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Cloud Computing ppt (PowerPoint) by handongqp

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									Cloud Computing:
The Way Forward?

     Dr. Nabil Sultan
What is cloud
• 22 possible separate definitions
  of cloud!! (McKinsey study)
• Commonly used definition:
  “clusters of distributed
  computers (largely vast data
  centers and server farms) which
  provide on-demand resources
  and services over a networked
  medium (usually the Internet).”
Where did the word “cloud”
come from?
• In 2006 Eric Schmidt of Google
  described Google Software as
  “cloud computing” at a search
  engine conference.

• The term cloud is a metaphor for
  the Internet, possibly inspired by
  cloud images in computing text
What can cloud computing
•   Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): Products offered via this mode
    include the remote delivery (through the Internet) of a full
    computer infrastructure (e.g., virtual computers, virtual servers,
    storage devices, etc.);

•   Platform as a Service (PaaS): Products offered via this mode
    include the ability to develop and host software remotely. For
    example, you can (remotely) develop Web solutions and host
    them on Web servers running Server Operating Systems (e.g.,
    Windows 2003, Apache).

•   Software as a Service (SaaS): Under this layer, applications are
    delivered through the medium of the Internet as a service. This
    type of cloud service offers a complete application functionality
    that ranges from productivity applications (e.g., office-type) to
    programs such as those for Customer Relationship Management
    (CRM) or enterprise-resource management (ERM).
Cloud computing: a new
computing service
• Services delivered dynamically on a
  pay-as-you-go basis.
• Timesharing. Cloud computing =
  Timesharing 2.0 ! (Campbell, 2009)
• Predated in the 1990s by Application
  Service Provision (ASP) which was
  delivered via the Internet. ASP did
  not survive due to proprietary
  protocols and slow and expensive
  Internet connections.
Underlying Technologies
of the Cloud
• Web Services or Remote Application
  Service Provision
• Grid Computing (the provision of compute
  power through linking computers together
  –in a grid- and then “pooling” their CPU
  resources to achieve high performance
  compute/processing power)
• Virtualization (the creation of instances of
  virtual machines - e.g., virtual servers,
  virtual desktops - and their software – e.g.,
  operating systems, applications – that
  behave exactly like the real thing).
Major Cloud Platforms
• Amazon‟s Elastic Compute
• Amazon‟s Simple Storage (S3)
• IBM‟s Smart Business portfolio
• Google‟s Google Apps
• Microsoft‟s Azure
•‟s CRM clouds
  (e.g., Sales Cloud, Service Cloud
Main Concerns Relating
to Cloud Computing (1)
• Vendor Lock-in (most cloud providers
  produce their own proprietary Application
  Programming Interfaces (APIs)
• Security of Data
• Data Protection (some regions specify
  geographical limits for the movements of
  personal data)
• Sudden Unavailability of Service (i.e.,
• Loss of Jobs?
Main Concerns Relating
to Cloud Computing (2)
• Outages: left customers without service for 6 h
  in February 2008

  Amazon‟s S3 (simple storage service) and EC2 (Elastic
  Compute Cloud) suffered a 3-h outage in the same month
  a few days later and an 8-h outage in July of the same
  year by S3 (Leavitt, 2009).

  In early 2009, Google‟s Gmail went down for 3 h, thus
  preventing its 113 million users from accessing their
  emails or the documents which they store online as
  “Google Docs” (Naughton, 2009).
What is being done to
address these concerns?
• Amazon is making its S3 (simple storage service) cloud
  available through both SOAP and REST while Microsoft
  ensured that its Azure cloud also supports REST.
• Cloud Computing Interoperability Forum (CCIF) :
  ( promoting interoperability.
• Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
• Hybrid-Cloud solutions: For example, a company could
  use its own resources to store data securely but rely on
  public cloud services (e.g., Amazon‟s EC2) for other
  computing functions.
• Private (In-house) Cloud (some say this is not cloud
Who could benefit from
cloud computing?
• Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

• Educational Institutions

• Organizations engaged in Scientific

• Large companies?!
SMEs and the Cloud (1)

• Survey by the European Network and
  Information Security (ENISA), an EU
  agency found:
      68% of the SME responses indicated
  that avoiding capital expenditure in
  hardware, software, IT support and
  information security was behind their
  possible engagement in cloud computing;
      64% of the SME responses also
  indicated that flexibility and scalability of
  IT sources was the reason (ENISA, 2009).
SMEs and the Cloud (2)

• Survey conducted by Easynet Connect (a
  small UK internet solution provider) has
  shown that UK SMEs are increasingly
  eager to adopt cloud computing (Stening,
      47% planning to do so within the next five years.

     35% of them cited cost savings as the key driver
• Another survey by Gooroo (a small UK
  cloud provider) reveals similar results.
Educational Institutes &
the Cloud
• An increasing number of educational
  establishments have opted to use cloud

• In the UK, academic institutes using cloud
  computing include:
    Leeds Metropolitan University, the University of
    Glamorgan, the University of Aberdeen, the
    University of Westminster, the London
    University‟s School of Oriental and African
    Studies (SOAS), the Royal College of Art (RCA)
    and Liverpool Hope University.
University of Westminster
(Case Study)
(Sultan, 2010; JISC, 2009)

• Prior to using Google Apps (free version for
   • 96% of students were setting up their own personal
     email accounts (due to frequent problems with the
     university‟s email system)

• With Google Apps (rolled out for 2008/9 academic
   •  the University made a saving £1,000,000 (in terms of
     installation, ongoing maintenance, upgrades, staff
     costs, licenses, servers, storage, etc.).
   • Student got a reliable email system; were able to have
     personalised email addresses; were able to keep their
     email addresses (even after graduation), were able to
     use Google Apps‟s other features (chat, storage,
     productivity applications that support collaboration)
UK SME: Dot Net Solutions
(Case Study)
(Sultan, 2010b, Microsoft, 2009)

 • The company describes itself as: “A Microsoft-
   focused SME specializing in delivering technically
   complex development projects on cutting edge
 • When developing its projects it used the “Scrum”
   approach (pasting sticky labels on the wall). It
   proved problematic (having to photo them and send
   to clients)!
 • The company then replaced this manual method with
   its own software (called “Scrumwall”) using
   Microsoft Silverlight technology. The software
   mimics the “scrum” method but has a web-based
   interface for clients to see the development of their
 • The company used Microsoft‟s Azure platform to host
   its software (initially free but eventually on a pay-as-
   you-go basis).
The “green” credentials
of cloud computing
• Less money to spend on electricity
  (for powering machines and cooling
  the rooms that house them).
• Research suggests that ICT is
  responsible for 2% of global carbon
  emissions (and likely to increase).
• UK‟s Carbon Reduction Commitment
  and EU Energy Using Products
  Directive are likely to put pressure
  on companies to reduce their carbon
Famous Quotes
• Richard Stallman (creator of the GNU
  operating system and founder of the Free
  Software Foundation): “It‟s stupidity. It‟s
  worse than stupidity: it‟s a marketing hype
  campaign” (The Guardian, quoted by
  Johnson, 2009)
• Larry Ellison (founder of Oracle) described
  cloud computing as “fashion-driven” and
  “complete gibberish” and commented that
  it would be hard to make money in this
  technology which he sees as “lacking a
  clear business model”
Bill Gates & Internet

• Bill Gates (Chairman of
  Microsoft) in the early 1990s did
  not think much of the Internet!

• What happened then?

Interview with:
Dan Scarf (CEO of Do Net Solutions) &
Steve Clayton (Director, Cloud Strategy,
                       Microsoft International)

• Source: Financial Times:
•   Campbell, S (2009), „Timesharing 2.0‟, HPCwire,
    66169142.html (Accessed on: 5 April, 2010).
•   Financial Times (2009), “Getting to grips with the cloud”, (accessed on: 15 December 2009).
•   JISC (2009), „Outsourcing Email and Data Storage: Case Studies‟.
•   Johnson, B. (2008), „Cloud computing is a trap, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman,
    The Guardian,
    computing.richard.stallman (accessed on: 5 July 2009).
•   Leavitt, N. (2009). Is cloud computing really ready for prime time? Computer, 42(1),
•   Microsoft (2009), “Case Studies: Do Not Solutions”,
    847 (Accessed: 15 December 2009).
•   Naughton, J. (2009). There‟s silver lining to Google‟s cloud computing glitch. The
    computing (accessed on 21 July 2009).
•   Stening, C. (2009). “Every cloud has a Silver Lining”, easynetconnect,
    loud-computing-website-article-final.pdf (accessed on: 18 July 2009).
•   Sultan, N (2010), „Cloud Computing for Education: A New dawn?‟, International Journal
    of Information Management, Vol. 30, No. 2.
•   Sultan, N (2010a), „Cloud computing: making headway with the scientific community‟,
    High Performance Computing, Nova Publishing.
•   Sultan, N (2010b), „The Power of the Cloud in the Hands of SMEs‟, International
    Journal of Services Technology and Management, In Peer-Review Process.
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