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Chapter 9 Expanding Markets and Moving West Section 1 The Market

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					                  Chapter 7
Nationalism and Sectionalism
Focus Question

 How did transportation developments and
 industrialization affect the nations
 economy?
Transportation Revolution

  Roads
  First roads were dirt
   trails
  1790 created
   wilderness roads
   made of logs
  Used to reach new
   territories beyond
   the Cumberland
   Mountains
Transportation Revolution

  Most roads were
   privately owned
  Owner expected to
   make a profit by
   collecting a toll
  Used a pike that
   blocked the road
  After collecting a toll,
   the attendant would
   turn the pike
 Transportation Revolution

 Steamboats
 1807 by Robert Fulton
  the Clermont, made
  150 mile trip in 32
  hours
 NYC to Albany up the
  Hudson River
 Steam powered ships
  made it possible for
  farmers and planters to
  increase their trade
  and profits
Transportation Revolution

 Canals
 Erie Canal built by
  State of NY
 Linked Atlantic with
  Great Lakes
 1817 freight charged
  19 cents per ton per
  mile
 1830 less than 2 cents
  per ton per mile
Erie Canal
 Farmers no longer
  depended on the
  Mississippi passage
  to New Orleans
 Increase the
  settlement area of the
  Great Lakes
Transportation Revolution
 It turned New York
  Harbor into America's
  number one port
Railroad
 Began in Britain
 Replaces Shipping
 Cargo
 Passenger use
 31,000 miles of track
  by 1860
 Steam Powered
  initially.
Technology Sparks Industrial Growth

Began in Britain in the 1700s
Changes in the textile or cloth-making
 industry
British inventor created device to make
 spinning more efficient
Technology Sparks Industrial Growth
 Devices include:
 Spinning Jenny
 The water frame
 The power loom
Slater Opens First Textile Mill
 Samuel Slater
 Samuel Slater began
  the American
  Industrial Revolution
  with the construction
  of the first successful
  textile mill in 1793
Slater Opens First Textile Mill
 Slater, built the first
  successful water
  powered textile mill in
  Pawtucket, RI in 1793
Lowell Builds Fully Operational Mill


 Francis Cabot Lowell
  formed Boston
  Manufacturing
  Company
The Boston Manufacturing Company
 1813, first factory to
  operate in which all
  the processes from
  raw cotton to finished
  cloth were completed
  in a single mill
 Eliminated loss of
  time, labor, and
  materials
The Boston Manufacturing Company
 The rivers made it
  cheaper for mills to
  run their factory
  utilizing water power
 Cheap labor of
  women and children
 Easier for mills to
  produce products
Inventions Transform Industry and
Agriculture
 Eli Whitney
 While making guns
  for the government,
 Realize that if the
  parts were all made
  exactly the same
 They could be used
  on any similar gun
New Methods of Production

 Created a system of
  interchangeable parts
 Took 10 years to
  create 10,000 guns
 Could not be sure the
  parts were exact
 Other inventors
  perfected the the
  system of
  Interchangeable parts
Cotton Gin
 Whitney learned that
  Southern planters
  were in desperate
  need of a way to
  make the growing of
  cotton profitable
Cotton Gin
 In 1794 Eli Whitney
  received a patent for
  his cotton gin
 After the invention of
  the cotton gin, the
  yield of raw cotton
  doubled each
  decade after 1800
 Making cotton the
  dominate crop in the
  South
Inventions and Improvements
Shoes and Sewing Machines

 Charles Goodyear
 Vulcanized rubber in
  1839
 Didn’t freeze in cold
  weather or melt in hot
  weather
 First used to protect
  boots and shoes from
  snow and mud,
  eventually tires
Shoes and Sewing Machines
 Elias Howe
 Clothing industry
 Invented the sewing
  machine in 1846
 First used in shoe
  factories
Shoes and Sewing Machines

 I.M. Singer
 Added the foot
  treadle for use in
  homes- 1851
 Price of clothing
  dropped by 75%,
 Allowing more
  people to afford to
  buy clothes at a
  store
Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution changed the way
 people worked by having them use
 machines to do jobs previously done by
 hand
Daily Quiz
Name the first great canal built in
the 1820’s that connects the East
to the West.


 Erie Canal
Which man played a significant role
in creating or introducing the cotton
gin, mass production,
     interchangeable parts?



  Eli Whitney
 Name two results of the Erie Canal.

Increase the         Cities and
 settlement area of    industries along
 the Great Lakes       the canal
was highly            developed and
 profitable for New    flourished
 York
Who built a centralized textile factory



Francis Cabot Lowell
What American industry first used
machines to do work previously done
by hand?

             Textiles
Section 2 preview: SECTIONALISM

 Focus Question: Why did industrialization take
  root in the North?
 Sectional Difference
  North vs. South
  Tariff of 1816
  Factory System
  Cotton Gin
  Labor Unions
  Middle Class Emerges
  Emigration: Ireland/Germans

				
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