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              Instrumentation
                 Chapter Seven




McGraw-Hill              © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
                          Instrumentation
                                                                                                            2




                                   Chapter Seven
      Instructions: Circle the choice that indicates your opinion.

      1. Teachers’ unions should be abolished.
        Strongly                                                                    Strongly
         agree             Agree         Undecided              Disagree            disagree
           (5)              (4)             (3)                   (2)                  (1)

      2. School administrators should be required by law to teach at least one class in a
      public school classroom every year.
        Strongly                                                                    Strongly
         agree             Agree         Undecided              Disagree            disagree
           (5)              (4)             (3)                   (2)                  (1)

      3. Classroom teachers should be able to choose the administrators in their schools.
        Strongly                                                                    Strongly
         agree             Agree         Undecided              Disagree            disagree
           (5)              (4)             (3)                   (2)                  (1)



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                  What are Data?
        Data refers to the information researchers obtain
        on the subjects of their research.
        Demographic information or scores from a test
        are examples of data collected.
        The researcher has to determine what kind of
        data they need to collect.
        The device the researcher uses to collect data is
                  instrument.
        called an instrument.



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                            Key Questions
        The instruments and procedures used in collecting data is
               instrumentation.
        called instrumentation.
        Questions arise regarding the procedures and conditions under
        which the instruments will be administered:
              Where will the data be collected?
              When will the data be collected?
              How often are the data to be collected?
              Who is to collect the data?

        The most highly regarded types of instruments can provide
        useless data if administered incorrectly, by someone disliked
        by respondents, under noisy, inhospitable conditions, or when
        subjects are exhausted.




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       Validity, Reliability, and Objectivity
        Validity is an important consideration in the choice of an
        instrument to be used in a research investigation
              The instrument should measure what it is supposed to measure
              Researchers want instruments that will allow them to make
              warranted conclusions about the characteristics of the subjects
              they study
        Reliability is another important consideration, since
        researchers want consistent results from instrumentation
              Consistency gives researchers confidence that the results
              actually represent the achievement of the individuals involved
        Objectivity refers to the absence of subjective judgments
              Complete objectivity is probably never attained, but researchers
              should try to minimize subjective judgments about their subjects


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                                  Usability
        An important consideration for any researcher in choosing or
        designing an instrument is how easy the instrument will actually be
        to use.
        Some of the questions asked which assess usability are:
               How long will it take to administer?
               Are the directions clear?
               How easy is it to score?
               Do equivalent forms exist?
               Have any problems been reported by others who used it?
        Getting satisfactory answers can save a researcher a lot of time
        and energy.




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         Ways to Classify Instruments
        Who Provides the Information?
                                     Self-
          Researchers themselves: Self-report data
          Directly or indirectly from the subjects of the study
          From informants (people who are knowledgeable
          about the subjects and provide this information)




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                 Researcher-
        Types of Researcher-Completed
                  Instruments

        Rating scales          Performance
        Interview schedules    checklists
        Tally sheets           Anecdotal records
        Flowcharts             Time-and-
                               Time-and-motion logs
                               Observation forms




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   Excerpt from a Behavior Rating Scale for Teachers
                             (Figure 7.4)

              Instructions: For each of the behaviors listed
              below, circle the appropriate number, using
              the following key: 5 = Excellent, 4 = Above
              Average, 3 = Average, 2 = Below Average,
              1 = Poor.

              A. Explains course material clearly.
                  1     2     3     4       5
              B. Establishes rapport with students.
                  1     2     3     4       5
              C. Asks high-level questions.
                  1     2     3     4       5
              D. Varies class activities.
                  1     2     3     4       5




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        Excerpt from a Graphic Rating Scale
                                      (Figure 7.5)
              Instructions: Indicate the quality of the student’s participation
              in the following class activities by placing an X anywhere along
              each line.


                 Always          Frequently      Occasionally       Seldom             Never
              1. Listens to teacher’s instructions.


                Always           Frequently     Occasionally       Seldom              Never
              2. Listens to the opinions of other students.


                Always           Frequently     Occasionally       Seldom              Never
              3. Offers own opinions in class discussions.




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      Example of a Product Rating Scale (Figure 7.6)                                 11




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              Interview Schedule (Figure 7.7)                                        12




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              Sample Observation Form
                     (Figure 7.8)




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       Discussion Analysis Tally Sheet (Figure 7.9)                                  14




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              Participation Flowchart (Figure 7.10)                                     15




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 Performance Checklist Noting Student Actions (Figure 7.11)                           16




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              Time-and-
              Time-and-Motion Log (Figure 7.12)                                       17




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                       Subject-
              Types of Subject-Completed
                     Instruments
        Questionnaires       Achievement/aptitude
        Self-checklists
        Self-                tests
        Attitude scales      Performance tests
        Personality          Projective devices
        inventories          Sociometric devices




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                   Self-
      Example of a Self-Checklist (Figure 7.13)                                   19




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      Example of Items from a Likert Scale
                   (Figure 7.14)




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        Example of the Semantic Differential
                      (Figure 7.15)




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   Pictorial Attitude Scale for Use with
        Young Children (Figure 7.16)




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         Sample Items from a Personality
              Inventory (Figure 7.17)




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    Sample Items from an Achievement Test                                          24



                   (Figure 7.18)




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      Sample Item from an Aptitude Test
                  (Figure 7.19)




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   Sample Items from an Intelligence Test
                  (Figure 7.20)




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    Example from the Blum Sewing Machine Test
                   (Figure 7.21)




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              Sample Items from the Picture
               Situation Inventory (Figure 7.22)




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         Example of a Sociogram (Figure 7.23)                                     29




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       Example of a Group Play (Figure 7.24)




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                          Item Formats
                            subject-
        Questions used in a subject-completed instrument can
        take many forms but are classified as either selection or
               items.
        supply items.
        Examples of selection items are:
              True-false items
              True-
              Matching items
              Multiple choice items
              Interpretive exercises
        Examples of supply items are:
              Short answer items
              Essay questions




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               Unobtrusive Measures
        Many instruments require the cooperation of the respondent in one
        way or another.
        An intrusion into an ongoing activity could be involved which causes
        a form of negativity within the respondent.
                                                        measures,
        To eliminate this, researchers use unobtrusive measures, data
        collection procedure that involve no intrusion into the naturally
        occurring course of events.
        In most cases, no instrument is used, however, good record keeping
        is necessary.
        They are valuable as supplements to the use of interviews and
        questionnaires, often providing a useful way to corroborate what
        more traditional data sources reveal.




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                              Types of Scores
        Quantitative data is reported in the form of scores
        Scores are reported as either raw or derived scores
              Raw score is the initial score obtained
                  Taken by itself, a raw score is difficult to interpret, since it has little meaning
              Derived score are scores that have been taken from raw scores and
              standardized
                  They enable researchers to say how well the individual performed compared to
                  others taking the same test
                  Examples include:
                                Grade-
                       Age and Grade-level Equivalents
                       Percentile Ranks
              Standard scores are mathematically derived scores having comparable
              meaning on different instruments




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              Examples of Raw Scores and
                Percentile Ranks (Table 7.1)
                 Raw     Cumulative   Percentile
                 Score   Frequency    Frequency          Rank

                 95           1           25               100
                 93           1           24                96
                 88           2           23                92
                 85           3           21                84
                 79           1           18                72
                 75           4           17                68
                 70           6           13                52
                 65           2            7                28
                 62           1            5                20
                 58           1            4                16
                 54           2            3                12
                 50           1            1                 4
                         N = 25


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          Norm-               Criterion-
          Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-
             Referenced Instruments
        All derived scores give meaning to individual scores by
        comparing them to the scores of a group.
        The group used to determine derived scores is called the
        norm group and the instruments that provide such
                                  norm-              instruments.
        scores are referred to as norm-referenced instruments.
        An alternative to the use of achievement or performance
                                criterion-             test.
        instruments is to use a criterion-referenced test.
        This is based on a specific goal or target (criterion) for
        each learner to achieve.
        The difference between the two tests is that the criterion
        referenced tests focus more directly on instruction.


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                  Measurement Scales
        There are four types of measurement scales
              Nominal Scales
              Ordinal Scales
              Interval Scales
              Ratio Scales




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   Four Types of Measurement Scales
              (Figure 7.25)




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    Four Types of Measurement Scales
                     (Table 7.2)

       Measurement
       Scale              Characteristics

       Nominal            Groups and labels data only;
                          reports frequencies or percentages.

       Ordinal            Ranks data; uses numbers only to
                          indicate ranking.

       Interval           Assumes that equal differences between
                          scores really mean equal differences in
                          the variable used.

       Ratio              All of the above, plus true zero point.




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                  Nominal Scales
        Considered the simplest form of measurement.
        Researchers assign numbers to different
        categories.
        An example would be to assign a “1” to men, a
        “2” to women.
        The advantage to assigning numbers to the
        categories is to facilitate computer analysis.
        Involves groups and labels data only.




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              Nominal Scales




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   A Nominal Scale of Measurement (Figure 7.26)




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                     Ordinal Scales
        Involves the use of numbers to rank or order scores
        from high to low.
        An example would be the ranking of high to low scores
        on an examination.
        Differences in rankings would not necessarily be the
        same with certain scores.
        Ordinal scales indicate relative standing among
        individuals.




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      An Ordinal Scale: The Winner of a
           Horse Race (Figure 7.27)




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              Ordinal Scale




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                   Interval Scales
        Involves the use of numbers to represent equal
        intervals in different segments on a continuum.
        Very similar to an ordinal scale with the
        exception of the equal intervals of points.
        Assumes that equal differences between scores
        really mean equal differences in the variable
        measured.




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              Interval Scales




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                     Ratio Scales
        A ratio scale involves the use of numbers to
        represent equal distances from a known “zero
        point”.
        A scale designed to measure height would be
        a ratio scale since the zero point represents
        the absence of height.
        Ratio scales are almost never encountered in
        Educational Research.



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              Ratio Scales




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              Preparing Data for Analysis
        Data must be scored accurately and
        consistently
        Once data are scored, the researcher must
        tally or tabulate them in some systematic
        way




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