Implications of the Formal Operational Stage - PDF by tgm18087

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									                                                                                                              PSY 231 – Page 1 of 5

                                PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
                                                         (CHAPTER 7)

How did he get interested in cognitive development?




Genetic Epistemology --


What method(s) did he use?




                                           ASSUMPTIONS OF PIAGET’S THEORY

1. stage theorist, qualitative changes


2. universal order


3. general theory of cognitive development


4. children as active in their cognitive development (constructivism)

       little scientists constructing theories about how things work


                                        COGNITION & DEVELOPMENT FOR PIAGET
schemes -




Cognitive Development =


cognitive development occurs through two processes:
       (i.e., it is through these processes that we develop more schemes and ones that are more accurate and complete)

   1. organization –



   2. adaptation --

       a. assimilation –


       b. accommodation --
                                                                                                    PSY 231 – Page 2 of 5
Examples: which is it—assimilation or accommodation?
   1. adjusting the way one sucks on a pacifier from the way one sucks on a bottle because they have a different shape
   2. attempting to pick up cooked oatmeal as one would a ball
   3. realizing that oatmeal can’t be picked up the same way as a ball, so adjusting hand to better scoop it up
   4. seeing an unusual looking cat, yet realizing it is a cat
   5. seeing a bat at the zoo for the first time, and placing it (incorrectly) into your “bird” scheme
   6. seeing a wolf and initially thinking it is a dog
   7. the wolf howls and you realize that it is not a dog, and must be some other animal
   8. throwing a Christmas ornament as one would a ball, believing it will bounce back at you
   9. seeing the ornament shatter and realizing it doesn’t “behave” like a ball and must not be one

Disequilibration, Equilibration, and Stage Transition

disequilibration --

equilibration --



                      disequilibrium    experience         equilibrium
  change                                                                           change
  theory                                                                           theory
                       equilibrium       experience       disequilibrium




Mechanisms of Cognitive Development
    1.


    2.



                                FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1. Sensorimotor Stage (about age                  )
 characteristics of sensorimotor thought:




 2 achievements that end this stage:

    1. ______________________ --

    2. ______________________ --


2. Preoperational Stage (about ages            )
 what they now have that they did not in the previous stage:
                                                               PSY 231 – Page 3 of 5
 characteristics of preoperational thought:

    1. static thought


    2. egocentrism


    3. centration


    4. lack of conservation


    5. appearance as reality



3. Concrete Operations (about age              )
 what they now have that they did not in the previous stage:


 which enables them to …:



 but they still lack the ability to …




4. Formal Operations (about age                )
 what they now have that they did not in the previous stage:




 scientific reasoning/hypothetico-deductive reasoning




Implications of formal operational thought
   adolescent egocentrism –
                                                                                           PSY 231 – Page 4 of 5

                                        Summary Table of Piaget’s Stages
                          approximate                                      What they now have but did not in
       Stage                                   Characterized by …
                           age range                                              the previous stage?



1.                                                                            not applicable for this stage




2.




3.




4.




UNIVERSAL STAGES: Does everyone reach formal operations?




POSTFORMAL THOUGHT: DO WE DEVELOP IN ANY WAY AFTER ADOLESCENCE?

relativistic thinking –



Perry’s study of college students
                                              PSY 231 – Page 5 of 5
              EVALUATION OF PIAGET’S THEORY
Weaknesses:




Strengths:

								
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