Forest Ecosystem Management - PDF

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					Forest Ecosystem Management
          An Environmental necessity,
                         but
Is it a Practical Reality or Simply an Ecotopian
                      Ideal?



                J. P. (Hamish) Kimmins
                     Professor of Forest Ecology,
       Canada Research Chair, Ecosystem Management Modelling,

           Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Forestry,
                   University of British Columbia,
                           Vancouver, B.C.
     People – the ultimate problem
Pogo: “We have been out and seen the enemy, and they are us”




                         3 billion
                           m ore
                          people            Population peak:
                                             9 – 10 billion in
                                                2070 - 2100


                                             3 - 4 billion m ore
                                                   people

                    Population doubled


                        40 years
  People Pressure: Some Examples
                          Africa
                                        Thailand
China


                               India




                 Canada



                                       Indonesia
        Brazil
The Take-home Message From My Talk



 Forest ecosystems are complex, but are frequently
managed simplistically
 Management for individual values rarely sustains all
values
  Forests should be managed as ecological systems – by
ecosystem management
 A problem is an issue that does not get solved.


An issue that gets solved quickly is not a problem


 Problem issues often persist because they are
 complex, but only simple solutions are offered


Success in managing forests requires that
the biological, physical and human social
        complexities be addressed
William of Occam:
     Do not posit complexity more than necessary,
                             or
     As simple as possible, but as complex as necessary
                                         Occam’
                                         Occam’s Rasor




Einstein:
         As simple as possible, but no simpler
  Forest Ecosystem Management
 What is it and how do we achieve it?


   • What is forestry and what is FEM?
   • Elements of FEM
   • Prerequisites for FEM
   • FEM planning tools

Conclusions: Practical reality or ecotopia?
             Forestry

The art (skill), practice, science and business
of managing forest stands and landscapes to
sustain an ecologically possible and socially
desirable balance of values over appropriate
            spatial and time scales
The Two Responsibilities of Forestry

1. To change the way in which a forest is managed as the
   desired balance of values and environmental services
   from that forest changes.

2. To reject current practices and resist proposed new
   practices that are inconsistent with the ecology and
   sociology of the desired values and services over
   ecologically appropriate temporal and spatial scales.


   How do we judge what is consistent with the
            ecology of the values?
Forestry is about people- their values, needs and desires
 It is also about sustaining the ecosystems on which
     these values, needs and desires are dependent
 Wood
                                                                   Recreation
        Non-wood products
                                                      Aesthetics
               Water

                       Wildlife           Biological conservation

                                  Employment

                    Ecosystem processes
                                               Economics - wealth creation
          Spiritual values

 Environmental protection                                Energy - fuel
                            Urbanization: it is
                                 changing attitudes
                                 towards, and values
                                 desired from, forests.

Cairo: >19 million by day
                                 So forestry must change

                                    Shanghai: 17 million


  World urban population:
 32% in 1955; estimated that
   it will be 60% in 2025
                                       Timber exploitation
When people want cheap                   – high grading

   wood and wealth
             Partial harvesting




                                    What is the
Variable                              relative
retention
harvesting
                                  sustainability of
                                     these two
  When people                      approaches?
  want other values                IT DEPENDS
    Ecosystem Condition (Seral Stage)




T


I


M


E
    What is Forest Ecosystem Management?

• Managing forests as ecosystems for multiple values


• Focussing on what ecosystem structures and processes to maintain


• Managing across spatial scales – managing for both stand and
                                       landscape values


•   Using different management practices in different types of
                                              ecosystem
• Accepting disturbance and change as a natural and necessary part of
                                              forest ecosystems
Elements of Forest Ecosystem Management
  Sustainability


        Sound ecological understanding


               Recognizes complexity and connectedness


                     Dynamic character of ecosystems


                           Context and scale


                                 Humans as ecosystem components


                                         Adaptability and accountability
Prerequisites for Ecosystem Management

 Appropriate tenure systems

      Establish long term objectives – a desired forest future

            Adequate inventory

                  Acceptance of the dynamic nature of forest ecosystems

                       Basing FEM on the concept of ecological rotations
Prerequisites for Ecosystem Management

 Appropriate tenure systems

      Establish long term objectives – a desired forest future

            Adequate inventory

                  Acceptance of the dynamic nature of forest ecosystems

                       Basing FEM on the concept of ecological rotations

                               Economic sustainability

   Use of ecologically-based forest planning, communication and public
                             involvement tools
How to Evaluate Sustainability: The
  Concept of Ecological Rotation

               Disturbance
Ecosystem Condition




                      Short ecological rotation

                            Intermediate ecological rotation

                                          Long ecological rotation

                                                  Time
The Concept of Ecological Rotation

                        1. Rotation too short



                      Harvest
                                                       Sustainable
Ecosystem Condition




                                     Non-sustainable



                                                Time
The Concept of Ecological Rotation

                        2. Ecosystem recovery too slow



                      Harvest                Sustainable
Ecosystem Condition




                                    Non-sustainable



                                             Time
The Concept of Ecological Rotation

                        3. Degree of disturbance too great



                      Harvest                Sustainable
Ecosystem Condition




                                           Non-sustainable


                                             Time
Ecosystem Management Models
 Necessary Planning, Communication and
         Decision-support Tools


Ecosystem-based, multi-value hybrid simulation models as a
            necessary tool for:
       - the assessment of ecosystem management
       - assessment of Criteria and Indicators of sustainable forest management
      - scenario analysis
      - value tradeoff analysis
      - communication to multiple stakeholders
   Paradigms for a New Forestry

• Ecosystem management
• Adaptive management and monitoring
                                        All
• Zonation
                                        need
• Variable retention
                                        forecasting
• Emulation of natural disturbance or
 natural range of variation             tools

• Results-based vs. regulation-based
        Three Categories of Model In
                  Forestry

•   Historical Bioassay - projection of the past
                      (experience) into the future

• Process simulation - knowledge-based
                                     forecasting

• Hybrid simulation – combination of experience and
                      knowledge as the basis for prediction.
   What Types of Forecasting Tools?
Stand level ecosystem management models:

FORECAST
                                                                                N
                                                                                AVIGATOR : FORECAST User Interface

Non-spatial ecosystem
management stand model
 Effect of Douglas-fir over-story on shrub biomass




                                                     Timber management table:
         Stand-level Visualization



                              Dispersed retention




  Aggregated retention




e.g. Variable retention
        designs
What Types of Forecasting Tools?

Stand level ecosystem management models:



FORCEE
Spatially-explicit,
individual tree,
ecosystem
management model
 What Types of Forecasting Tools?
Landscape level ecosystem management model:

                                            LLEMS
                         Local Landscape Ecosystem Management Simulator
LLEMS
Local landscape                                     * Is this a clearcut?
                                                     * What will the future
ecosystem                                           forest species composition be?
management model                                     * How will Douglas-fir
for complex cut block                               compete with western
                                                    hemlock?
design – under                                      * Will shade tolerant
development                                         hardwoods be able to grow?


                        Trees     Ecotone    Open
  What Types of Forecasting Tools?
 Spatial, structural and functional complexity at the small to
 medium-size watershed landscape scale, with polygon
 (stand ) interactions


POSSIBLE FOREST
FUTURES:
Multiple value, watershed-
scale, forest landscape
management and
scenario analysis/ value
tradeoff model
    FORECAST                       Visualization
                               software – stand and
 Non-spatial ecosystem              landscape
                                                      POSSIBLE FOREST
management stand model                                    FUTURES:
                                                      watershed landscape
                                                       management model




                                                      LLEMS: complex
                                                      cutblock simulator
                                                                          LLEMS
                                                       Local Landscape Ecosystem Management Simulator



                                                                                  * Is this a clearcut?
                                                                                   * What will the future
                                                                                  forest species composition be?
                                                                                   * How will Douglas-fir

                   FORCEE:                                                        compete with western
                                                                                  hemlock?
                                                                                  * Will shade tolerant

                  Individual tree,                                                hardwoods be able to grow?


                                                      Trees     Ecotone    Open
                  complex stand model
     DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: Modelling Framework
          Projection            Interpretation
   Forest-level Timber Supply Model   Wildlife Habitat Supply Model
                (ATLAS)                          (SimFor)
Polygon-                                                         Raster-
Based                                                            Based




 Stand-level Model
   (FORECAST)
  Merchantable                dbh)
                 Snags (>25cm dbh)
  Volume




   Ecosystem C   Early Seral Shrub
   Storage       Cover (%)



                                                     Visualization
                                                       Software
Overall System of Ecosystem Management Models
                                                                 POSSIBLE FOREST
                                                                 FUTURES: watershed
                                SIMFOR : wildlife               landscape management
                                  habitat model                         model
   ATLAS: forest-level model




                                        VISUALIZATION:
                                      stand & landscape level


     FORECAST: stand-level,
   ecosystem management model
                                                                   LLEMS: complex
                                                                   cutblock simulator
                                                                                       LLEMS
                                                                    Local Landscape Ecosystem Management Simulator



                                                                                               * Is this a clearcut?
                                                                                                * What will the future
                                                                                               forest species composition be?
                                                                                                * How will Douglas-fir
                                                                                               compete with western

                         FORCEE:                                                               hemlock?
                                                                                               * Will shade tolerant
                                                                                               hardwoods be able to grow?
                        Individual tree,                           Trees     Ecotone    Open
                        complex stand model
Is FEM Possible?
              The Evolution of Forestry
Local people with
experience-based     Sustainable Exploitation — Passive Management — Active Management
wisdom                                                  Replaced by
Non-locals without                    Non-sustainable exploitation          Resource
local knowledge                                                             depletion
                                                        Leads to
                                                                            Variable
                                          Administrative forestry           results; often
                                                                            single value
Pressure from                                            Evolves into
ecologically                                                                Sustained
inappropriate                         Ecologically-based forestry,          timber
belief systems                        often initially timber biased         production
and incomplete                                        Application of social and biophysical
knowledge about                                       sciences that respect the ecology
nature                                                and sociology of desired values
                                    Social forestry – ecologically-based,
                                    multi-value ecosystem management.
                               FOREST ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

				
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