he      es hat eat e.
   gi a brefdes i i oft caus oft f ur Forexam pl               e,
     hi s uns , t s          ea       e he em at e
   "t s i a s pot i i an ar w her t t per ur of t s s   he un'
    ur ace s
   s f i cool . er"

   G rades 4-6

        t    s l        et        l       he    s f          t .
   The s udent w ilcom pl e an "A l A boutt Sun' Sur ace" pos er
        t     s houl begi by dr i s e of t f ur of t
   The s udent s    d     n      aw ng om       he eat es     he
    un' ur ace n he      er he        t .
   s s s f i t cent of t pos er The s udent s t           d abel
                                                    s houl l
    he aw ngs               abel he t
   t dr i . U ndereach l ,t s udent s            d ve
                                           s houl gi a brefi
      crpton     he    es hat eat e.
   des i i oft caus oft f ur Forexam pl "t s i an  e, hi s
     ea     gh        r i               i    l, t s     ea
   ar of hi concentatons of convecton cels i i an ar w her     e
    he em at e he           s ur ace s
   t t per ur oft Sun’ s f i cool ”        er




       he nt i
Even t i er oroft he
    t            i
Ear h has convecton
   l        e he
cels becaus t cor  e
    he     t s
of t Ear h i near yl
6000 Centgri ade and
 he
t surf        s
         ace i cool .
     i    s
Contnent m ove on
 hes gantc
t e gi i convec-
 i       l
ton cels over t   he
     s       li
cour e of m ilons of
     s
year .
                              s        im
                         W hati M agnets ?


   I
   N                 l      he      i        i i e            s o
          W e have al had t experence of us ng s m pl m agnet t hol d
   T         es
          not on s fur aces s        ef i at        s        i m s he
                             uch as r rdger or door . M agnets i t
   R       or
          f ce pr                    s    ch        l     he hol ng’
                  oduced by m agnet w hi does al of t ‘ di .
   O
                 im s s         y m     t  or n      ur    ch
          M agnets i al o a ver i porantf ce i N at e w hi can m ove
   D
   U             es n t s        n he pace ar
          hotgas i s ar ,and i t s                 he t         t
                                             ound t earh.The s udents
   C         l nves i e m agnets and m agnetc f ces The s udent w il
          w ili    tgat         im           i or .         t     s l
   T          or he tactng          epeli
          expl e t atr i and r lng pr            tes          s hr
                                             operi of m agnet t ough
   I
   O
                        i
          hands on experences .
   N




                                                         A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
                t    s l nves i e
         ·The s udent w ili     tgat
   O      hat
         t m agnet ar atr ed t
                    s e tact o              .M     s         or as
                                          1.. agnet -enough f cl s
   B      t , ch
         iem s w hi cont n m et s
                          ai    al          .Paperclps
                                          2..       i
   J
          uch
         s as ion.
                 r                          .Sti
                                          3.. rng
   E
   C     ·The s udent w ilexperence
               t     s l        i           .Books
                                          4..
   T     t a m agnetc f ce i an
          hat        i or s                 .Rul
                                          5.. er
   I      nvi i e or
         i s bl f ce.
   V            t    s l      or
         · The s udent w ilexpl e
   E            s tactng       epeli
         m agnet atr i and r lng
   S
         pr    tes
           operi .



   C           t    s l ear
         The s udent w il l n
   O     t        act i i
          he char er stcs of
   N
                im        t
         m agnets .The s udent s
   C
   L        l         t at he
         w il dem ons r e t
   U       tactng
         atr i and r lng epeli
   S     pr    tes
           operi ofm agnet .s
   I
   O
   N
   S


                   : k2-      k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 4g- 2,12a- 1
        ve      t            .       he t     s    or he ect hat he
    ·G i each s udenta m agnet H ave t s udent expl e t obj s t t
                d     tact o.       t
    m agnetw oul be atr ed t The s udent s      d ook he ect      i
                                          s houl l att obj s and fnd
                 act i tcs     t     s houl r d t rfndi i a
    com m on char ers i . The s udent s    d ecor hei i ngs n
     ear ng og.
    l ni l

                        ece    ti o       k; i he her        o
    ·Tape one end ofa pi ofs rng t a des te t ot end ont a paper
P     i
    clp. Take a s        ece
                 econd pi ofs rng and s pend t m agnetf om a r er
                                ti       us    he        r      ul
R          ed t        .     us he evelofbooks s t t di t
    anchor w ih books A dj tt l                                    w
                                                o hat he s ance bet een
     he             he        i l      he i o t         t
    t m agnetand t paperclp alow s t clp t s and up w ihoutt       ng he
                                                              ouchi t
O           .     t
    m agnet The s udent s
                       s houl s t a m agnetc f ce coul be i s bl
                              d ee hat        i or      d    nvi i e.
C             ace eces ofpaperorcl h bet een t clp and t m agnett
    Y ou can pl pi                  ot    w    he i       he        o
E   s     he tengt      he       i or
     how t s r h oft m agnetc f ce.
D       t he ti tl t               he t     s r o ai e he
    ·W ih t s rng s ilatached,have t s udent ty t r s t paperclp i
U    r    he k t            .
    f om t des w ih a m agnet They s   d r o         i h hi t
                                    houl ty t accom pls t s w ihout
R    eti he                   i ouch. The s udent s
    l tng t m agnetand paperclp t          t           d       og
                                                 s houl keep a l of
         hey   e eo           i h hi ;
    how t w er abl t accom pls t s w hatm et           tat es
                                             hods and s r egi w ere
E   used.

        l he t        si o         or he tactng      epeli
    ·A low t s udent tm e t expl e t atr i and r lng pr            tes
                                                               operi of
           s
    m agnet . They s    d      eo        tat hat              w
                    houl be abl t dem ons r e t a m agnethas t o ends or
       es hat l tact epelf om ot pol . H ave t s udent obs ve
    pol t w ilatr orr            r    her es         he t     s er
                       w          s e epeli r            her      t
    w hathappens w hen t o m agnet ar r lng f om each ot . The s udent  s
    s    d i        t         s s       hey      een
     houl fnd a parnerand di cus w hatt have s and w het t rher hei
      as m e         eo s         he am
    cl s at w as abl t di covert s e pr        tes
                                           operi .
                                 i el ?
                 W hatare M agnetc Fi ds




   I    n      i    ci
       I phys cal s ence,a ‘ i d’ i a r on of s
                             fel s egi               n   ch
                                               pace i w hi an object
   N
   T
                 e     h        l      i or      e el ound t entr
       can caus a pus ora pul.M agnetc f ces ar f tar       he ie
   R          , he egi n        ch he     i or            s l he
       m agnet t r on i w hi t m agnetc f ces can acti caled t
   O          i i d.         i i      or    i he         i i d.
       m agnetc fel M agnetc lnesoff ce defne t m agnetc fel The
   D    t     s l        or he i      or            s          e to
       s udent w ilexpl e t lnes of f ce of m agnet and com par i t
   U
   C    he i        or      he un      he t            he t
       t lnes of f ce on t s and t earh. W hen t s udent ar     s e
   T      i he r        ii    o    i he
       us ng t ion flngs t defne t m agnetc lnes of f ce, i i
                                                i i        or    t s
   I    m    t     o tes hat he ocedur m us be done s ow l and
       i porant t s r s t t pr           e      t          l y
   O
           ef l o        he t f s
       car uly t have t bes ef ect .
   N


                                                       A
                                              M A TER I LS N EED ED :

   O           t     s l
        · The s udent w il expl e t
                              or he       .Stong         s
                                        1.. r M agnet -enough f   or
   B           i id i
        m agnetc fel lnesofa m agnet.            as    m l oups
                                               cl s ors al gr
   J
               t     s l nves i e
        · The s udent w il i    tgat      .Pl tc ap
                                        2.. as i w r
   E
   C     he       i i d i       w
        t m agnetc fel lnes bet een       .I on ii
                                        3..r flngs
   T     w    tactng     w epeli
        t o atr i and t o r lng           .Pl tc eas
                                        4.. as i t poon
   I           i    es
        m agnetc pol .                    .Paper w hie
                                        5..     - t
   V          t     s l ear hat he
        ·The s udent w ill n t t          .Pl tc r
                                        6.. as i tay
   E       t      he un
        earh and t s have m agnetc i      .Com pas
                                        7..        s
   S
        pr    tes
          operi .                         .Phot aph
                                        8.. ogr ofs potor uns
                                                      i oops on t s
                                               m agnetc l       he un

   C          t     s l       n
        The s udent w il gai an
   O          s andi
        under t     ng    of t  he
   N      es               i i ds
        pr ence of m agnetc fel
   C    ar             s he un
          ound m agnet ,t s and
   L     he t           t     s l
        t earh. The s udent w il
   U
   S
         ear hat he
        l n t t m agnetc poli   es
   I      t act w hen t
        atr               hey ar e
   O      f er
        di f ent and r  epel w hen
   N     hey e he am
        t ar t s e.
   S


                   : k2-    k2-   k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 3,g- 2,9b- 1,
                       k2-   35-
                   11b- 2,9e- 1
           i he t      s hat he ron ii
    **C auton t s udent t t i flngs s     d          en   ow
                                       houl notbe eat or bl n
     nt     .
    i o eyes **

            he      s t as i ap o           he r ii        f hem
    ·Covert m agnet w ih pl tc w r t keep t ion flngs of t . Pl    ace
     he     ed       n he as i r          ace he         op.
    t cover m agneti t pl tc tay and pl t paperon t The s udent  t     s
    s    d ef l e he poon t s i e a s al am ountoft ion flngs on
     houl car uly us t s      o prnkl m l               he r ii
     he     .     r ii       l t n        t n hat ndi es he i
    t paper The ion flngs w ils ay i a pater t i cat t lnes off ce or
       hat      .    t    s houl dr t robs vatons i t rl ni
    oft m agnet The s udent s    d aw hei      er i     n hei ear ng
     ogs    t he t     s          et hei      er i , he r ii
    l . A fert s udent have com pl ed t robs vatons t ion flngs can
           ed f he          he r        nt he
    be pour of t paperand t tay back i o t cont nerai .

        ve       oup    t
    ·G i each gr ofs udent a pai ofcover m agnet . Pl t cover
                             s     r       ed        s ace he      ed
           s         nch    t n he as i r         ace he
    m agnet aboutan i apar i t pl tc tay and pl t paperon t The op.
     t     s houl car uly s i e a s al am ountoft ion flngs on t
    s udent s    d ef l prnkl m l                  he r ii        he
P        .      r ii      l t n         t n hat ndi es he i
    paper The ion flngs w ils ay i a pater t i cat t lnes off ce or
       w     he       s      t    s houl l att lnes off ce and
    bet een t m agnet . The s udent s    d ook he i       or
R      er ne      her he
    det m i w het t m agnetc pol ar alke ordif ent H ave t s udent
                               i    es e i        f er .      he t    s
O    ecor hei     er i     n hei ear ng ogs
    r d t robs vatons i t rl ni l .
C
            he t   s epeatt actviy offndi lnes off ce,butt s tm e
    ·H ave t s udent r     he i t     i ng i       or     hi i
E           he     s     t ever ed o hat t      ie e s
    one oft m agnet m us be r s s t is oppos t pol i aboutan i nch
D          r   he her
    aw ay f om t ot m agnet The s udent s
                            .     t         d ook he i      or
                                       s houl l att lnes off ce and
U      er ne     her he       i   es e i
    det m i w het t m agnetc pol ar alke ordif ent The s udent
                                               f er .    t    s
    s    d ecor hei     er i    n hei ear ng ogs
     houl r d t robs vatons i t rl ni l .
R
E      s ay he      ogr     he     i oops on t s s s f w ihout
    ·D i pl t phot aph oft m agnetc l        he un’ ur ace t
     nf m ng he t      s he our       ton he t      s
    i or i t s udent oft s ce. Q ues i t s udent aboutw hatt  hey
       er n he       ogr       m
    obs ve i t phot aph. The i age s    d es    e he      i i
                                    houl r em bl t m agnetc lnes of
     or he t       s aw n he evi     i t       t     s ci i t
    f ce t s udent s i t pr ous actviy. The s udent as s ents s
    s     d    s and hat hey e eei
     houl under t t t ar s ng m agnetc pr        tes
                                         i operi on t she un.

       s s he t      ’     er i            e he W L      t t
    ·D i cus t s udents obs vatons and updat t K - - char w ih new
        tons     nf m i
    ques i and i or aton.

        s ay         s o he t     s     ai hat he    e he
    ·D i pl a com pas t t s udent . Expl n t t needl oft com pas    s
       l nt      he       i   t        e ts       i                  ss
    w ilpoi outt m agnetc norh becaus i i m agnetzed. W hen a com pas i
       d    he t he t s             i i d    t or       he      e.
    hel on t earh,t earh’ m agnetc fel exers a f ce on t needl Thi    s
    s     d p he t      s     s and hat he t s             i operi .
     houl hel t s udent under t t t earh al o has m agnetc pr       tes
                s he    ace he    o    i
           W hy i t Surf oft Sun s A ctve?

             t he i t           ee     he     s     ed
         M os of t actviy w e s on t Sun i caus by m agnetc feli i ds
   I
   N        tng angl up             l    nt
         geti t ed- and puled i o com pl s                  .    m
                                                   ex hapes Enor ous
   T            s       gy         el ed               i i ds un- nk’
         am ount of ener can be r eas w hen m agnetc fel ‘ ki .
   R          t     s l e i             i tes o        he      i i ds
         The s udent w ilus varous actvii t m odelt m agnetc fel
   O
   D
         ar      he un. The s udent w ils how changes i t s m agnetc
           ound t s          t      s l ee                n hi      i
   U      i d      e               i
         f el caus phenom enon lke cor             s ectons iam s
                                          onal m as ej i , f l ent ,
   C      uns s               i oops on t s
         s pot , and m agnetc l             he un. St        s l e
                                                        udent w il us
   T         ogr
         phot aphs of cor             s ectons and m agnetc l
                           onal m as ej i                   i oops t o
   I
   O        er ne he peed oft s phenom enon.
         det m i t s          hi
   N

                t
         ·The s udent w il us a m odel
                     s l e                               A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
          o       tat he es r urng
         t dem ons r e t r tuct i
         of t m agnetc fel on t
             he        i i ds       he      .Pi   eaner
                                          1.. pe cl    s
          un’ ur ace.
         s ss f                             .St
                                          2.. udents
   O
   B     ·The s udent w il us a m odel
                t    s l e                  .Baloons
                                          3.. l
   J     to dem ons r e how
                     t at          the      .G it
                                          4.. lter
   E            i i d es r urng
         m agnetc fel r tuct i can
   C         e              i
         caus phenom enon lke cor onal
   T     m ass ej i           iam s
                   ecton, f l ent ,
   I
          uns s             i oops
         s pot ,and m agnetc l     .
   V
   E               t      s
         · The s udent w il us l     e
   S         ogr        he un’ ur ace
         phot aphs oft s s s f
          o    er ne he peed of t
         t det m i t s              he
         phenom enon.


               t      s   l
         The s udent w il gai ann
   C
   O
              s andi
         under t    ng of how t     he
   N      es r ur ng     he
         r t uct i of t m agnetc    i
   C      i d      he
         f el of t sun can caus      e
   L                      ents s
         phenom enon. Sci i t have
   U             e o ear      e
         been abl t l n m or about
   S     t     un’ ur ace as new
          he s s s f
   I
   O
          nf m i      s ecei
         i or aton i r ved f om   r
   N      at lt
         s elies t   hat have been
   S     l        n ecentyear .
          aunched i r        s

                   : k2-      k2-
A A A S Benchm arks 4g- 2,11b- 2,3a- 2,
                                    35-                  at lt    o he ur
                                          NASA,TRACE s elie phot oft s -
                      35- 1a- 1
                   9e- 1, 35-             ace he
                                          f oft Sun s        ng     i id
                                                         howi m agnetc fel
                                           i            r uns s
                                          lnes near a pai ofs pot .
      n hi i t he t           s l e pe eaner as a m odelf t m agnetc
    ·I t s actviy t s udent w ilus pi cl           s           or he      i
     i ds    he ur ace he un. They w ils how t e m agnetc fel under
    fel on t s f oft s                    l ee        hes       i i ds      go
     es r urng        i           he t     s or      i
    r tuct i overtm e. H ave t s udent f m a lne acr s t r             l aci
                                                           os he oom ,al f ng
     he am           ve       t
    t s e w ay. G i each s udenta pi cl pe eaner Ever ot s udents
                                                 .      y her t          d ws
                                                                     houl t i t
               hei pe eanert a nei
    one end oft rpi cl          o           ’      hen t         r   he i
                                      ghbor s and t s ep aw ay f om t lne.
         em ni t
    The r ai ng s udent s       d d       o he ongers r
                          s houl hol on t t l                    pe eaner .
                                                       tands ofpi cl     s
                   y her em ni t             t      s
    N ow ,have ever ot r ai ng s udentatach hi orherpi cl            so
                                                             pe eaner t a
    nei     ,     t              i    o epeatt actviy untlt e ar j ta f
       ghbor and s ep aw ay. Contnue t r        he i t       i her e us ew
     t     s ef    di he pe eaner . H ave t s udent di cus t changes i
    s udent l thol ng t pi cl          s        he t      s s s he          n
     he       i id         ecor    er i       n hei ear ng ogs
    t m agnetc fel and r d obs vatons i t rl ni l .

      n hi i t he t           s l          he un’        i i d.
    ·I t s actviy t s udent w ilbecom e t s s m agnetc fel The s udent t     s
    s    d her andom l i an open s
     houl gat r          y n              n he as r        t
                                     pace i t cl s oom w ih aboutan ar ’ m s
P    engt    w     hem         t       l
    l h bet een t . Each s udentw ilbecom e an actve par oft m agnetc
                                                       i    t he           i
     i d, hei ef m l              t    art       hei i     m l
    fel t rl tar w ilhave norh pol iy and t rrghtar w ilhave s h        out
R      art     i
    pol iy. U s ng Pos - tnot w ih N orS on t ,orof dif entcol s t
                      tI     es t             hem        f er       or , o
O     ovi      s     d or
    pr de a vi ualai f youngers udent .W hen t s udent ar r
                                   t    s         he t    s e eady t  hey
C   s    d ai e hei m o he i               l      ki hem t "atr " or"r "
     houl r s t rar s t t s de. Y ou w ilbe as ng t         o tact         epel
     o he her t       ’    es hat e he os t
    t t ot s udents pol t ar t cl es . The s udent s t           d
                                                          s houl notm ove
E    hei eet      i y           he       i or       t hei m .
    t rf ,buts m pl becom e t m agnetc f ce w ih t rar s Forexam pl i       e, f
D    w am        es     e os t oget , he t         s m         d
    t o s e "pol " w er cl es t her t s udent ’ar s w oul m ove aw ay
     r          fw     f er      es     e os t oget , he t
    f om each. I t o dif ent"pol " w er cl es t her t s udent ’ar ss m
U        d t     o
    w oul atach t each ot att w rs s Bot oft s udents "pol " can be
                          her he i t .       h    he t    ’      es
R     t      o f er         es       he t      s ook
    atached t dif ent"pol ". H ave t s udent l atw hats udentt
E       i atons      e or
    confgur i w er f m ed.

          olow ng i t s         o        delne o crbe o he t
    The f l i ls i m eantt be a gui i t des i t t s udent w hatt    s      he
     t          i atons        d
    s udentconfgur i coul m odel       .
      f r ar oup                   ght t    s or     hey     d
    ·I a cicul gr ofaboutei s udent f m ed,t coul be cons der a     i ed
    Cor          s ecton.             s or         he       i id
        onalM as Ej i A CM E i f m ed w hen t m agnetc fel has been
     tet
    s r ched and br             r    he un’ ur ace.
                    eaks aw ay f om t s s s f
      f oop             i t        s or     hey    d       i ed
    ·I a l ofaboutfve s udent f m ed,t coul be cons der a M agnetc       i
                     i        tet           r    he un’ ur ace,butr ai
    Loop. A M agnetc Loop s r ches aw ay f om t s s s f            em ns
      t         t
    atached atis ends  .
      f ti               hr t        s or
    ·I a s rng ofaboutt ee s udent f m ed,t coul be cons der a Fiam ent
                                              hey    d        i ed    l      .
         l      s hor            i oud hat tcks       r
    A Fiam enti a s tm agnetc cl t s i outf om t s s s f  he un’ ur ace.
      f     oup    w t        s or      os i e, hey       d
    ·I a gr oft o s udent f m a cl ed fgur t coul be cons der a   i ed
     uns .       uns     s     ea     he un’ ur ace     e he
    s pot A s poti an ar on t s s s f w her t m agnetc fel i      i id s
        e
    m or concentatr ed.

    ·Y ou can r      he i t            i               d i he t      s l
               epeatt actviy as m any tm es as you w oul lke,t s udent w il
                        i atons t          epetton.
    m ake m any new confgur i w ih each r ii
     contnued)
    ( i

                tat he or             ace om    it n        l
    ·To dem ons r e t f ce ofa CM E,pl s e glteri a baloon. Begi t   n o
P     ow     he l      em ndi he t       so    er he tet ng
    bl up t baloon,r i ng t s udent t obs ve t s r chi oft         he
R      l           s de he l            s he       i or        he un hat
    baloon. The out i oft baloon m odel t m agnetc f ces oft s t
O     e ng tet              he l      s uly tet             t     r
    ar bei s r ched. W hen t baloon i f l s r ched,m ove i aw ay f om
          ace        t    s      taton how s t s udent t t m agnetc
    yourf and pop i. Thi dem ons r i s        he t      s hat he      i
C    id      he un l eak             t         tet       oo ar
    fel on t s w ilbr aw ay w hen i becom es s r ched t f . The
E     it epr ent he       ged as
    glterr es s t char pl m a t s           s       r    he un’ ur ace
                                    hat hoot aw ay f om t s s s f
D          he      i i ds eak
    w hen t m agnetc fel br up.
U      s s he t      s     er i            e he W L      t t he
    ·D i cus t s udent ’obs vatons and updat t K - - char w ih t new
R    nf m i
    i or aton.
E




                 Grades 1-6
                 • St      s     d        lpbook ofa phenom enon oft s as
                      udent coul m ake a fi                         he un
E                    t      . ncl      n he
                    i m oves I uded i t w or           e om      ogr
                                               kbook ar s e phot aphs of
X                                    i oops t hel t s udent vi ualze w hat
                    CM Es and m agnetc l     o p he t        s s i
T                    hey ook i       ve      t        heet
                    t l lke. G i each s udent10 s s of3 x 3 i papernch
                     a
                    ( Pos -I pad w or w el f t s . The s udent s
                          t t         ks l or hi )       t            d aw
                                                               s houl dr
E                    he equence oft phenom enon one s ep ata tm e on each
                    t s             he                t       i
N                     ece        .        l he t     e aw he
                    pi ofpaper W hen al t s eps ar dr n,t paper       s
S                   s    d
                     houl be pl      n der      t ed oget
                               aced i or and s apl t heratone edge.
                         t         ds he t ed       n               lps he
                    The s udenthol t s apl edge i one hand and "fi " t
I                     her       o       he m
                    ot pages t m ake t i age m ove.
O
N                Grades 4 -6
                 • St      s l ook       ogr                          i
                      udent w ill atphot aphs ofa CM E and ofa m agnetc
S                    oop       er ne he peed us ng t f m ul bel .
                    l and det m i t s          i he or a ow

                                            s ance tavel by t f ur
                                          D it     r ed     he eat e
                             i
                 Speed ofm oton =
                                                  m     r
                                                 Ti e oftavel
                                         as      tcl r    he un hat
               C oronalM as Ej i -a bl tofpari es f om t s t
                            s ecton
                    s      he       i or       he un es r ur
               occur w hen t m agnetc f ces on t s r tuct es and
               breaks.

                                uptons he as    he un hat
               M agnetc Loop -er i oft pl m a oft s t occur
                      i
                     he       i i ds e w s ed.
               w hen t m agnetc fel ar t i t
K ey Term s                   er ea he un’ as      hat     s
               Suns s -a cool ar oft s s pl m a t occur w hen
                   pot
                her s        r i     he un’       i i d i .
               t e i a concentaton oft s s m agnetc fel lnes

                       - m l upton      he un’ ur ace hat s
               Fiam ent s al er i on t s s s f t occur w hen
                 l
               he       i i ds s w s ed.
               t m agnetc fel i t i t




      m      he    aken by t Yohkoh X- ay Sat lt Not t pater of
     I age oft Sun t       he         r     elie. e he t ns
        es l ng ong         i i d i ,      r ng-    iam s
     gas fowi al m agnetc fel lnes and t aci outfl ent .
     un’ adi s
The s s r us i R=
    000 l     er
690, kiom et sand
 s how n by t doted
is          he t
 i           i .
lne atupperrght

   s m
Thi i age w as taken
     06:
at 12: 41 on A ugust
18,1980.

     ur he s ance
M eas e t di t
 r     he op
f om t t of t   he
       oud o he
CM E cl t t cen-
 er he       i he
t oft Sun us ng t
 adi     he un
r us of t s as a
guide.

    w       5
A ns er = 3. x R or
       400,
about2, 000 km .




       upton     i
CM E er i ata tm e
   10:          t
13: 08 on A ugus 18,
1980.

  m     f er
Ti e di f ence be-
w      he w
t een t t o pho-
ogr     s
t aphs i 1 hourand 3
  nut .
m i es

    r         s ance
Cur ent CM E di t
 r        s    er s
f om Sun’ cent i
         0
about 5. x R or
  400,     l   er .
3, 000 kiom et s

          3. 2.
Speed = ( 4- 4) m i-l
 i          vi
lon km di ded by
            , ,     l
about1 hour or 1 m i-
 i   l     er /
lon kiom et s hour.
    e ew         ogr
H er ar t o phot aphs t   aken by t TRA CE s elie on J 8,1998 t s
                                  he          at lt      une          hat how t he
 ur ace he           een t he r i hat i                  nds
s f oft Sun as s w ih t X - ay lghtt varous ki ofhotgas pr             es oduce.
 us o he i            er her e w        alel
J tt t rghtofcent t e ar t o par l ,hor es      s hoe- haped l
                                                       s            .     op c-
                                                               oops The t pi
 ur
t e w as t          34
          aken at10: A M and t botom pi ur w as t
                                he t       ct e                  37
                                                      aken at10: A M .D urngi
 he hr       nut     aps i               ee hat he oop
t t ee m i es ofel ed tm e,you can s t t l expaned upw ar i s ze.     ds n i
        i al          tcal i      he ow i            engt
The horzont and veri lnes att l errghthave l hs of13, kiom et s   000 l      er .
   i        li er ul ,       ur he f er       n ght w           he w
U s ng a m ilm et r er m eas e t dif ence i hei bet een t t o vi s of    ew
 he i er oop         r
t brght l and f om t r er             engt       000 l        er , er ne
                          he ef ence l h of13, kiom et s det m i how
 ar he oop           w      he w      ogr    .     w :       li er hit
f t l m oved bet een t t o phot aphs (ans er 2 m ilm et s s f com -
   ed o       li er        000    7    700 l      er ) nce he i
par t 7 m ilm et s = 13, x 2/ = 3, kiom et s . Si t tm e bet een         w
     ogr      s    nut , hi ves peed of3700 km / m i es orabout74,
phot aphs i 3 m i es t s gi a s                      3 nut                 000
km /hour .
                           s he ar nd?
                      W hati t Sol W i

               e he ur ace       he un s y i            es e
        Becaus t s f of t s i ver actve, gas ar cons anty bei     t l     ng
          ect nt pace.Thi ‘ i r hesoutf om t s f atneary a m ilon
        ej ed i o s          s w nd’ us        r    he ur ace      l    li
 I         l                r s o he bi          ut
        m ies per hour and tavel t t or tof Pl o and beyond.The am ountof
 N                l n hi nd s o m l hat ew han              om
        gas expeled i t s w i i s s al t f ert 10 at s per cubi i      c nch
 T
          e es
        ar pr entas i s            r    he ol ur ace       os es he bi
                       t peeds outf om t s ars f and cr s t or toft       he
 R
 O          t      , hi nd s       e han       o f he ais            s
        Earh.Y et t s w i i m or t enough t af ectt t l ofcom et and t     o
 D          et he        i i d     he t      i        f t m n pace.
        ups t m agnetc fel oft earh caus ng pow er uls or s i s
 U
 C
 T
        St     s l                  he ol   nd.       l e h ndi dual
          udent w ilm ake a m odeloft s arw i They w ilus bot i vi
 I            oup i tes o        or he ol
        and gr actvii t expl e t s arw i    nd.
 O
 N


                                                        A
                                               M A TER I LS N EED ED :
O
              t    s l      or
        ·The s udent w ilexpl e a m odel        .Puf ed i
                                              1.. f rce cer  eal
B         he ol
        oft s arw i  nd.                        .St
                                              2.. udent s
J                                               .Lar      w ndy ea
                                              3.. ge non- i ar
E             t    s l           cat
        ·The s udent w ilcom m uni e
C        hei i ngs o as m es
        t rfndi t cl s at .
T
I
V
E


C           t     s l n
       The s udent w ilgai an
O           s andi         he ol
       under t ng ofhow t s ar
N        nd s or
       w i i f m ed.
C
L
U
S
I
                                                        ogr        he ef aken by
                                                    Phot aph on t l t t
O
                                            he                 at lt
                                           t NASA, SO H O s elie of t Sun   he
N
                                             ectng     li t      oud
                                           ej i a bilon-on cl of gas i o t   nt he
S
                                            ol     nd.
                                           s ar wi .The cor          he un ends
                                                              ona oft s ext
                                              li          l nt pace, and i t
                                           m ilons of m ies i o s             s he
                                             r hpl       he ol
                                           bi t ace oft s ar wi   nd.
                                                          ct e he op s         ts ’
                                                    The pi ur att t i an ar i ts
                                                ton    he       i id      he
                                           endii oft m agnetc fel oft Ear h      t
                                              ng f ed          oud         ect
                                           bei afect by a cl of gas ej ed by
                                            he un. I r iy, al of t s actviy i
                                           t s       n ealt     l    hi     i t s
A A A S Benchm arks 11b- 2,9e- 1
                   :    k2-   35-                et y nvi i e         o ns r
                                           com pl el i s bl except t i t um ent    s
                                            ocat      peci l des gned s elies
                                           l ed on s aly- i            at lt .
          ur ace he un s y i                  l" i
    ·The s f oft s i ver actve and "bois lke a potofw at as   er
         i es r        ns de o he ur ace. Thi actviy caus a fow
    heatrs f om deep i i t t s f              s i t      es l
P         ,    ai ng    ged tcl , nt pace caled t s arw i
    ofgas cont ni char pari es i o s             l he ol      nd.
          t        l                i     l he un’ ur ace. Each
    Each s udentw ilbecom e a convecton cel on t s s s f
R    t
    s udents    d ow he f i            eal f hei
            houl bl t puf ed rce cer of t rhand and obs ve   er
O                . s epr ent                               i
    w hathappens Thi r es s w hathappens w hen one convecton cel  l
C      s s he ur ace he un.
    bur t att s f oft s

E   ·St      s l       o or        rc r es aci       .
        udent w ilneed t f m concenti cicl f ng out Chidr l en
D      l ow he f i           eal f hei         he am i
    w ilbl t puf ed rce cer of t rhands att s e tm e. They
    s     d   er hat om       he eal l oi nt ar
     houl obs ve t s e oft cer w ilj n i o l ger
U           r i       hat her s        tongerfow . Thi exam pl
    concentatons and t t e i a m uch s r      l        s      e
R    epr ent                              i      l    s   he
    r es s w hathappens w hen m any convecton cels bur tatt
E    ur ace he un.
    s f oft s

       s s he t      ’     er i         he ol   nd        e
    ·D i cus t s udents obs vatons aboutt s arw i and updat
     he W L
    t K - - char  t
                             s he       os
                        W hati t M agnet phere?




   I
   N       ents s l he egi ur oundi t Earh w her is m agnetc
        Sci i t cal t r on s r          ng he    t     e t        i
   T     i d s ocat    he
        fel i l ed, t M agnet pher W hen t s ar w i s
                                 os    e.       he ol             t
                                                         nd ends is
   R
   O     team           es pl m     ow ds he     t he
        s r s of hotgas ( as a) t ar t Earh,t m agnet pher  os    e
   D       l s     t hi       . udent w ilus hands on experences t
        defect m os of t s gas St     s l e                i      o
   U     ear       he       os    e.
        l n aboutt m agnet pher They w ill n how t s ar w i
                                            l ear      he ol     nd
   C
         t team of el rcaly conductng pl m a em it by t s
        (he s r        ecti l           i    as      ted    he un)
   T
   I     nt act t he          os
        i er s w ih t m agnet pher  e.
   O
   N


                                                         A
                                                M A TER I LS N EED ED :
               t    s l e          s
        · The s udent w il us m odel
        o ear
        t l n about t     he ear h’
                                 t s       .M      s tong art
                                         1.. agnet -s r pol iy bar
   O
   B          os
        m agnet phere.                          m agnet(        or oups i
                                                        enough f gr     f
   J                                               s bl
                                                pos i e)
   E    ·The s udent w ilus m odel t
              t    s l e         so        .Pl tc ap
                                         2.. as i w r
   C
        l n how t
         ear               ol
                     he s ar w i  nd       .I on ii
                                         3..r flngs
   T                                       .Pl tc al r          um num
                                         4.. as i s ad tay oral i
   I     nt act
        i er s           t
                       w ih       the
               os
        m agnet phere.                           r
                                                tay
   V
   E
                                           .Staw
                                         5.. r s
   S

              t     s l       n
        The s udent w il gai an
   C
   O
             s andi      he t s
        under t ng of t earh’
   N      ot i            i i d,
        pr ectve m agnetc f el
   C       l    he        os
        caled t m agnet pher     e.
   L          t     s l       n
        The s udent w il gai an
   U         s andi
        under t ng of how t     he
   S       t s
        ear h’      m agnetospher e
   I
         nt act     t he
        i er s w ih t char     ged
   O
   N      as     ent r   he un n
        pl m a s f om t s i
   S     ol     nd
        s arw i and CM Es   .
                                                   i id     he  t s y
                                        The m agnetc fel oft Ear h i ver com -
                                          i ed. e e ew         he egi
                                        plcat her ar a f of t r ons t      hat
A A A S Benchm arks 1b- 3,11b- 2
                   : k2-      k2-        ci i t       dentfed,    hei
                                        s ents s have i ii and t r appr - oxi
           4g- 2,9b- 1,9e- 1
              k2-     k2-  35-             e ocatons
                                        m at l i .
             ect he
    W hatprot s t earth?

            t         ot i             l he        os    e. t ks
    ·The earh has a pr ectve covercaled t m agnet pher I w or
        ki                    o            m ul hi . udent can
    as s n does on yourbody t keep outhar f t ngs St         s
        er              he       os    e i          s     r ii .
    obs ve a m odeloft m agnet pher us ng m agnet and ion flngs
    To keep yourbarm agnetcl         ap t n as i ap t ape
                              ean,w r i i pl tc w r w ih t
P   ar      t            act
      ound i,orputcont paperar           t ace
                                   ound i. Pl a barm agnetundera
R     as i al r
    pl tc s ad tay oral i         r       i e om r ii
                          um num tay. Sprnkl s e ion flngs ont   o
     he r r         s ance ofabout10 i
    t tay f om a di t                       .    er he t n
                                       nches O bs ve t pater m ade
O       he r ii          d n ace      he or      w    he
    by t ion flngs hel i pl by t f ces bet een t oppos t       ie
C      es he           s        t s        os   e
    pol oft m agnet .The earh’ m agnet pher can be m odel by  ed
E     ow ng ofl hr           taw ow ds he          i id i .
    bl i s ty t ough a s r t ar t m agnetc fel lnes A
     qui hi      he i d i            i      he
    s s ng oft fel lnes on one s de oft m odels      how s how the
D      t s        os
    earh’ m agnet pher l e ooks H ave t s udent dr t m odeloft
                               .       he t     s aw he            he
U      t s        os     e n hei ear ng ogs
    earh’ m agnet pher i t rl ni l .
R
                        he ol   nd            he   h’
    W hathappens w hen t s ar w i approaches t eart s
E          os
    m agnet phere?

      udent can obs ve t w ay w at fow s ar
    ·St    s       er he         er l              t            t n
                                           ound a s one as a pater
       he ol    nd   tl
    oft s arw i as i fow s ar     he t
                             ound t earh.

       ace he                   as i r
    ·Pl t barm agnetundera pl tc tay oral i         r     ace
                                            um num tay. Pl a
     m l t       r l         he    er he         o
    s al buton diecty above t cent oft m agnett m odelt  he
       t     i e he r ii        ong he            i     he r
    earh. Sprnkl t ion flngs al t edge ofone s de oft tay
         i he         .    ty ow he ii     ow d he t
    coverng t m agnet Sofl bl t flngs t ar t buton
     hr       taw       i he t      s o ow    ef l o hat r
    t ough a s r . Cauton t s udent t bl car uly s t no ion
     ii       nt             h!        ng   he or
    flngs geti o eyes orm out D ependi on t f ce us ied n
      ow ng, he ii      l    r      n he      i i      or
    bl i t flngs w ilbe tapped i t m agnetc lnes off ce.
           e hi o he r ng       he ol     tcl     he t s
    Com par t s t t tappi oft s arpari es by t Earh’
          os    e.       he t    s aw he           he f s he
    m agnet pher H ave t s udent dr t m odeloft ef ect oft
     ol    nd    he t s         os
    s arw i on t earh’ m agnet pher   e.
            m natng   i t
         C ul i i A ctviy
G rades K -2

      t    s l      k       as    n- oups w ih an adul t w rt
The s udent w ilw or as a cl s ori gr        t        t o ie
   t y         ged tcl n he as          he un.
a s or ofa char pari e i t pl m a oft s The s or coult y     d
       it          t                 nt             t t
be w r ten on char paper or m ade i o a book w ih s udent
 lus r i . or
il tatons St y event s        d ncl        ng r
                      s houl i ude;com i f om convecton    i
   l     he un' ur ace,bei or zed w ih ot pari es i t
cels on t s s s f          ng gani      t her tcl n he
        i i ds he un,        he ype
m agnetc fel oft s and t t ofphenom enon t t t     hat ook he
   tcl        r   he un.
pari e aw ay f om t s

G rades 3-6

     t     s l      k n gr      o ie t y        ap ong about
The s udent w ilw or i - oups t w rt a s or orr s
a char       tcl n he as
      ged pari e i t pl m a of t s         or       s houl
                                  he un. St y event s      d
 ncl         ng r           i     l    he un' ur ace, bei
i ude; com i f om convecton cels on t s s s f             ng
  gani      t her tcl n he             i i ds
or zed w ih ot pari es i t m agnetc fel of t s t  he un, he
 ype
t of phenom enon t t          he tcl         r    he un
                     hat ook t pari e aw ay f om t s and
            r
w hat occur ed w hen t         as
                         he pl m a appr oached t         ts
                                                  he ear h'
       os
m agnet pher e.
 os ary
Gl s

                 s      e   ed l d,   o ow      iy, i es       l ds al.
C onvecton -occur becaus heat fui due t l erdens t rs and coolfui f l
        i

                   s bl eas      e      i s        rng.
C onvecton C els -vi i e ar w her convecton i occur i
        i      l

                  - he     i            i ds     es hat  s       i
C onvecton current t cyclc m ovem entoflqui orgas t occur as heatng and
        i
    i     he    eral akes pl
coolng oft m at i t         ace.

I                    t es hat or w dentcal am , he hat s w ce
 nvers Square Law -s at t f t o i i l ps t one t i t i as f f om
      e                                                          ar r
 he er      l          4    i . n he i e ow he bs         o        l
t obs verw ilappear1/ as brght I t fgur bel ,t bul appeart be equaly
  i o om        ocat     he ar i         he aw ng.
brghtt s eone l ed att f rghtedge oft dr i

            nvi i e i            i
Li ofForce -i s bl lnes ofm agnetc pow er
 nes                                     .

             al hat    tact t n her al .
M agnet a m et t can atr cerai ot m et s
       -

       i el he pace ar
M agnetc Fi d -t s                       e he       he               el.
                      ound a m agnetw her t pow eroft m agnetcan be f t

M agnet phere -m agnetc caviy car outby t s arw i by vit oft m agnetc
       os             i     t    ved    he ol   nd    rue he        i
 i d ur oundi earh.
fel s r     ng t

M agnetc Propertes -r er t an iem w hi can atr orr
       i        i    ef s o    t     ch      tact epel iem s as m agnet do.
                                                        t             s

              er o he evelofbrght s ofa s ar
M agniude: Ref s t t l
     t                        i nes      t .

N ew t s Fi tLaw ofM oton -i an obj i atr t i t
      on’ rs             i    f    ect s es , t akes unbal       or     o
                                                          anced f ces t m ake i t
             s y, f     ect s   ng t akes an unbal
m ove. Conver el i an obj i m ovi i t                   or o        t         ts
                                                 anced f ce t m ake i change i’
  r i
diecton orspeed.

                            or   y i her s            ie           eacton.
N ew t s Thi Law ofM oton -f ever acton t e i an oppos t and equalr i
      on’  rd          i


   es ef s o he w     eas              e he      i f s e he tonges . The
Pol -r er t t t o ar ofa m agnetw her t m agnetc ef ect ar t s r   t
   es e      aly er    he t
pol ar gener l t m ed t norh and s h pol . Pol t ar alke ( h norh)w il
                                  out    es   es hat e i bot     t    l
r     r         her l     es hat e f er    one t      out    l tact o
 epelf om each ot w hie pol t ar dif ent( norh,one s h)w ilatr t each
  her
ot .
                                ng s
                           R eadi Li t
        es
Book Seri :

           s      i D        i hi
     D K D i coveres ( K Publs ng)
     M oon Landi  ng
            ogr c our
     A Phot aphi J ney Thr           he  ver e
                               ough t U ni s
            t s      or s D       i hi
     Eyew ines Expl er ( K Publs ng)
       ght
     N i Sky
                 or i
     Space Expl aton
                        i K ngfs
     IW onderW hy Seres ( i i herBooks   )
                      ar    nkl
     IW onderW hy St s Tw i e
                     he
     IW onderW hy t Sun Ri ess
        ’              nd
     Lets Read and Fi O utSeres i
                        o
     The M oon Seem s t Change
            he
     W hatt M oon i Lis ke
       oatng n
     Fl i i Space
     W hatM akes a M agnet?
          c        bus i Schol tc)
     M agi School Seres (         as i


    l    s
C hidren’ Books:

           ant
     Beas ,Pam . 1000 Fact AboutSpace.K i i herBooks
                               s               ngfs
     Beckl  ace,Sue. Eyewines Vi ualD i i
                           t s s         ctonar es U ni s D K Publs ng
                                                i : ver e.             i hi
     Beckl  ace,Sue. See and Expl e Li ar Space,St s Pl s and
                                  or br y:            ar , anet
                             af.         i hi
                     Spacecr t D K Publs ng
        anl      ankl
     Br ey,Fr yn. The Bi D i    g pper
        anl      ankl
     Br ey,Fr yn. The Sky i Ful ofSt s
                                  s l       ar
        t ela,       t
     Es al l Rober. O ur St -The Sun ( i
                              ar                          ver e)
                                           W ndow on U ni s .Bar ons r
         d, r
     For H ar y. Young As r t onom er D K Publs ng
                                     .         i hi
         t kam       r
     K etel p,Lar y. Li ng i Space.W ilam M or ow Publs ng
                           vi n             li       r        i hi
          ne,     .                    eri
     Levi Shar The M agnetBook.St lng Publcatons   i i
          t ai
     Scot,El ne. Advent e i Space:The Flghtt Fi t H ubbl D i ney Pr s
                          ur n                i o x he            e. s       es
          t ai
     Scot,El ne.Cl e Encount s Expl i t U ni s wih t H ubbl
                     os          er :    or ng he     ver e t he           e
                     Space Tel cope.D i ney Pr s
                               es       s       es
       m              .             li       r
     Si on,Seym our The Sun.W ilam M or ow Publs ng  i hi
       ot, ol
     St t Car e. D K Pocket :Space Fact . D K Publs ng
                              s            s         i hi
          ker ki
     W al ,N i . Sat lt and Space Pr
                       elies              obes (        he    ver e)
                                                Eye on t U ni s .
                  nt
                 I ernetR esources

 M        elie
I A G E Sat lt

        t /i     gs c. a.
      ht p:/m age. f nas gov

 M     PO      as r       i tes
I A G E/ ETRY cl s oom actvii and s      ci    nf m i
                                   pace s ence i or aton

        t /i     gs c. a. poet
      ht p:/m age. f nas gov/ ry

            i        or es ces
N A SA Spacelnk educat r our :

        t /s      i nas gov
      ht p:/ pacelnk. a.

         elie m        he un,  ed    y ew   s
SO H O Sat lt i ages oft s updat ever f hour .

        t /s          nas   nas gov
      ht p:/ ohow w w . com . a.

         si             t os up ew            i i ds   he un:
TRA CE M i s on page,w ih cl e- vi s ofm agnetc fel on t s

        t /w     I alcom
      ht p:/ w w . m s .

 as r        i tes           im
Cl s oom A ctvii aboutm agnets

        t /w     phys vi ni edu/ as es 620/ agnets _actvii . m l
      ht p:/ w w .   . rgi a. cl s / m           im    i tes ht

      ci i t t      he
W hy s ents s s udy t Sun

        t /s ence. s c. a. s lpad/ ol w hys ar. m
      ht p:/ ci  m f nas gov/ s / s ar/    ol ht

 ntoducton t m agnets
I r     i o        im

        t /w     duboi m arketng. / agnets . m l
      ht p:/ w w .   s        i com m    i m ht

    pot    he ol    e
Suns s and t s arcycl

        t /w     s pot e.       #cycl
      ht p:/ w w . uns cycl com /   e

  ar ur ace   i      l       anul i
Sol s f convecton cels and gr aton

        t /w     ki . - rei   de/   grant 1. m l
      ht p:/ w w . s unif burg. ~pnb/    ext ht

				
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