POWER INVERTER COMPLETE TRAINING MANUAL

					FACTS YOU MUST KNOW

             ABOUT

SOLAR POWER INVERTER
  By: Daniel Kayode Olalekan Shoetan

           +2347037914178




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                                ABOUT THE AUTHOR
                         Daniel Kayode Olalekan Shoetan is“The Founder of Daniel Olalekan
                      Foundation, an NGO providing for the less privileged in our society” born
                      to the family of Lieutenant Commander (Rtd.) and Mrs. Olalekan
                      Shoetan , many, many years ago in the heart and commercial giant of
                      Nigeria, Lagos State. He attended Premier Day Primary School "
                      Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria" and was latter transfer to Akinsemoyin
                      Primary School "Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria" due to over crowding of
                      pupils. After his Primary School Education, He proceed to Surulere
Secondary School for his Secondary school Education, after his Secondary education, I
proceed to School of Basic Studies, Campus , Ajele, Lagos, Nigeria, for a one year program.
He latter gain admission into The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun state Nigeria where He
obtain a National Diploma in Electrical / Electronics Engineering. When He was at The FPI,
he develop a great passion for computer and put all effort to achieve his goals, which today
He gives glory to God.
After His one year IT, which eventually turn to two years, He gain admission into Yaba
College of Technology where He study Electrical / Electronics Engineering and obtain
“Higher National diploma in Electrical electronic Engineering”. His Project then was The
Design and Construction of Solar Power Inverter, “He had Distinction in this Project”
Supervised by Engr. Atoe (presently in charge of Unesco Project in the department of Electrical
/ Electronics Engineering Yaba College of Technology ) of the Electrical/Electrical department
Yaba College of Technology. Further more , He single handedly funded His Higher School
Education and three of His friends Engr. Dele Soroyewun “Computer Center Amadu Bello
University”, Engr. Tunde Ojewola “Motorola United State”and Bro. Sola Okedara            (ICT
EXPERT ) ”United Kingdom”
He had been invited as a Resource Person in numbers of seminar and workshops in Nigeria,
Ghana, Togo, Cameron and republic of Benin on Design and Construction of Solar power
System, Power Inverter, Forex Trading, Website Development and Programming etc.“Room
is still open as a resource person ( Saturday and Public Holidays Only)”

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He has Professional certificates in CCNA, A+, Website Development, Web Programming, &
Management and Graphics Designs, Network+, Oracle Database couple with 19 years
experience in the field

                     POWER INVERTER

                          AN INTRODUCTION




WHAT IS POWER INVETER

A power inverter converts DC power or direct current to standard AC power
or alternating current, which allows you to run electrical equipment off your
car or marine battery for mobile applications, emergencies or simple
convenience.

Power inverters are small rectangular devices that have a trailing wire with a
jack that plugs directly into the cigarette lighter on the dashboard. They might
also come with jumper-like cables for connecting directly to a battery. The
device normally has one or two outlets for standard electrical cords. Your
laptop, small-screen television, video game player or portable DVD theater
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are all examples of devices that will get you through a long ride, assuming
you're not the one driving!

Solar Power inverters are great for Estates where there is no national grid
supply ,camping at parks that do not provide electricity. The toaster, Air-
conditioners, refrigerators, Clippers, Computers, Printers, Pumping Machine,
blender, and boom box can all still be used. On your boat you can plug in the
digital movie camera to capture those great water-skiing videos you might
have missed after the camera's battery ran low!

In a utility outage a Solar power inverter can be used for emergency
electricity. Just run an extension cord from your car into the house, or if you
have a charged spare battery you can connect the power inverter directly. Plug
in a radio to tune into important alerts, run essential medical equipment,
lights, or whatever else you need that falls within the inverter's power limits.

Power inverters come in many models that vary in watts. The amount of
wattage you will require on yours depends on the total draw of the devices
you'd like to use. If you have a two-outlet inverter and will be plugging in 2
devices at once, add up the total wattage of both devices then add at least 50%
more to account for peaks or spikes in the power draw. For example if your
DVD theater draws 100 watts and your laptop another 100 watts, a minimum
300-watt inverter is recommended.

When using your power inverter continuously inside a vehicle that is not
running, the engine should be started at least once an hour for 10-15 minutes
to keep the battery from discharging. WARNING: Do not start a vehicle in a
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closed garage as the carbon monoxide in the exhaust is fatal. fully charged.
A weak battery will be drained easily if demands are too high. This could
leave you stranded so be sure to check the battery's condition before using a
power inverter in a stationary vehicle.

If the power inverter is being used while the vehicle is running as in the case
of a road trip, there should be no problem with the extra draw providing the
battery is in good condition.

Power inverters produce one of three different types of wave output:

1.    Square Wave

2.    Modified Square Wave (Modified Sine Wave)

3.    Pure Sine Wave (True Sine Wave)

The three different wave signals represent three different qualities of power
output and consequently, three different price categories. Square wave
inverters result in uneven power delivery that is not efficient for running most
devices. Square wave inverters were the first types of inverters made and are
obsolete.

Modified square wave (modified sine wave) inverters deliver power that is
consistent and efficient enough to run most devices fine. This type of inverter
is probably the most popular.




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Pure sine wave inverters are the most expensive, but they also deliver the
most consistent wave output. Some sensitive equipment requires a sine wave,
like certain medical equipment and variable speed or rechargeable tools.

If you aren't sure if the device you want to use requires a pure sine wave or
not, call the manufacturer to ask. Or if you don't mind the price difference any
device will run on a pure sine wave, whether it requires it or not. The only
drawback would be in spending more than you need to for your power
inverter.

Always use a power inverter that is rated high enough for the device(s) you
are running and avoid adapters that would allow more outlets than the unit is
designed to accommodate.

Currently whatever work you do, in each and every 'field you will find some
electrical or electronic vice, be it in general household use or in some
specialized industrial use.
These electrical or electronic devices require electrical power for their
operation and most of these devices are very particular about the quality of
the power given to them.


If the power given to these electrical/electronic devices are not according to
their required quality then these devices can get damaged.


Also, these devices will not be of any use if you do not provide them with
proper power supply. In Nigeria a standard electrical or electronic equipment
works on 230V/50Hz AC power supply.
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This power supply should not contain any problems such as spike, noise etc.,
otherwise it could damage the equipment.


In developed countries the power provided by the power supplying companies
are of good quality, without any of the above given problems, but in a
developing country like Nigeria the power provided by the electricity supply
department contains a lot of problems.


Also, power cuts and line problems are very frequent in these countries.


This situation gets worse in some specific seasons such as in summer, when
the electricity generated by the hydro-electrical plant go down and the power
requirement, because of increased use of A.Cs, coolers, fans etc., increase, so,
frequent power cuts become very common. In rainy seasons due to thunder
storms 'electrical lines/polls get damaged, increasing the power problems.


In this type of situation some kind of device which could provide power
supply to the electrical/electronic devices during the mains power breakdown
become a necessity.
We have already said that in India most of the electrical/electronic devices
work in the 230V AC supply provided by the electricity department.
Internally the circuit in most of the electronic equipment work on DC supply




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The external AC supply is converted into DC supply by the power supply
provided on these equipment


Any devices which work on DC supply, can be used during the mains power
breakdown by connecting them to batteries




           BLOCK DIAGRAM OF POWER INVERTER

But batteries have a fixed life and running a power consuming equipment,
using the batteries could be very expensive. One can use rechargeable
batteries in this type of situation to reduce the cost.


The lead-acid batteries used in the automobiles are very good for this purpose,
they provide good quality power for a long duration and can be recharged
once the power stored in them are consumed.


Any device which has facility to connect a DC power source can be made to
work on the DC power provided by the batteries, but if a device does not have
any option to connect to a DC power source, or if a device requires AC power
source for its operation then what should be done. "
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For this, device such as an inverter or a generator is used. Generators are
generally used in shops or business offices as a power source, when the mains
AC supply is not available, but at homes and small offices etc. inverter are
more commonly used



                 Mechanical Generator and Inverter

Let us now see a comparison between the generator and the inverter


           Mechanical                           Electrical Inverter
           Generator


Generator generates a lot of noise during Inverter works noiselessly,
its operation.


Normally     generators   do    not   have Inverters   provided    completely   automatic
automatic start/stop function. When the switch over function. When the mains supply
mains AC fails one has to manually start fails the inverter immediately switches the
the generator and when the mains return output to its internal battery and when the
one need to manually shut down the mains supply returns the inverter shuts down
generator and switch the power supply its operation and provides the mains AC
back from generator to mains.              supply at its output.



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As generator has many mechanical parts, As the inverter is an electrical device it does
it   requires constant maintenance, also not require any special maintenance. Only the
the carburetor etc. of the generator engine battery used with the inverter will require
requires constant maintenance.             some routine service such as topping it with
                                           distill water once in 15-20 days.




                    Mechanical Generator

Starting the generator is a process which requires some force. An old or sick
person may not be able to start the generator. Currently some generators are
coming with starting switch. By pressing this switch one can start the
generator.


But, this additions makes the generator cost very high and after some time
this starting arrangement start giving trouble. Also, after starting the
generator, switching of output supply from mains to generator and back from
generator to mains needs to be done manually. Generator require petrol,
diesel, kerosene etc. for its operation.


These are highly inflammable products and generates bad smell in the area.
Also during its operation it emits smoke which could be harmful to the people
around it.
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                          Power Inverter
Inverter does not require any special starting process and the switching of
output from mains to inverter and inverter to mains is done automatically.
Inverter works on battery, which works noiselessly without producing any
smell or other harmful emissions etc.


As you can see in the above table, the inverter has many advantages when
compared to the generator, this is the reason behind the increase in its use.


But, technicians who can understand inverter, repair it or install it properly
are very limited. So, I have tried to provide all this information in this book.


In this book we are going to learn about the inverter, basics of different
devices such as relay, transformer etc. which is used to make an inverter.
Also, we shall look into some common inverter circuits with their fault
finding procedures.


Let us start with what is an inverter. An inverter is a device which can
convert the DC supply of the battery into AC power supply required by
most of | the electrical/electronic equipment.


The process through which these inverters convert DC into AC supply is
called "inversion". This inversion process is reverse of the rectification
process, where the AC power is converted into DC power.

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Generally when one talks about the "Inverter", he talks about a combination
of inverter circuit, charger circuit and a battery.


The charger circuit keeps the battery charged when the mains power supply is
available and when the mains AC




supply fails, the inverter circuit takes the DC power stored in the battery and
converts it into 230v/50Hz AC supply, which can be used to power any
common electrical/electronic equipment.


                              Inverter and UPS


1.    The inverter and UPS generally does the same job of providing
      uninterrupted AC supply, when the AC mains fail.


2.    So what is the difference between them. Why we use inverter for one
      application and UPS for the other application


3.    To answer this let us understand the working principle of inverter and
      UPS.


1.    An Inverter contains the following sections
1.    Charging Section
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2.    Inverter Section


An UPS has the following sections
1.    Charging Section
2.    Inverter Section
3.    A VR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) Section


1.    The AVR section is an additional section in the UPS.
2.    When the AC mains is available, the inverter sends the AC mains to its
      output socket, without any correction.


3.    For example, if the input AC supply is 180V, it will be directly sent to
      the output socket by the inverter, and if the input AC supply is 260V,
      this will also be directly sent to the output socket.

4.    No correction is done by the inverter on the input AC supply to bring it
      into 220-230V range.


5.    In the UPS, when the AC mains is available, the AVR section regulates
      the incoming AC supply and provides a regulated output at its output
      socket.


6.    This AVR section regulates the incoming AC mains supply (varying
      from 140V to 270V) and provides a supply in the range of 220V to
      240V at its output socket.


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7.    If a sensitive equipment such as a computer is operated on inverter
      output, the fluctuation in the input AC mains supply will reach the
      output and could damage the equipment.


8.    If the same equipment is operated on UPS, a regulated output by the
      UPS makes sure that the equipment works without any trouble.


9.    Another difference between the UPS and inverter is in the changeover
      time, i.e. in the time taken by the UPS or inverter to switch between the
      AC mains supply to battery mode and from battery mode to AC mains
      supply. '


10.   In an inverter, this changeover time is not very small, this results in a
      reboot of the computer connected to the inverter output


11.   In an UPS this changeover time is so small that the load connected to
      the UPS output works without any interruption.


12.   Generally in a low battery or overload condition the inverter shuts
      down without any indication or warning.


13.   UPS uses buzzer and LEDs to inform the user about these conditions,
      before shutting down.




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              Frequently Asked Questions
                   about Power Inverters


1.   What does a power inverter do, and what can I use one for?
2.   Using an inverter for basic emergency home backup power
3.   What size inverter should I buy? (and Formula to convert Amps to
     Watts)
4.   Watts Used by Common Appliances and Tools (Usage Chart)
5.   Do I need a Modified Sine Wave Inverter, or a Pure Sine Wave
     Inverter?
6.   How do I hook up the Inverter? What size cable should I use, and
     is it included?
7.   What type of battery should I use (automotive or deep cycle)?
8.   How long can I run the power inverter on my battery?
9.   How do I connect two or more batteries together?

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10.   Using a Microwave Oven with a Power Inverter
11.   Television and Audio Suggestions




1.    What does a power inverter do, and what can I use one for?

A power inverter changes DC power from a battery into conventional AC
power that you can use to operate all kinds of devices ... electric lights,
kitchen appliances, microwaves, power tools, TVs, radios, computers, to
name just a few. You just connect the inverter to a battery, and plug your AC
devices into the inverter ... and you've got portable power ... whenever and
wherever you need it.




1.    Using an Inverter for Emergency Home Backup Power

The inverter draws its power from a 12 Volt battery (preferably deep-cycle),
or several batteries wired in parallel. The battery will need to be recharged
as the power is drawn out of it by the inverter.
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The battery can be recharged by running the automobile motor, or a gas
generator, solar panels, or wind. Or you can use a battery charger plugged
into an AC outlet to recharge the battery.

A very simple way to use an inverter for emergency power (such as during a
power outage), is to use a car battery (with the vehicle running), and an
extension cord running into the house, where you can then plug in electrical
appliances.




1.    What size inverter should I buy?




1.    We carry many different sizes, and several brands of power inverters.




1.    Short Answer: The size you choose depends on the watts (or amps) of
      what you want to run (find the power consumption by referring to the

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      specification plate on the appliance or tool). We recommend you buy a
      larger model than you think you'll need (at least 10% to 20% more than
      your largest load).

Example: You want to power a computer with a 17" monitor, some lights,
and a radio.

Computer:                   300 Watts
2 - 60 Watt lights:         120 Watts
Radio:                      10 Watts
Total Needed:               430 Watts

For this application, you would minimally need a 500 W inverter, and should
give some thought to a larger one, as there will likely be a time when you
wish you'd bought a bigger model ... in this example, you might decide you'd
like to run a fan while you compute, or let the kids watch TV.

1.    Longer Answer: Determine Continuous Load and Starting (Peak) Load:
      You need to determine how much power your tool or appliance (or
      combination of them that you would use at the same time) requires to
      start up (starting load), and also the continued running requirements
      (continuous load).

What is meant by the terms "continuous-2000 watts" and "peak surge-4000
watts" is that some appliances or tools, such as ones with a motor, require an
initial surge of power to start up ("starting load" or "peak load"). Once started,



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the tool or appliance requires less power to continue to operate ("continuous
load")

1.       Helpful formulas:




1.       To Convert AMPS to WATTS:

1.       Multiply: AMPS X 120 (AC voltage) = WATTS


This formula yields a close approximation of the continuous load of the
appliance




To Calculate approximate Startup Load:

Multiply: WATTS X 2 = Starting Load


This formula yields a close approximation of the starting load of the
appliance, though some may require an even greater starting load. NOTE:
Induction motors such as air conditioners, refrigerators, freezers and pumps
may have a start up surge of 3 to 7 times the continuous rating.



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Most often the start up load of the appliance or power tool determines
whether an inverter has the capability to power it.

For example, you have a freezer with a continuous load of 4 amps, and a start
up load of 12 amps:

4 amps x 120 volts = 480 watts continuous
12 amps x 120 volts = 1440 watts starting load

You would need an inverter with peak-surge rating greater than 1440 watts.

FORMULA to convert AC Watts to DC Amps:

AC Watts divided by 12 x 1.1 = DC Amps
(this is the size vehicle alternator you would need to keep up with a specific
load; for example, to keep up with a continuous draw of 1000 watts, you
would need a 91 amp alternator)

Do I need Modified Sine Wave, or Pure Sine Wave?

Advantages of Pure Sine Wave inverters over modified sine wave inverters:

a) Output voltage wave form is pure sine wave with very low harmonic
distortion and clean power like utility-supplied electricity.

b) Inductive loads like microwave ovens and motors run faster, quieter and
cooler.

c) Reduces audible and electrical noise in fans, fluorescent lights, audio
amplifiers, TV, Game consoles, Fax, and answering machines.
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d) Prevents crashes in computers, weird print out, and glitches and noise in
monitors.

e) Reliably powers the following devices that will normally not work with
modified sine wave inverters:

1.    Laser printers, photocopiers, magneto-optical hard drives
2.    Certain laptop computers (you should check with your manufacturer)
3.    Some fluorescent lights with electronic ballasts
4.    Power tools employing "solid state" power or variable speed control
5.    Some battery chargers for cordless tools
6.    Some new furnaces and pellet stoves with microprocessor control
7.    Digital clocks with radios
8.    Sewing machines with speed/microprocessor control
9.    X-10 home automation system
10.   Medical equipment such as oxygen concentrators

We carry a full line of Pure Sine Wave Inverters here at DonRowe.com,
though most of the inverters we carry are Modified Sine Wave inverters.
Modified Sine Wave works well for most uses, and is the most common type
of inverter on the market, as well as the most economical.

Pure Sine Wave inverters are more suited for sensitive electrical or electronic
items such as laptop computers, stereos, laser printers, certain specialized
applications such as medical equipment, a pellet stove with an internal
computer, digital clocks, bread makers with multi-stage timers, and variable
speed or rechargeable tools.
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If you wish to use those items with an inverter, then choose a Pure Sine Wave
inverter. If you mostly want to run lights, TV, microwave oven, tools, etc, a
Modified Sine Wave inverter is fine for your needs.

We often are asked if computers will work with Modified Sine Wave. It's
been our experience that most (with the exception of some laptops) will work
(though some monitors will have interference such as lines or a hum).

However, if you have any doubt about any appliance, tool or device,
particularly laptop computers and medical equipment such as oxygen
concentrators, we recommend that you check with its manufacturer to be sure
it is compatible with a Modified Sine Wave inverter. If it is not, choose one of
our Pure Sine Inverters instead.

The difference between them is the Pure Sine Wave inverter produces a better
and cleaner current. They are also considerably more expensive. You might
find it practical to get a small Pure Sine Wave inverter for any "special need"
you may have, and also a larger Modified Sine Wave inverter for the rest of
your applications.




How do I hook up the Inverter? What size cable should I use, and is it included?


The small inverters (400 watts and under) come with a cigarette lighter
adapter, and may be plugged into your car's lighter socket (although you will
not be able to draw more than 150 to 180 watts from the cigarette lighter
socket). The small units also come with cables that can be clamped directly to
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a battery. If you want an inverter that will plug into your cigarette lighter, you
must choose one that is 400 watts or less.

Larger inverters (500 watts and over) must be hard-wired directly to a battery.
The cable size depends on the distance between battery and inverter

When connecting the inverter to the battery use the thickest wire available,
in the shortest length practical.

What type of battery should I use (automotive or deep cycle)?

Small Inverters: Most automobile and marine batteries will provide an ample
power supply for 30 to 60 minutes even when the engine is off. Actual time
may vary depending on the age and condition of the battery, and the power
demand being placed on it by the equipment being operated by the inverter. If
you use the inverter while the engine is off, you should start the engine every
hour and let it run for 10 minutes to recharge the battery.

500 Watt and larger Inverters: We recommend you use deep cycle (marine or
RV) batteries which will give you several hundred complete charge/discharge
cycles. If you use the normal vehicle starting batteries they will wear out after
about a dozen charge/discharge cycles. If you do not have a deep cycle
battery, we recommend that you run the engine of your vehicle when
operating the power inverter.

When operating the inverter with a deep cycle battery, start the engine every
30 to 60 minutes and let it run for 10 minutes to recharge the battery.


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When the inverter will be operating appliances with high continuous load
ratings for extended periods, it is not advisable to power the inverter with the
same battery used to power your car or truck.

If the car or truck battery is utilized for an extended period, it is possible that
the battery voltage may be drained to the point where the battery has
insufficient reserve power to start the vehicle.

In these cases, it's a good idea to have an extra deep cycle battery for the
inverter (installed close to the inverter), cabled to the starting battery. It is
recommended to install a battery isolator between the batteries.

1.      How long can I run the inverter on my battery?

To estimate how long a battery/appliance combination will operate
together, use this handy calculator.

(Tip: If the calculator output equals 0 hours, the total Amp/Hrs of the
battery bank are insufficient to run the load. Try adding additional
Amp/Hrs to the battery bank field in order to run the desired wattage.)




     Enter the voltage of     Battery
                                             Battery              Amp
1. your battery or bank of Voltage                      Voltage
                                             Type                 Hours
     batteries.


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                                         22 NF     12       50
     Enter the total Amp/Hrs
                               Amp/Hrs   24 NF     12       75
2. of the battery or bank of
                                         27 NF     12       100
     batteries.
                                         8D        12       200

                                         Examples            Watts
                                         19" Color TV        100
                                         Circular Saw        1500
     Enter the combined                  Computer System 300
     Watt value of the                   Microwave Oven 1100
3.                             Watts
     appliances you plan to              Power Drill         400
     run from your battery.
                                         Toaster             1000
                                         Represents actual power
                                         consumption as measured
                                         on sample products.

     Click the Calculate
     button to see the                        hour(s) of operating
4. number of hours your                  time, approximate. Based
     configuration should                on fully charged batteries.
     run.

Tip: Deep cycle (marine) batteries generally have the highest reserve
ratings. They are also capable of withstanding repeated drains of power
and recharging.

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Tip: Engine start batteries should not be discharged below 90% charged
state, and marine deep cycle batteries should not be discharged below
50% charged state. Doing so will shorten the life of the battery based on
most battery manufacturers recommendations.

Note: If you intend to use power tools for commercial use, or any load of
200W for more than 1 hour regularly (between battery recharging) we
recommend installing an auxiliary battery to provide power to the
inverter. This battery should be a deep cycle type and sized to meet your
run time expectations with the engine off. The auxiliary battery should be
connected to the alternator through an isolator module to prevent the
inverter from discharging the engine start battery when the engine is off.

How do I connect two or more batteries?

It may be advisable to operate the inverter from a bank of 12 Volt
batteries of the same type in a "parallel" configuration. Two such
batteries will generate twice the amp/hours of a single battery; three
batteries will generate three times the amp/hours, and so on. This will
lengthen the time before your batteries will need to be recharged, giving
you a longer time that you can run your appliances.

You can also connect 6 Volt batteries together in "series" configuration
to double the voltage to 12 volts. Note that 6 Volt batteries must be
connected in pairs.




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12 Volt Batterie s connected in Parallel to double the current (amp/hours)




6 Volt Batteries connected in Series to double the voltage to 12 Volts 6 Volt Batteries
connected in Series to double the voltage to 12 Volts


                 Operating a Microwave with a Power Inverter

The power rating used with microwave ovens is the "cooking powe r" which refers to
the powe r being "delivered" to the food being cooked. The actual operating powe r
require ment rating is highe r than the cooking power rating (for example, a
microwave with "adve rtised" rating of 600 watts usually corresponds to almost 1100
watts of power cons umption).

The actual powe r consumption is usually stated on the back of the microwave. If the
operating powe r require ment cannot be found on the back of the microwave, check
the owner's manual or contact the manufacture r.




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                      Television and Audio Suggestions

Although all our inve rters are shielded and filtered to minimize signal interfe rence,
some interfe rence with your television picture may be unavoidable, especially with
weak signals.

Here are some suggestions that may improve reception:

1. First make sure that the television antenna produces a clear signal unde r normal
operating conditions (i.e., at home plugged into a standard 220AC wall outlet). Also
insure that the antenna cable is properly shielded and of good quality.

2. Change positions of the inverter, antenna cables and television powe r cord.

3. Isolate the television, its power cord and antenna cables from the 12 volt powe r
source by running an extension cord from the inverter to the TV set. Insure that any
excess AC powe r cord is a distance away from the TV set.

4. Coil the television powe r cord and the input cables running from the 12 volt powe r
source to the inve rter.

5. Attach a "Ferrite Data Line Filter" to the television powe r cord. More than one
filter may be required.

NOTE: Some inexpensive audio systems may discharge a slight "buzzing" sound
when ope rated with an inverter. This is caused by deficient filters in the audio system.
The only solution to this proble m is using a sound system with a highe r quality powe r
supply.


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                                 Appliance Cautions:

DO NOT plug s mall appliances into the inverter AC receptacles to directly recharge
their nickel-cadmium batteries. Always use the recharge r provided with that
appliance.

DO NOT plug in battery charge rs for cordless power tools if the charger carries a
warning that dange rous voltages are present at the battery te rminals.

Not all fluorescent lamps operate properly with an inverter. If the bulb appears to be
too bright, or fails to light, do not use the lamp with an inverter.

Some fans with synchronous motors may slightly increase in speed (RPM) when
powe red by an inverte r. This is not harmful to the fan or to the inverte r.

Certain recharge rs for small nickel-cadmium batteries can be damaged if plugged
into an inverte r. In particular, two types of appliances are susceptible to damage:

1.     Small, battery-operated appliances such as flashlights, cordless razors and
       toothbrus hes that can be plugged directly into an AC receptacle to recharge.
2.     Certain battery charge rs for battery packs that are used in some cordless
       hand-tools. Charge rs for these tools have a warning label stating that
       dangerous voltages are present at the batte ry terminals.

DO NOT use an inverter with the above two types of equipment.

The majority of portable appliances do not have this problem. Most portable
appliances use separate transformers or chargers that plug into AC receptacles to

                                                                                Page | 29
supply a low-voltage DC or AC output to the appliance. If the appliance label states
that the charger or adapter produces a low-voltage DC or AC output (30 volts or
less), there should be no problem powe ring that charger or adapter.




Safety Warning: 2200 Volts of current can be lethal. Improper use of a power inverter will
result in property damage, personal injury, or loss of life . Please read and follow carefully the
instructions in the Owner's Manual provided with every inverter for important safety
considerations and precautions.


General Safety Precautions and Installation Tips:

1.      Place the inverter on a reasonably flat surface, either horizontally or
        vertically.
2.      The inverter should not be installed in the engine compartment, due to
        possible wate r/oil/acid contamination, and excessive heat unde r the hood, as
        well as potential danger from gasoline fumes and the spark that an inverter
        can occasionally produce. It's best to run batte ry cables to a dry, cool inverter
        mounting location.
3.      Keep the inverter dry. Do not expose it to rain or moisture. DO NOT operate
        the inverter if you, the inve rter, the device being operated, or any other
        surfaces that may come in contact with any powe r source are wet. Water and
        many other liquids can conduct electricity which may lead to serious injury or
        death.
4.      Avoid placing the inve rter on or near heating vents, radiators or other sources
        of heat. Do not place the inverter in direct sunlight. Ideal air te mperature is
        between 50° and 80° F.
5.      In orde r to properly disperse heat generated while the inve rter is in operation,
        keep it well ventilated. While in use, maintain several inches of clearance
        around the top and sides of the inverter.

                                                                                        Page | 30
6.     Do not use the inverter near flammable materials. Do not place the inverter in
       areas such as batte ry compartme nts where fumes or gases may accumulate.
7.     Solar Powe r Inverters

8.     The solar inverter performs the conversion of the variable DC output of the
       PV cells into a clean sinusoidal 50- or 60 Hz curre nt.


9.     Block Diagram
10.    Click on the colored blocks to view or sample recommended solutions


                            Solar Power Inverter:




Solar Powe r Inverter:

The solar inverter is a critical component of an entire solar energy system. It performs the
conversion of the variable DC output of the PV cells into a clean sinusoidal 50- or 60 Hz
current suitable for supplying the commercial electrical grid or local electrical network.


                                                                                     Page | 31
DSP Controller - The digital signal controller effectively executes the very precise
algorithms required to charge the battery of the system and provide power to the electrical
grid without power losses. This is called executing the system at its maximum power point.
The drive of the main bridge of the DC/AC is performed by highly flexible PWM
peripherals of the controller.




                     Wind Energy Power Generation




A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large
                                                  building as in traditional post mills,
                                                  smock mills and tower mills. The
                                                  energy windmills produce can be used
                                                  in many ways, traditionally for grinding

                                                                                  Page | 32
grain or spices, pumping water, sawing wood or hammering seeds. Modern wind power
machines are used for generating electricity and are more properly called wind turbines.




                                 Early history
Windmills have been around for at least 1,300 years. The first windmills had vertical shafts
and were reportedly built in Persia around the 7th century AD. Made of six to twelve sails
covered in fabric or palm leaves, they were used to grind corn and draw up water. A
similar type of vertical shaft windmill can also be found in 13th century China.


In Europe Muttons Mill, one of the many drainage wind pumps on the Norfolk Broads
(United Kingdom)In Europe, windmills were developed in the Middle Ages. The earliest
mills were probably grinding mills. They were mounted on city walls and could not be
turned into the wind. The earliest known examples date from e arly 12th century Paris.
Because fixed mills did not suffice for regions with changing wind directions, mill types
that could be turned into the wind were developed. With some subsequent development
mills became versatile in windy regions for all kind of industry, most notably grain
grinding mills, sawmills (late 16th century), threshing, and, by applying Archimedes'
screws, pumping mills                                                                      .


With the industrial revolution, the importance of windmills as primary industrial energy
source was replaced by steam and internal combustion engines. Polder mills were replaced
by steam, or diesel engines. The industrial revolution and increased use of Steam and later

                                                                                   Page | 33
Diesel power however had a lesser effect on the Mills of the Norfolk Broads in the United
Kingdom, these being so isolated (on extensive uninhabitable marshland), therefore some
of these mills continued use as drainage pumps till as late as 1959. More recently historic
windmills are being preserved for their historic value, which requires regular use because
the wooden machinery is likely to be destroyed by woodworm and dry rot when the mill
remains    stationary   for   too    long                                                  .


With increasing environmental concern, and approaching limits to fossil fuel consumption,
wind power has regained interest as a renewable energy source. This new generation of
wind mills produce electric power and are more generally referred to as wind turbines.




In the United StatesFarm windmill, Sheridan County, Kansas, USA, 1939 The
development of the water-pumping windmill in the USA was the major factor in allowing
the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of
readily accessible water. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems
throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam
locomotives of those early times. They are still used today for the same purpose in some
areas of the world where a connection to electric power lines is not a realistic option.


The multi- bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many
years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. These mills, made by a variety
of manufacturers, featured a large number of blades so that they would turn slowly but
with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds. A tower-top
gearbox and crankshaft converted the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried
downward      through    a    pole     or   rod    to   the    pump     cylinder    belo w.


Windmills and related equipment are still manufactured and installed today on farms and
ranches, usually in remote parts of the western United States where electric power is not
readily available. The arrival of electricity in rural areas, brought by t he Rural
                                                                                   Page | 34
Electrification Administration (REA) in the 1930s through 1950s, contributed to the
decline in the use of windmills in the US. Today, the increases in energy prices and the
expense of replacing electric pumps has led to an increase in the repair, restoration and
installation        of       new       windmills                                            .


In the heyday of the windmill, there were thousands of windmill manufacturers in the
United States; today, Aermotor Windmill is the only manufacturer of conventional
windmills left in the USA. GE Energy, a unit of General Electric, manufactures windmills
for            electricity         generation                                               .


Modern windmills Modern windmill in Aalborg, Denmark Modern Windmills are properly
called wind turbines or wind generators and are operated to generate electricity.




                                                                                    Page | 35
                                Small Scale Wind System

A wind turbine, which is installed on top of a tall tower, collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.
In a normal residential application, a home is served simultaneously by the wind turbine
and a local utility. If the wind speeds are below cut- in speed (7-10 mph) there will be no
output from the turbine and all of the needed power is purchased from the utility.

                                                                                     Page | 36
As wind speeds increase, turbine output increases and the amount of power purchased
from the utility is proportionately decreased. When the turbine produces more power than
the house needs, the extra electricity is sold to the utility. All of this is done automatically.
There are no batteries in a modern residential wind system. Small wind systems for remote
applications operate somewhat differently                                                       ..
Most small turbines have very few moving parts and do not require any regular
maintenance. They are designed for a long life (up to 20 years) and operate completely
automatically.

The system diagram as follow:




System includes:

1. Wind turbine: which is installed on top of a tall tower,collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.

2. Wind controller:

3. Battery bank: can be a single battery or multiple batteries connected together to create
essentially one large battery of the required voltage and amp- hour capacity.In some ways
the battery configuration and capacity are the most important electrical power decision to
make, and a wise choice can help guarantee a steady supply of electrical power as well as a
system that is simple to operate and maintain.


                                                                                       Page | 37
4. Inverter: A power converter that "inverts" the DC power from the panels into AC
power.The characteristics of the output signal should match the voltage, frequency and
power quality limits in the supply network.

5. loads: Stands for the network connected appliances in the building that are fed from the
inverter(AC loads),or from the battery bank(DC loads).



Wind/Solar hybrid System

Hybrid Systems - Utility Connected with Battery Backup:??A combination of the above
systems, these applications have the advantages of both.They are connected to the utility
grid in case the weather is insufficient for the solar or wind system, but they also have
batteries to store electricity in case the utility grid goes down as well.The design and
installation of these systems is more complicated and expensive,but they are the most
effective in providing constant,reliable electricity.




The system diagram as follow:




                                                                                  Page | 38
System include:

1. PV Array: A number of PV panels connected in series and/or in parallel giving a DC
output out of the incident irradiance. Orientation and tilt of these panels are important
design parameters, as well as shading from surrounding obstructions.

2. Wind turbine: which is installed on top of a tall tower, collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.

3. Solar controller: control battery bank charge and discharge reasonable and safety.

4. Wind controller:

5. Battery bank: can be a single battery or multiple batteries connected together to create
essentially one large battery of the required voltage and amp-hour capacity. In some ways
the battery configuration and capacity are the most important electrical power decision to
make, and a wise choice can help guarantee a steady supply of electrical power as well as a
system that is simple to operate and maintain.

6. Inverter: A power converter that "inverts" the DC power from the panels into AC power.

7. loads: Stands for the network connected appliances in the building that are fed from the
inverter(AC loads), or from the battery bank(DC loads).




In 1892, only four years after the establishment of the Aermotor Company in Chicago, the
American Firm had begun exporting its products to Argentina, one of the largest windmill
markets in the world. In that year the Aermotor firm signed an agreement with Agar, Cross
and Company of Buenos Aires to become exclusive agents in the South American country
for the sale of the Chicago made mills. Founded in 1884, Agar, Cross and Company

                                                                                    Page | 39
became one of the most important distributors of farm and Ranch equipment in Argentina,
a         distinction      which         it       held        for       many          years.


During the peak of export trade, one to three railway carloads of Aermotor windmills left
the Chicago factory each week bound for Argentina. In 1952, however, Agar, Cross and
Company initiated efforts to produce 702 Model Aermotor mills themselves. In 1958 they
turned over their licensed manufacture to another firm, Metalurgica Tandil S.A., and the
mills were sold under several different trade names. Tandil made the mills until its
acquisition by Fiat, the Italian auto maker, in 1962, and then Fiat sold the entire windmill
manufacturing facility to yet another firm, Fabrica de Implementos Agricolas S.A.
(FIASA).


While these events were going to on in South America, Aermotor production in the United
States was undergoing changes. In 1964 the company closed its old Chicago factory and
moved its operation to Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, but there they experienced difficulties in
securing satisfactory castings. Soon Aermotor began contracting for castings produced by
FIASA, the Argentine licensee, and then in 1968-69 the entire manufacturing process
ceased in the United States, with all 702 Model mills being imported from the South
America                                                                            licensee.


For over a decade all new Aermotor windmills sold on the American market continued to
be manufactured by FIASA in Buenos Aires. This changed in 1981 when Aermotor
introduced its new 802 Model mill produced in Conway Arkansas. The Argentine 702
Model windmills, sold under the FIASA brand name, however, also have remained on the
American market, imported and distributed by ESSEX Associates, Inc., of Dallas, Texas.
Thus today one may purchase either the new 802 Model manufactured in Arkansas or the
time-tested 702 Model produced in Argentina. [Windmillers Gazette, V. No 1 (Winter
1986), p.6]



                                                                                   Page | 40
Windmills are mainly known as alternative power generation tools a nd, of course, as
beautiful garden decoration too. Obviously do it yourself windmills for garden decoration
is a relatively easy to be built. However constructing a power generator is more
complicated.

that you go for option one (windmill plan) simply because it is less costly as compared to later. Of
course there is always an option to get all the required parts for the windmill – tower and turbine,
and               just              to                put             them                together.


Regardless of your approach at this point you will need to decide if you would like to have
wooden windmill or one made of metal. Indeed, aluminum windmills are more expensive but they
are      also       much        more        durable         than      the      wooden         ones.


A very important consideration is how much power your household needs and how much power
your windmill will be providing. To determine the amount of power needed simply check your last
months’ utility bills. Once you have a rough idea about it you are ready to choose a windmill of
size that will be able to generate the same amount of power. Wind speed and the overall amount
of windy days per year are also factors that need to be taken into account for correct power
supply estimation. If fact it is wiser to start with these calculations as it may turn out that your
windmill will not generate enough power and thus there will be no point in building one.


Another crucial step in do it yourself windmill construction is its location. This depends on the
wind patterns in your area. In any case any good windmill construction plan should give advice
how to choose the best spot as well as the height of the tower.

Wind power can be an excellent complement to a solar power system. Here in Colorado,
when the sun isn't shining, the wind is usually blowing. Wind power is especially helpful
here in the winter to capture both the ferocious and gentle mountain winds during the times
                                         of least sunlight and highest power use. In most
                                         locations (including here) wind is not suitable as the


                                                                                          Page | 41
ONLY source of power--it simply fills in the gaps left by solar power quite nicely.




Building a wind generator from scratch is not THAT difficult of a project. You will need a
shop with basic power and hand tools, and some degree of dedication. Large wind
generators of 2000 Watts and up are a major project needing very strong construction, but
smaller ones in the 700-1000 Watt, 8-11 foot range can be built fairly easily! In fact, we
highly recommend that you tackle a smaller wind turbine before even thinking about
building a large one. You'll need to be able to cut and weld steel, and a metal lathe can be
handy (though you could hire a machine shop that turns brake rotors do do some small
steps for you).

In most locations, GENTLE winds (5-15 mph) are the most common, and strong winds are
much more rare. As you'll see by examining our latest machines, our philosophy about
designing wind turbines is to make large, sturdy machines that produce good power in low
wind speeds, and are able to survive high wind events while still producing maximum
power. The power available in the wind goes up by a factor of 8 as the windspeed doubles.
Other critical factors are rotor size and tower height. The power a wind turbine can
harvest goes up by at least a factor of 4 as you double the rotor size. And making a tower
higher gets you above turbulence for better performance and substially increased power
output. Putting a wind turbine on a short tower is like mounting solar panels in the shade!


Wind Turbine

moulding. The rotor runs smoothly and quietly. The aerodynamic performance of rotor is
excellent with high energy coefficient and low start- up/cut-in wind speed. The rotor is able
to protect from over-speed by blade aerodynamic elasticity.
 Using high performance NdFeB permanent magnet, the alternator is high efficient and
compact. The unique electro- magnet design makes the bonding force and cut- in speed very
low.

                                                                                      Page | 42
2. Relying on the blade aeroelastic and electronic protection and discarding any
mechanical protection set, CHF wind turbines have only two pairs of parts with relative
rotation to make structure compacter and more reliable.
3. The system controller, using PWM and microprocessor technology, makes the
wind/solar hybrid system output maximum, and protects the wind turbine and battery from
malfunction.
4. With high quality aluminum alloy house and stainless steel hardware, the wind turbine is
light in weight, easy for electing, and conforms for environments such as temperature from
-30℃--+60℃,high humidity, salt fog and sandstorm. The wind turbine is reliable.


WS400

400W:



Rotor diameter:1.4m
Weight:19kg
Start up wind speed:2.3m/s
Cut- in wind speed:3m/s
Rated wind speed:12m/s
Voltage:12V , 24V
Rated output:400W
Peak power:457W




                                                                                   Page | 43
WS600

600W:


Rotor diameter:1.8m

Weight:25kg
Start up wind speed:2.3m/s
Cut- in wind speed:3m/s
Rated wind speed:12m/s
Voltage:24V , 48V
Ratedoutput:600W
Peak power:750W


Item                               Technical Data
                              400w             600w
Start up wind speed(m/s)       2.3              2.3
Rated wind speed (m/s)         12                   12
Cut- in wind speed (m/s)       3                    3
Voltage (DCV)                12 \ 24            24
Rated Output (W)              400               600
Peak Power (W)                450               750
Rotor diameter   (m)           1.4              1.8
Turbine (pcs)                  3                    3
Peak wind speed(m/s)           60                   60
Weight(kg)                    22.0             45.00
Over-speed protection         YES               YES
Over- load protection         YES               YES



                                                         Page | 44
Page | 45
HOW WINDMILL WORKS




                     Page | 46
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the
sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are
modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetation. Humans use this wind flow, or
motion energy, for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity.

The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to generate
mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into
mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain
or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity.

So how do wind turbines make electricity? Simply stated, a wind turbine works the opposite of a


                                                                                       Page | 47
fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make
electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and
makes electricity. Take a look inside a wind turbine to see the various parts. View the wind
turbine animation to see how a wind turbine works.

This aerial view of a wind power plant shows how a group of wind turbines can make electricity
for the utility grid. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to homes,
businesses, schools, and so on.




Types of Wind Turbines

Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety, as shown in the
photo, and the vertical-axis design, like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named after its
French inventor.

Horizontal-axis wind turbines typically either have two or three blades. These three-bladed wind
turbines are operated "upwind," with the blades facing into the wind.




                                                                                      Page | 48
Many wind farms have sprung up in the Midwest in recent years, generating power for utilities.
Farmers benefit by receiving land lease payments from wind energy project developers.




Wind Energy's 3.6 megawatt wind turbine is one of the largest prototypes ever erected. Larger
wind turbines are more efficient and cost effective.

Sizes of Wind Turbines

Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger
turbines are grouped together into wind farms, which provide bulk power to the electrical grid.

Single small turbines, below 100 kilowatts, are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or
water pumping.




                                                                                     Page | 49
Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and
photovoltaic systems.

These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off- grid
locations, where a connection to the utility grid is not available.


Inside the Wind Turbine




Ane mometer:
         Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the controller.
Blades:
         Most turbines have either two or three blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the
         blades to "lift" and rotate.
Brake:


                                                                                    Page | 50
         A disc brake, which can be applied mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically to stop the
         rotor in emergencies.
Controller:
         The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph)
         and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above
         about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the high winds.
Gear box:
         Gears connect the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational
         speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpm, the
         rotational speed required by most generators to produce electricity. The gear box is a
         costly (and heavy) part of the wind turbine and engineers are exploring "direct-drive"
         generators that operate at lower rotational speeds and don't need gear boxes.
Generator:
         Usually an off-the-shelf induction generator that produces 60-cycle AC electricity.
High-speed shaft:
         Drives the generator.
Low-speed shaft:
         The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.
Nacelle:
         The nacelle sits atop the tower and contains the gear box, low- and high-speed shafts,
         generator, controller, and brake. Some nacelles are large enough for a helicopter to land
         on.
Pitch:
         Blades are turned, or pitched, out of the wind to control the roto r speed and keep the rotor
         from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity.
Rotor:
         The blades and the hub together are called the rotor.
Tower:


                                                                                         Page | 51
      Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Because wind
      speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and
      generate more electricity.
Wind direction:
      This is an "upwind" turbine, so-called because it operates facing into the wind. Other
      turbines are designed to run "downwind," facing away from the wind.
Wind vane:
      Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the turbine
      properly with respect to the wind.
Yaw drive:
      Upwind turbines face into the wind; the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the
      wind as the wind direction changes. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive, the
      wind blows the rotor downwind.
Yaw motor:
      Powers the yaw drive.




                                                                                    Page | 52
                  Rechargeable Battery and
                             Battery Charger
1.   A   Battery is something that supplies DC power through chemical reaction.
     Batteries in different form have existed for over 150 years.


2.   "Alessandro Volta" developed Battery around year 1800 when he found the
     generation of electrical current from chemical reactions between different metal of
     different properties.


3.   Research work still continues for batteries with better performance, as the demand
     increases.
1.   The battery now a days we use are broadly divided into the following two
     categories
1.   Primary/Single Use Battery
2.   Secondary/Rechargeable Battery


Primary Battery
1.   Primary batteries are for single use as the chemical reactions that produce the
     electric current in them are irreversible.
2.   These batteries are cheap and simple to use. Some of the common primary cells are
     the common Zinc-Carbon battery, Zinc Manganese Alkaline battery etc.
3.   These are used for domestic purpose like watches, tape recorders, torch etc.

Secondary Battery
                                                                                Page | 53
1.   Secondary batteries are rechargeable batteries i.e. they can be used multiple times,
     after using the charge stored in them, they can be recharged and reused.
2.   These batteries are mainly used in industries and automobiles where higher initial
     current is required. Disadvantage of these batteries is they are costly and require
     regular maintenance.
3.   Some of the common examples of secondary batteries are Nickel-Cadmium battery,
     Lead-Acid battery etc.

Cell & Batteries
1.   The basic building block of batteries is cells. Each cell
2.   has a positive and a negative terminal. The battery is made up of one or more cells.
     Cells in different type of battery produce different volls.
3.   Normally, voltage obtained from a battery or the voltage required to recharge a
     battery is given in per cell basis.
4.   One can multiply the number of cells in a battery with this per cell values to find
     the actual voltage generated by the battery or the actual recharge voltage required
     to charge the battery.




1.   The capacity of a cell is defined as the number of electrons obtained from it. The
     number of electrons per unit time can be called current, so, the capacity of a cell
     can be the current supplied by it over a time.
2.   The cell's capacity is measured in Ampere-Hours and is defined as the current (in
     ampere) multiplied by the time the current is flowing.
                                                                                   Page | 54
3.    The capacity of a cell normally depends on the active material used in the eel! and
      on the volume of the cell.
4.    In many applications the cell's ability to supply power (current x voltage) or energy
      (current x voltage over time) is more important then the capacity of the cell.




Rechargeable Battery
1.    When the energy of a battery gets exhausted, i.e. when the battery is discharged, it
      is no longer usable. But this is not true for a rechargeable battery, a rechargeable
      battery can be recharged and reused.
2.    When a battery is connected to a load, the electrical energy stored in it get utilized,
      this is known as "discharging of battery".
3.    When the energy stored in the battery is completed exhausted, the battery stops
      providing supply to the load, and this battery is called a "discharged batte ry".
4.    This discharged battery can be given power from some external source to once
      again store energy into it. This process is known as "charging of the battery".
5.    Once a battery gets charged, it can be reused like a new battery to provide energy to
      the load connected to it.
6.    All batteries cannot be recharged, a battery which can be recharged to restore its
      energy is known as a "rechargeable battery" or a "storage battery".
7.    Battery is an important part of the Inverter, an Inverter converts the DC supply of
      battery into AC supply to provide supply to the various appliances/equipments
      connected to it
8.    This process slowly discharge the battery, after some time the battery becomes
      fully discharged, and it no longer provide the supply.
9.    When the AC mains is available, a charger circuit in the Inverter converts the AC
      mains supply into DC supply and charge the battery.
10.   This makes sure that the battery is kept fully charged and ready to provide supply
      to the Inverter, whenever the AC mains supply fail.

                                                                                     Page | 55
                    A Common Automobile Rechargeable Battery.
1.   As the battery used in an Inverter keeps on charging and discharging, a
     rechargeable battery is used with the Inverter.
2.   A "Lead-Acid" type of battery is most common battery . used with the Inverter.
     These batteries can provide very . high current for longer duration.
3.   Also, these batteries are inexpensive, compared to other rechargeable batteries.
4.   Main use of the lead-acid battery is in the automobile sector, that is why these
     batteries are commonly known .as "Automobile Battery".
5.   There are two types of lead-acid battery
1.   Wet Lead-Acid Battery
2.   Dry Lead-Acid Battery or Maintenance Battery
Wet Lead-Acid Battery
1.   In these batteries, the electrolyte is in liquid form therefore these batteries are
     known as "wet cell".



                                                                                     Page | 56
2.    Given figure shows a wet lead-acid battery. This battery is made of combination of
      several lead-acid cells, each cell delivering 2.1V.
3.    To get 12V from a lead-acid battery, one need to connect all 6 lead-acid cells in
      series. A 6V battery would require IITF lead-acid cells.
4.    These cells are connected together using thick mental strips, as large current is
      involved.
5.    Each cells have a removable cap to check/add the water/acid level of the cell.
6.    In a lead-acid cell the positive electrode is made of lead peroxide, and the negative
      electrode is made of spongy lead.
7.    A combination of sulphuric acid and water is used as electrolyte in these batteries.
      The negative and positive electrodes are immersed in a combination of 8 parts of
      water and 3 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid.
8.    The specific gravity of the electrolyte of a fully charged battery is about 1.25 to
      1,28.
9.    As the battery gets discharged the sulfuric acid gets reduced and the water content
      increase. This reduces the specific gravity of the battery to around 1.13 to 1.15,
      when the battery is fully discharged.
10.   When the battery is recharged, the sulfuric acid content and water level is again
      restored to its fully charged state.


      Dry Lead-Acid Battery or Maintenance Free Battery
1.    A dry or maintenance free battery does not use liquid as electrolyte, it uses an
      electrolyte paste.
2.    These batteries do not require frequent topping-up with water or acid. As these
      batteries are completely sealed pack, these are also known as "Sealed Maintenance
      Free" Battery or "SMF" battery.
3.    As these are fully sealed batteries, these can be used in any position.
4.    SMF batteries are generally used in Inverter, inverter, emergency light,
      telecommunication equipment etc.

                                                                                  Page | 57
1.     The following are most commonly used SMF batteries
1.     6V/4.3Ah
2.     12V/6.5Ah
3.     12y/7Ah
4.     12V/7.6AH
1.     All these batteries require 20 hour charging.
2.     SMF batteries should be charged using "constant charging voltage" method,
       otherwise these batteries could get damaged.
3.     Following table gives the charging voltage and charging voltage and charging
       current for these SMF batteries


 Battery          Max. Volt.                    Max. Amp.      Volt, at full ' Charge


 6V/4.2Ah         7.2V-7.5V                     1.26           6. 75-6. 9V


 12W7Ah           14.4V- 15V                    2.1            13.5~13.8V


12W7.6Ah          14. 4V- 15V                   2.28           13.5-13. 8V




           Current Rating/Capacity of the Lead-Acid Battery
                                (Ah - Ampere Hour)

1.     The lead-acid batteries are generally rated in terms of how much current the battery
       can supply for a fixed period of time.
2.     Battery capacity is rated in ampere-hour (Ah), Generally Ah value is based on 8
       hours discharge time.



                                                                                    Page | 58
3.   The capacity of any battery depends on the number of plates used in each cell of the
     battery. For example, a 15 plate battery will have 90Ah and a 21 plate battery will
     have 150Ah rating.
4.   A 200Ah battery can provide the load current of 25 Amp. (200/8 =25), for 8 hours.


5.   The battery can supply less current for longer time or more current for shorter time.
6.   A lOOAh battery can provide 12.5 ampere current for 8 hours (100/8 = 12.5), if a
     high current is taken from this same battery then the duration for which it can
     provide the required supply will reduce.
7.   If 20 Ampere current is consumed, the battery will be able to provide the current
     only for 5 hours (100/20=5).




                                                                                 Page | 59
        Important components of the Inverter
An Inverter requires various components for its proper operation. Some of these
components are:

       1.      Relay
       2.      Transformer
       3.      Battery
       4.      Fuse/Fuse Holder
       5.      Switches
       6.      Sockets
       7.      Panel Indicator (LED & Neon Lamp)
       8.      Meter (Volt/Ampere)
       9.      Transistor
       10.     MOSFETs
       11.     ICs

Relay
Relay is an electromagnetic switch. Switching on/off of relay is based on the flow of
current through its coil.

Relay is used for switching on/off various high voltage circuits.In Inverter, relay is used in
various cut off circuits and to switch the output between AC mains supply and inverter
generated supply.

Transformer
Transformer is one of the most important component of the Inverter. It is the job of
transformer to convert the battery supply into 230V supply.



                                                                                     Page | 60
Primary winding of this transformer is generally 12V-0V-12V, and the secondary winding
is of 230V. This is a step-up transformer. Thick wire is used in the primary winding and
secondary winding is done using thin wire. When AC mains is not available, center
tapping of the primary winding is given positive supply from battery.

Each end of the primary winding is given alternate supply, from a switching circuit. This
results in an AC current in the primary of the transformer.

AC current in the primary results in 230V AC current in the secondary of the transformer.
This AC current is then sent to the Inverter output socket-Battery. Battery provides DC
supply to the inverter section of the Inverter, when the AC mains fail. This DC is then
converted into 230V AC supply and output at Inverter output socket.

The backup time provided by the Inverter depends on the battery type and its current
capacity

                                 Fuse/Fuse Holder
                               GLASS CARTRIDGE
                                      FUSE
                              FUSE HOLDER BLOCK




PANEL MOUNTING SCREW TYPE FUSE HOLDER
Fuses are used to self- destruct and protect the circuit from flow of heavy current. Fuse wire
of different current capacities is available in glass housing.

These fuse housings are placed in a fuse holder and placed at the place provided on the
circuit
                                                                                     Page | 61
Switches
On/Off switch and reset switch are commonly used in Inverter. Reset switch is used to cut
off an overload circuit and restart the supply, This is a push-to-off switch, in normal
position this switch keeps the circuit on and when pushed, it cuts off the circuit.




       ON/OFF SWITCH          ROCKER SWITCH              KEYBOARD SWITCH




Socket
1.     3 PIN AC SOCKET
2.     2 PIN AC SOCKET



2 PIN PLUG
                                                                                Page | 62
A common 5Amp. or 15Amp. three pin power output socket is used in Inverter to provide
Inverter output to the various devices. One can connect an ordinary 5/15Amp. plug to the
Inverter output.

A three-core cable is connected to the plug. The cable generally contains red, black and
green color wire, the red wire is used for phase, black for neutral and the green wire is used
for earth connection.

Panel Indicator (LED/Neon Lamp)
1.     NEON LAMP
2.     LED




ED or Light Emitting Diode are small semiconductor devices which emit light when a
small forward current is applied to them.

When using LED with AC mains, one need to add high value current limiting resistor in
series. LED is available in red, yellow, green etc. colors.

Neon lamps are another indicator device. To use in 230V power supply, neon can be
connected in series with a 470K-1ME resistor.

These lamps require minimum 90V potential difference for operation, they do not work in
low voltage. Neon lamp is available in red, green, yellow etc. colors.
Meter (Volt/Ampe re)




                                                                                     Page | 63
Ampere meter and Voltmeter are used in Inverter to indicate output voltage/current values.
These meters are available in various housings/ shapes, such as round, rectangular, square
etc.

OV-300V voltmeter is used in almost all Inverter. A "switch to on" switch is used to
control the voltmeter, as keeping the voltmeter continuously on will generate heat in the
meter coil and could damage the meter.

To check the battery output, ampere meter is connected in series with the battery positive
line.

Transistor
Transistor is used in the Inverter circuit to generate oscillation signal, amplification of
signal, and to switch on/off various circuits.

MOSFET
MOSFETs are used as switching device at the Inverter output section. As the MOSFET
transistors are better then common bipolar transistors, currently almost all Inverter use
MOSFET at its output section.

ICs
Inverter use various ICs in its different section. Some of the ICs commonly used in the
Inverter are


                                                                                  Page | 64
       1.      Timer 1C - NE555, CD4047
       2.      PWM Controller/Oscillator - SG3524
       3.      Operational Amplifier-LM324, LM339
       4.      Regulator ICs - 7805, 7812
       5.      Opto-Coupler - MOC3021, 4N35

Switching Transistors & MOSFETs

Switching is a very important process in the Inverter. Inverter and other electronic devices
use common bipolar transistors and MOSFETs for the switching operation.

The job of a switch is to keep the flow of current in a circuit in on or off condition.
Mechanical switches are very slow and they have sparking problems, this can be
eliminated by using electronic switches in a circuit.

Advantages of Electronic Switch
Electronic switches are small in size and weight, compared to the mechanical switch.
9 Electronic switch does not have any moving parts, this eliminates the problem of
sparking etc.

       1.      Electronic switch does not produce any sound/noise during operation.
       2.      Generally, these switches cannot be repaired, when they fail, they are
               replaced.
       3.      On/Off speed, i.e. the "switching speed" of electronic switch is very fast.




               Transistor as Switch WITH SUFFICIENT BASE BIASING




                                                                                   Page | 65
When an electronic device such as common bipolar transistor or MOSFET is used to
switch on/off flow of current in a circuit, that device is said to be working as an "electronic
switch".

Because of the switching speed and other advantages mentioned above, the use of
electronic switching is increasing day-by-day.

Let us see how a transistor is used as a switch.
When the base of NPN transistor receives enough biasing, it switches on. This results in a
current flow from its collector to the emitter terminal.

When the base biasing is removed, the transistor switch off and the current flow stops.
So, by changing the base bias, the transistor can be made to work as a switch.

Given figures can be used to understand this better. In this figure a lamp RL is used as load
at the collector of transistor Tl.




TRANSISTOR IS OFF , TRANSISTOR IS ON

                                                                                     Page | 66
As shown in the figure A, when the switch SI at base of Tl is in off position, transistor does
not receive base biasing.

This keeps the Tl is off condition, and the current will not flow from collector. This keeps
the bulb at the collector in off position.

When the switch S1 is turned on, the base of T1 receives enough biasing and the Tl
switches on.

This starts the flow of current from collector to emitter of T1. This current will also flow
through bulb RL and the bulb starts to glow.

So, one can switch on/off the transistor by controlling the biasing given to its base. This
process is called "switching" of transistor.

The faster we change the biasing signal at the base, the faster transistor will switch.
Switching requires very small current at the base.

When the transistor is on, current flows from collector to the load, and when the transistor
is off, flow of current in the load stops.

A MOSFET can also be switched on/off like a common bipolar transistor.
By controlling the voltage at the gate of MOSFET, one can start/stop the flow of current
from its drain to source, i.e. the MOSFET can be switched on/off.

Bipolar Transistor Vs MOSFET
Generally, the common bipolar transistor is used for switching application, but or.e also
use the MOSFET for this purpose.

Currently, Inverters and UPS, use the MOSFET in place o f bipolar transistor for switching
operation.




Following are some of the reason behind increase in the use of MOSFET.
       1.      A common bipolar transistor is a "current operated" device, whereas the
               MOSFET is a "voltage operated" device. This makes the circuit using
               MOSFETs simple to design.

       2.      Bipolar transistor requires higher drive power for its operation. MOSFET
               device can work on very small drive power.
                                                                                      Page | 67
       3.      As the input impedance of the bipolar transistor is very small, it requires
               DC current for its operation. Input impedance of MOSFET is very high, so
               it can work without DC current.



       4.      Switching speed of MOSFET is less than that of bipolar transistor.
       5.      "Safe operating area " of MOSFET is larger than that of bipolar transistor,
               because of this, MOSFET device does not get easily damaged.

• Effect of temperature on MOSFET device is much less than it is on the bipolar device,
this reduce the chance of thermal runway.

• In a bipolar transistor circuit, when the current flow increase, its overall gain is reduced.
But, in a MOSFET circuit the overall gain increases.

• A MOSFET device can withstand higher peak current compared to the bipolar transistor.
• Efficiency of MOSFET device is higher at high frequency.

• Switching time of bipolar transistor gets effected by the temperature, whereas the
temperature has very little effect on MOSFET device.

Other than all these advantages, MOSFETs have some negative points as well

• MOSFET devices are very sensitive to static charge, they get easily damaged by them.

• MOSFET devices have self capacitance, even touching their pins by hand could damage
them.
• Giving higher than ±20 Vgate voltage at the gate will puncture the gate and damage the
MOSFET transistor.

• To protect the MOSFET gate, a zener diode is used between its gate and source
terminals,

• Drain transient voltage could damage the MOSFET, to protect the MOSFET a RC
Snubber circuit is used.

Comparator
A "comparator" is used to compare two values. In an Inverter, comparator is used at
many places. Comparator is used to detect "overload", "low-battery", "overcharging" etc.




                                                                                      Page | 68
                              DC FROM SENSOR OUTPUT




Simple Comparator Circuit.
Comparator circuit compares various signals with a fixed reference voltage to detect above
mentioned conditions.

As shown in the given figure, DC voltage from a sensor circuit is sent to the base of NPN
transistor Tl, through preset VR1, zener diode ZD1 and resistance Rl.

Here zener diode is used to set a fixed reference voltage.
When the DC voltage coming from the sensor is less than the zener voltage Vz of the zener
diode, current will not flow through the diode, and the base of transistor will not receive
any biasing.

This keeps the transistor Tl in off position.
When the value of voltage from sensor circuit become more than the zener voltage Vz,
base of Tl starts receiving biasing and the Tl will turn on.

This results in flow of current from collector to emitter of transistor Tl. This voltage can be
checked at the meter connected to the collector.


                                                                                      Page | 69
When the DC voltage from sensor circuit is less than the reference voltage (zener voltage),
circuit after the comparator will not receive any signal and the circuit will not operate.
When the sensor voltage becomes more than the reference voltage (zener voltage), the
circuit after the comparator starts receiving signal and the circuit starts to operate.
This is the basic principle behind any comparator circuit

Ope rational Amplifier Comparator

Operational Amplifier or Op-Amp, is a special type o amplifier with very high gain. Op-
Amp, is used foi various different purpose.

An Op-Amp. can also be used to compare two different voltages (i.e. Op-Amp, as a
comparator).




Generally an Op-Amp, unit has two input terminals and one output terminal. Signal at the
output terminal depends on the voltages at the input terminals.

One of the input terminal is called a non-inverting {+) input terminal and the other input
terminal is called inverting (-) input terminal.

To use the Op-Amp, as comparator, one input terminal is provided a constant reference
voltage and the other input terminal is given a variable voltage from a sensor circuit.




                                                                                  Page | 70
If the inverting (-) terminal is given constant reference voltage and non- inverting (+)
terminal is given DC voltage from sensor circuit, then the output will depend on whether
the input DC voltage from sensor is

• equal to reference voltage
• less than reference voltage
• more than reference voltage

When the input is equal to reference voltage
As the voltage reaching both input pins are equal, i.e. there difference is zero, voltage at
the output terminal will be zero.

When the input Is less than reference voltage
When the input is less than reference voltage, voltage at the output terminal will be
negative.

When the input is more than reference voltage
When the input is more than reference voltage, voltage at the output terminal will be
positive.
Now, if the non- inverting (+) terminal is given constant reference voltage and inverting (-)
terminal is given DC




                                                                                    Page | 71
voltage from sensor circuit, then the output will depend on whether the input DC voltage
from sensor is

• equal to reference voltage
• less than reference voltage
• more than reference voltage
_t
When the input is equal to reference voltage
As the voltage reaching both input pins are equal, i.e. there difference is zero, voltage at
the output terminal will be zero.

When the input is less than reference voltage
When the input is less than reference voltage, voltage at the output terminal will be
positive.

When the input is more than reference voltage
When the input is more than reference voltage, voltage at the output terminal will be
negative.

From the above discussion it is clear that when the Op-Amp, is used as a comparator
1.     • If the voltage at positive and negative input pins .Z.-^K are equal, then the
       output will be 0V.
1.     If the voltage at positive pin is more than the voltage at the negative pin, the
       output will be a positive voltage.
1.     •If the voltage at positive pin is less than the voltage at the negative pin, the
       output will be a negative voltage.



                                                                                   Page | 72
Use of bi-filar winding in the Inverter Transforme r

Inverter-cum-charger transformer used in the Inverter should be able to drive maximum
load, and should work in push-pull circuit.

Each channel of the MOSFETs, in the output section, is connected to the 12V ends of the
12 V-OV-12V primary winding of the transformer.




CENTER TAP
0V center tapping is connected to the positive terminal of the battery.
For producing similar effect on each winding, it is important that each winding should be
of same size, same length etc.

When one rotates one winding on top of another to make two similar windings, the two
windings will not be similar and they may not produce similar effect.
To solve this problem the bi- filar winding is used in the inverter/charger transformer.

How to make Bi-filar Winding?


                                                                                Page | 73
To make bi- filar winding, two wires having same gauge value, are wind together. Once the
required numbers of turns are done, join the end of one wire with the end of the second
wire.

This will be the center tapping of the bi- filar winding. Other ends of this winding are
connected to the MOSFET drain.

If the resistance from the center tapping to each end of winding is checked, it should have
same value.

Current from one MOSFET channel will flow between one end of the winding and the
center tapping, and current from the other MOSFET channel will flow between the other
end of the winding and the center tapping.
This results in generation of equal pulse at the 270V taping of the transformer, by both
output channels.
I:
Some Important Points Changeover Time
When the AC mains supply to the Inverter stops, Invent starts operating on battery supply.
The time taken for the Inverter to change from AC mair mode to battery mode is known as
changeover time.

Checking current without load (when Inverter is ON)
' • he Un First remove the AC mains lead from the AC main -^ disco\ socket. Switch off
the mains on/off switch, keep tfPurrentinE Inverter switch to off position.

Remove all the loads from the output socket. Connect continued 0-30 Ampere meter in
series to the positive terminal estate wher the battery and then switch on the Inverter
switch.

Now check the current reading, without connecting anassoc iated load. This reading should
be below 1 Ampere.

If the current is more than 1 Ampere then the circuit (direction consuming extra current. In
this situation, adding an determine load will discharge the battery faster. This condition,
could be due to poor quality of the transformer used in the Inverter.
magnetic

Checking battery charging current during charging
During battery charging, check the battery current connecting an ampere meter in series to
the terminal of the battery.
This current should be between 6 and 10 Ampere.

Checking 50Hz at the output
                                                                                   Page | 74
To check the Inverter output for 50Hz frequency, operate the Inverter in the battery mode
by removing the main! lead from the AC mains socket

Connect a frequency meter at the Inverter output socket The meter should show a reading
of 6OHz.

If the reading is above/below 6OHz. then set preset ii oscillator section to set output
frequency to 50Hz±10%.


Relays
The link between electricity and magnetism was discovered by Oersted in 1824, who
found that the current in a wire could move a magnetic compass needle.

The needle remained deflected as long as the current continued to flow in the wire and it
returned to its original state when the current was switched off.

This established that a current carrying wire has an associated magnetic field.

The direction of magnetic lines offeree depends on the direction of current through the
wire and can be determined by the right hand rule.
The magnetic field associated with a single wire is very weak. If the wire is wound in the
shape of a coil, the magnetic fields produced by different turns add up and produce a
strong magnetic field.

The strength of magnetic field is directly proportional to the number of turns in the coil-
The magnetic field coining out of a magnet tend to spread in the open space as they repel
each other.

Placing of nonmagnetic materials such as wood, paper, air, plastic etc. around the magnet
does not have any effect in the path of these magnetic lines, the path remains same, as if
these materials do not exist.

When a magnetic material such as iron or steel is placed in the path of these magnetic line
of forces, the force lines around these materials become concentrated inside them.

This ability of material to concentrate magnetic field lines in them is called permeability.
Any material that is easily magnetized has high permeability.

When a soft iron core is inserted into the coil, it becomes an electromagnet.
This electromagnet is the basic component for relay and many other electromechanical
devices such as electric bell, circuit breaker etc.


                                                                                   Page | 75
Solenoid

The term solenoid is commonly used to refer to a setup where a moving iron core can
center itself lengthwise into a coil of wire, when current is applied to the coil




                         DIRECTION OF LINE OF FORCE
                    RIGHT HAND HOLDING CONDUCTOR WIRE
                        DIRECTION OF CURRENT FLOW




A simple circuit to demonstrate the use of solenoid is shown in the given figure.



                                                                                    Page | 76
In this circuit a soft iron core is suspended on a spring under suitable tension, it can be
moved in and out of a solenoid coil when current is applied to the coil.

When the current to the coil is switched on, the soft iron core is pulled inside the solenoid.
When the current is switched off, the spring pulls the core back, out of the solenoid.

This property of solenoid is the operating principle of relays and a number of other
electromechanical devices.

Relay
An electromagnetic relay is basically a switch operated by magnetic force. This magnetic
force is generated by flow of current through a coil in the relay.

The relay opens or closes a circuit, when current through the coil is started or stopped.
The basic working principal of relay in a circuit is shown in the figure 2-3.

As can be seen in this figure, a circuit using relay has two separate circuits. The circuit that
controls the relay is called switching circuit. This circuit drives the relay to switch on/off
another circuit, which is known as switched circuit.

Let us see how this circuit works. Initially when the on/off switch SI is open, there is no
current through the switching circuit. In this situation the electromagnet in the relay will
not energize and the relay contact will stay in off position.

In this position current will not flow in the load/switched circuit a nd the bulb in the load
circuit will remain off.




                                                                                      Page | 77
                             TERMINALS RETURN SPRING

                            TENSION ADJUSTMENT FRAME




                              Fig. 2-4 : Construction of Relay.

When the switch SI in the relay circuit is closed, the current will flow through the coil and
the electromagnet will pull the relay armature down.

This will connect the relay contact to the on position.

                                                                                    Page | 78
The connection of armature to the on position will start
the flow of current in the load/switched circuit and the bulb in this circuit will start to
glow.
Once again if the switch S1 is opened, current in the relay coil will stop, the electromagnet
will lose its magnetism and the relay armature will go back to its off position. This will
stop the flow of current in the load/switching circuit and turn off the bulb.

So, by the above description and by looking at the figure, its must be clear that in this type
of circuit, where a relay is used to control another circuit, there is no electrical connection
between the switching circuit and the switched circuit, i.e. the relay circuit and the load
circuit.

Also, a relay circuit, which uses small current, can switch on/off a switched circuit having
heavy current.

In this circuit the relay basically works as a SPDT (Single Pole Double Throw) switch.
Only difference is,in a switch, the on/off switching is done manually, whereas in a relay
controlled circuit it is done using an electromagnet.

Construction of Relay

A relay basically consists of four parts,

       1.      An electromagnet made of a coil and a magnetic circuit,
       2.      A movable armature
       3.      A set of contacts and
       4.      A frame to mount all these components.

As you can see in the given figure, a relay contains a core surrounded by a coil. This core
and coil assembly is mounted on a metal frame.

On top of this core/coil assembly, an armature attached to a return spring is located, this
return spring keeps the armature in tension by pulling it downward.

This downward pull of armature by the spring makes armature contact arm to touch a
terminal known as top contact.




                                                                                     Page | 79
When current flows through the relay coil, the coil is energized and when the force of
attraction of electromagnet generated in the coil is sufficient to overcome the opposition of
the tension of return spring, the armature and the armature contact arm, is pulled
downwards.

This makes the armature contact arm to touch another terminal known as bottom contact.
Controlling a circuit with the relay is shown in detail in the next figure.

As you can in this figure, the relay circuit has no direct electrical connection with the
circuit being controlled.
Current in the relay circuit will energize the electromagnet of the relay and pull the
armature down from the top contact to the bottom contact.

When the armature contact arm touches the bottom contact, the circuit being driven by the
relay becomes complete and current starts to flow from the pole to the bottom contact and
into the circuit. This will glow the lamp in our example circuit.

When the relay circuit is de-energized by switching off the switch and cutting supply to the
relay, the electromagnet will loose its magnetism.

This will make the return spring to pull the armature, once again, back to the top contact
position.
This movement of armature will remove the armature contact arm from the bottom contact
and open the lamp circuit, which in turn, will switch off the lamp.

In a relay the armature is not allowed to touch the core of coil, as this may make the
armature to stick to the core because of remnant magnetism in the core.


                                                                                    Page | 80
As small gap is left between the armature and the core, when the armature contact arm
touches the bottom contact.

Sometimes a small rivet of nonmagnetic material such as brass is fixed on top of core, so
that the armature does not touch the core.

Relays in a Circuit
Let us now see how a relay is represented in a circuit. Next figure shows a double pole
relay with its internal constructions and pin configuration.

The contact on which the movable armature of relay normally rests is commonly known as
N/C (Normally Closed or Normally Connected) contact.

The other contact to which the magnetized coil pulls the armature is known as O/C
(Orderly Connected) or N/0 (Normally Open) contact.

The N/C contact is called Normally Closed or Normally Connected contact, because in
normal condition, when the relay is off, the armature is connected to this contact.

The other contact, which stays open in normal condition, j when there is no current through
the relay, is called N/0 ( (Normally Open) contact.




                                                                                  Page | 81
This contact is also called O/C (Orderly Connected) contact, because this contact is
connected when the relay receives an order to connect it

The order to connect/close this contact is given by giving supply to the relay coil.
In a relay the armature is normally connected to the N/C contact. By providing supply to
the relay circuit, this connection of armature is changed to the O/C contact to complete the
circuit being driven by the relay.

When the supply to the relay is stopped, the armature returns back to the N/C connection,
this will once again open the circuit being driven by the relay and stop flow of current in
the load circuit.

Single, Double & Triple Pole Relays
Relays are available in single, double and triple pole configuration. One, Two and Three
poles relay with their internal construction and bottom view showing the pin configuration
is given in the following figure.


                                                                                   Page | 82
As the names suggest, a single pole relay contains a single pole, with its N/C & O/C
connections.

Normally the armature rests on N/C connection and when current is passed to the relay coil
armature touches the O/C connection.
In double pole relay, two poles, and each pole with its N/C and O/C connection are
available. Initially the armature of relay rests on the N/C of both the poles, when current is
passed through the relay coil the armature will move to the O/C contact of both poles.

One cannot independently control the armature movement for each of these poles because
only one coil is provided for both the poles.

In triple pole relay, three poles and N/C and O/C connections for each of them are
provided. Initially the armature rests on the N/C of all the three poles.

When current is passed through the relay coil, the armature will connect with the O/C
connection of all the three poles.

In this three-pole relay also, one cannot control the armature movement for different poles
individually.




                                                                                     Page | 83
Following table shows for how many hours one can use a fully charged
    180Ah battery, when different amount of current is consumed.

      Current (Ampere)                        Time (Hours)

               1                                    180

               2                                    90

               3                                    60

               4                                    45

               5                                    36

               6                                    30

               8                                    22.5

               10                                   18

               12                                   15

               15                                   12

               20                                    9

               25                                   7.2

               30                                    6

               40                                   4.5

               60                                    3

               90                                    2

              120                                   1.5
                                                              Page | 84
                     150                                              1.2

                     180                                              1

                            The Science of Electricity



  Science of Electricity
Introduction to Solar Energy


Many different design techniques (passive solar) and technologies (active solar) are used to
collect the sun’s energy. Some ways to use the sun have been practiced for centuries.
Buildings use passive solar design to capture heat during colder weather and block it
during warmer weather, and provide natural lighting for their occupants. This use of solar
energy minimizes the need for fuel-powered heat and electricity and is a cornerstone of
energy efficient buildings.

                                 Solar energy can also provide this heat and power more
                                 directly through active solar technologies, which capture
                                 sunlight and use its energy to produce heat or electricity.
                                 Solar heating technologies can warm a building, heat
                                 water, or even create steam for use in industrial
                                 processes. Solar thermal technologies generate steam to
                                 power utility scale electric generators. Solar
                                 photovoltaic technology (or PV for short) uses the
                                 electrical properties of certain materials to convert solar
                                 energy into usable electricity. For reasons ranging from
                                 its environmental benefits to its scale and accessibility,



                                                                                   Page | 85
this technology's promise of clean electricity has gained much attention in recent decades.

Pictured here: This 13.2 kW (DC) solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the BJ's
Wholesale Club, Stoneham, MA, was co- funded by the Renewable Energy Trust. BJ's is
participating in an electric utility congestion relief study with NStar Electric. The electric
output of the solar installation will be correlated to the load on the local electric grid to
demonstrate how PV can be deployed in load constrained areas to help prevent brown-outs
during hot, sunny weather.

This introduction to solar energy focuses on solar photovoltaic technology as a renewable
energy source, though basic information and plenty of links are provided on other uses of
the sun's energy. Here is a summary of the solar information included on this website:

As background to understanding how photovoltaics and other technologies use the sun's
energy, the Powe r of the Sun explains the basics of the sun’s energy and how it reaches
the Earth.

To understand how solar energy has been used in the past, the History of Solar Energy
outlines solar inventions and innovations developed throughout human history.

The Power of the Sun

The sun is the Earth's primary source of energy, powering its most basic systems and
cycles and shaping the world around us. It provides the planet with light a nd heat. The
reaction between the sun’s energy and the Earth’s atmosphere determines weather patterns
and rainfall, and our planet's tilt towards the sun creates the seasons. Its role in
photosynthesis helps plants to grow and its role in biodegradation he lps complete the
natural cycle of ecosystems.

A lesser known role of solar energy is that it is the root of most the other forms of energy
humans use for power. Wind power depends on the sun's impact on atmospheric
movement to create wind patterns. Bioenergy (wood and other plant material) depends on
photosynthesis. Even fossil fuels indirectly owe their creation millions of years ago to solar
energy

The Sun's Energy

The sun is composed of two layers of gas: an inner core of hydrogen and an outer layer of
helium. For millions of years, the core of hydrogen gas has been burning and producing the

                                                                                    Page | 86
outer layer of helium. An enormous amount of energy is created in this process. This solar
energy radiates outward from the sun and into space, and some of this energy reaches the
Earth's surface. This movement of energy is known as solar radiation.




How Solar Energy Travels

                                                   The energy radiating from the sun is
                                                   released as concentrated particles called
                                                   photons, smaller than atoms and
                                                   invisible to the human eye. These tiny
                                                   packets of energy travel in a pattern
                                                   best described as a wave. These waves,
                                                   like the photons that travel along them,
                                                   are too small to be visible, ranging from
                                                   160 to 1,500 nanometers (a nanometer
is one billionth of a meter) in length.

Wavelength, defined as the distance between one peak of a wave to the next peak of the
same wave, is key to understanding the varying qualities of solar energy. Wavelength is
directly linked to the amount of energy carried by a particular wave. A wave with a very
short wavelength carries a high amount of photon energy. Likewise, a wave with a longer
wavelength carries a lower amount of photon energy.

How Humans Perceive Solar Energy

                                                         The lengths of different solar
                                                         waves determine how they are
                                                         perceived and used on Earth.
                                                         Solar waves with wavelengths
                                                         between 400 and 780 nanometers
                                                         are perceived by the human eye as
                                                         visible light. Most of the solar
                                                         energy that reaches the Earth
                                                         travels in waves within this range.
In essence, the sunlight we see is the primary form of solar energy, and solar technologies
depend on this sunlight to create heat and electricity.


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In addition to energy perceived as visible light, the sun releases smaller amounts of energy
in waves with shorter and longer wavelengths. Solar waves with wavelengths between 160
and 400 nanometers are known as ultraviolet rays and carry higher levels of energy than
sunlight. Solar waves with wavelengths between 780 and 1,500 nanometers are known as
infrared rays and carry lower levels of energy than sunlight. Both types of energy have
important roles on Earth, but, largely because only small amounts hit the Earth's surface,
they are not used in solar energy techniques and technologies.

Solar waves carry very little heat. Rather, most solar heat is created when waves of solar
energy hit certain materials on Earth. The Earth's surface and various materials absorb
some of this solar energy, then release energy back into the air in the form of heat. This
process is the central element in both passive solar techniques and solar heating
technologies.




What Happens when Solar Energy Reaches the Earth?

                                        As solar energy radiates outward from the sun, some
                                        of it reaches the outer layer of the Earth's atmosphere.
                                        At this point, several factors affect how much solar
                                        energy penetrates the atmosphere and the way it
                                        reaches different parts of the Earth's surface at
                                        different times of year.

                                        The Earth's atmosphere significantly impacts the
                                        amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the
                                        Earth. Some waves are reflected by the outer layers of
                                        the atmosphere, while others are blocked by a lower
                                        layer of ozone. Still others are interrupted by clouds,
                                        some reflected back into the atmosphere and some
deflected in their route to the
Earth's surface. Finally, some
waves      pass     through       the
atmosphere unimpeded, hitting the
surface of the Earth as direct light.

Waves that are deflected by
clouds before hitting the surface
                                                                                       Page | 88
are known as diffuse light because they hit the earth at different angles than direct light.
Some direct light is also reflected when it hits the surface, creating more diffuse light. This
distinction is relevant to the human uses of solar energy, as certain technologies, like solar
thermal, can only use direct light to produce energy while others, like photovoltaics, can
use both direct and diffuse light.

Levels of direct light vary greatly from region to region because of differing atmospheric
qualities, ozone levels, and weather patterns. The level of direct sunlight typically received
in a region is measured as solar intensity. Solar intensity affects the amount of energy
available for solar technologies, and as a result impacts their efficiency.

Another important factor in using solar energy is the angle at which solar waves reach the
Earth. This angle is constantly changing as the Earth rotates toward the sun in the morning
and away from the sun at night. The tilt of the Earth's axis also impacts the angle at which
solar waves reach different regions at different times of year.

These changes in the angle of solar radiation do not affect the amount of energy carried by
solar waves, but need to be considered when designing solar techniques and technologies
to best accommodate solar energy throughout the day and in different regions.

Passive Solar: Buildings that Work with the Sun

The sun's energy provides light and heat to the Earth each day, both essential to people’s
thermal and visual comfort. But at different times of year, the amount of e nergy provided
directly by the sun is either too much or too little for us to be comfortable. A central
function of buildings is to use this solar energy when it meets our needs, and protect us
when it is inadequate or too harsh.

Passive solar design refers to a building that effectively uses the sun’s energy, simply
through the way the structure is oriented, designed, and constructed. Buildings that use
passive solar design can use fewer or smaller-scale active technologies to meet the
remainder of their heating and lighting needs. Because the sun's energy is free, maximizing
use of natural solar energy before adding active technologies can significantly reduce
ongoing energy costs.

Passive solar design has a long history, stretching back to early indigenous cultures and the
Greeks and Romans, whose written records indicate thoughtful use of passive solar design
to accommodate sunlight and solar heat. Modern passive solar design use some of these
same techniques but add newer ones that depend on advanced structures and materials.

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Here are some key aspects of passive solar design:

Building Orientation

The correct orientation of a building is the foundation of passive solar design. Because of
the Earth's tilted axis and its orbit around the sun, sunlight does not hit the Earth's surface
at the same angle in everywhere or at all times of the year. A building must be oriented in
relationship to this range of angles in order to maximize the use of solar energy for interior
lighting and winter heating.

In the Northern hemisphere, this means focusing on the southern side of buildings. In the
summer, the sun passes nearly directly over our heads. But in the winter, it follows a path
lower in the sky and to the south. To take advantage of this winter sun for heat, and to take
advantage of the sun year round for light, a building must be designed to allow the entry of
sunlight from the south.

Using Natural Light

Once a building is oriented to the south, a means of accommodating sunlight is needed. At
a basic level, a building's windows serve this purpose, passing light through while
protecting the building from other natural elements. Advanced passive solar design takes
this concept further to receive specific amounts of light at different times of year, and even
channel sunlight deeper into the parts of buildings that cannot receive as much direct
sunlight. These designs use elements like atriums, skylights, light shelves and reflective
panels to bring large amounts of light inside and reflect it into less well- lighted areas.

These methods are generally categorized as daylighting techniques. Daylighting has many
benefits, both reducing electric lighting costs and providing a more pleasant indoor
environment. However, daylighting can also have drawbacks, most notably in its potential
to capture large amounts of solar energy inside a building, creating more heat than the
building needs. Finding the right balance between maximizing natural light and
minimizing overheating presents a significant design challenge.

Blocking Heat While Using Light

The level of heat produced inside a building as a result of solar energy is called solar gain.
In the winter, solar gain is desirable as it reduces the need for active heat production. But
in the summer, solar gain needs to be minimized to keep buildings cool.


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One method for allowing heat at certain times of year and blocking it at others is the use of
well-designed overhangs or sunshades. These shading devices are sized and placed to
block sunlight and prevent overheating in the summer, when the sun is above the building,
and to accommodate sunlight and create heat during the winter, when the sun is lower in
the sky.

Overhangs have been used in buildings for centuries, and are a practical design element for
small scale buildings whose roofs can be extended to shade windows below. Sunshades are
a newer way to provide shading and can be used on larger buildings where overhangs may
be impractical.

Storing Solar Heat

Though the majority of sunlight, and therefore heat, enters buildings directly through
windows, other building materials can be used to capture sunlight and transfer controlled
amounts of heat into a building.

One such approach is known as a Trombe wall, named after Felix Trombe, a French
scientist who developed techniques for using this heat-storage concept. At its most basic, a
Trombe wall is simply a dark-colored building wall constructed from concrete, adobe or
stone, all good materials for storing heat. When hit by sunlight, the wall converts the solar
energy into heat which is slowly transferred through the wall and into the building, often
timed to reach the interior late in the day when direct solar energy is no longer available.

Another heat storage method is called a double facade wall, typically made of glass and
used in larger-scale buildings. This design uses two layers of windows with an air barrier
in between that accommodates fresh air. As sunlight hits the outside layer of windows and
passes through the second layer into the building, it heats the air in between. This air can
then be vented into the building during the winter and out of the building during the
summer, allowing for significant control over solar gain by reducing heat in the summer
and allowing it inside in the winter.

Solar Heating Technologies

Buildings require heat for a variety of purposes, from space heating to hot water. While
some of this heat can be provided through passive solar design, additional heat is usually
needed in cold weather, and is needed year-round to provide hot water on demand.



                                                                                    Page | 91
Solar heating technologies can provide this more intense heat. Solar heating systems are
based around a material that absorbs the energy carried by sunlight and releases it in the
form of heat. This heat is then transferred to air or water which can be used immediately or
stored in its heated state until needed.

Solar heating is used on a scale ranging from small residential buildings to large industrial
facilities. They can be quite cost-effective and more than one million systems are operating
in the United States .

Here are the key solar heating technologies used today:




Small-Scale Water Heating

Water heating in residential and commercial buildings is a common application for solar
heating technologies. Solar hot water systems are installed directly on or next to a building
and connected to its plumbing system to provide hot water on demand. Two types of solar
heaters can be used in this way.

The first is called a flat plate collector, which pumps water through a series of pipes
enclosed in an insulated box with a glass panel on one side. When sunlight passes through
the glass, its energy is absorbed in the pipes, producing heat. Because the pipes are
enclosed, most of their heat is retained and transferred to the water moving through them.
This heated water then moves on to a separate storage tank where it retains its heat and is
pumped into the building as needed.

A second type of solar water heater is called a batch collector, or more formally, an
integral collector storage system, because it combines its collector and storage aspects in
one device. In this system, the pipes used in a flat plate collector are replaced with the
storage tank itself, still enclosed with a glass cover. One side of the tank is glazed to absorb
higher levels of solar energy, which it transfers as heat to the water stored inside.

Each solar hot water system has its advantages and disadvantages. As they combine
multiple components in one device, batch collectors are typically more efficient and cost-
effective. But in colder climates, flat plate collectors can be preferable since most of their
components can be stored inside the building, protecting against freezing temperatures in
the winter.


                                                                                      Page | 92
Small-Scale Space Heating

A variation on the flat-plate collector is typically used for space heating. Instead of pipes, a
heat-absorbing plate is installed in an insulated box. Solar energy entering the box is
absorbed by the plate which releases heat back into the box. Air is then blown or pumped
through the box to be heated as it passes over the plate. This heated air is then pumped
directly into the building as needed.

A transpired air collector, another solar technology used for space heating, also depends on
an absorbent metal plate to capture sunlight and heat air, but draws the air through holes in
the plate itself instead of blowing air over the plate in an enclosed box. This technology
allows far more heat to be transferred to the air and, as it requires fewer components, is
more cost-effective than most flat-plate systems.




Solar Cooling and Refrigeration

Heat generated by solar panels can be used to power cooling systems. In fact, solar heaters
match up well with a building’s cooling needs, because they produce more energy in the
summer when air cooling needs are highest.

Standard cooling devices depend on heat to separate a mixture of an absorbent and
refrigerant fluid. The refrigerant is then rapidly condensed and evaporated to create the
cooling effect in an air conditioner or refrigerator. In a solar cooling application, solar
heating technologies simply replace electricity as the source of heat.

The two technologies powerful enough for use in solar cooling applications are evacuated
tube collectors and concentrating collectors. Both are also used in large-scale commercial
and industrial heating applications, as seen below.

Large-Scale Commercial and Industrial Heating

Two other solar technologies can provide high levels of heat for use in commercial and
industrial applications. The first is an evacuated tube collector, which uses a series of glass
tubes, each attached to a strip of absorbent material. When the tubes are manufactured, the
air is evacuated from them, allowing them to transfer heat more efficiently. During use, the
absorbent strips transform solar energy into heat, which is captured and transferred by the


                                                                                      Page | 93
evacuated tubes with minimal loss of heat. While these systems are very efficient and
powerful, their manufacturing process significantly increases their costs.

Another solar heating technology that can produce more intense heat is a concentrating
collector, or parabolic trough collector, which relies on a trough-shaped mirror that reflects
sunlight onto a tube in the center of the trough. This tube receives intense energy and
produces a large amount of heat.

Solar Thermal Electric (Concentrating Solar) Technologies

While most solar technologies are best used in buildings and other small-scale
applications, solar thermal technologies can be used on a much larger scale. These
technologies are similar in concept to solar heating technologies, using sunlight to generate
heat. They differ in that they create enough heat to power a generator which is then used to
produce electricity.

To generate this intense heat, solar thermal technologies employ arrays of reflective
mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto a central receiver. The res ulting heat is used to
produce steam for a steam engine, or is fed directly to a heat engine. These engines then
generate electricity which can be distributed through the electricity grid.

These systems are powerful, but require a large amount of space for their reflectors and
depend on direct sunlight for their reflective components to function. Although there are
opportunities to combine the concentration aspect of this technology for small-scale
applications throughout the country, it is primarily used in the Southwest where land and
direct sunlight are abundant. After the construction of several large facilities in the late
1980s and early 1990s, little new has been built because it remains considerably more
expensive to generate electricity with solar thermal systems than with conventional power
plants.

There are four main types of solar thermal electric systems.

Parabolic Trough Collectors

These collectors combine a curved mirror, shaped like a parabola to maximize the amount
of sunlight collected, with an absorber tube embedded along the center of the mirror. The
absorber tube is filled with oil or another fluid that can easily be heated. When sunlight hits
these collectors, the mirrors focus it on the tube, heating the fluid inside. This hot fluid is
then used to boil water and produce steam in a connected device and the steam is

                                                                                      Page | 94
transferred to a generator that can produce electricity. A large array of connected parabolic
trough collectors is needed to provide enough power for a generator.

Dish/Engine Systems

These systems use an array of mirrors, arranged in the shape of a dish, to concentrate
sunlight onto a receiver placed at the focal point of the dish. The heat produced by these
systems is transferred to a heat engine which converts the heat into mechanical energy.
This energy then drives a generator to produce electricity.

Power Towers

Power tower systems use a circular array of mirrors that track the sunlight and concentrate
it on a receiver, placed at the top of a central tower at the focal point of the array. In much
the same way as parabolic trough collectors, heat produced by the receiver is used to create
steam which then powers a generator.




Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems combine power towers with natural gas generators, creating a system that
can continuously generate electricity, even when the sun isn't shining. This technology is
still in development and experimental systems have been connected to several utilities in
the Southwest.

Introducing Solar Photovoltaics

Solar photovoltaic systems use solar energy to produce electricity. The term photovoltaic is
composed of "photo", the Greek root for "light", and "volt", a common measurement of
electricity named after Alessandro Volta, a scientist renowned for his researc h on
electricity. Together, these terms literally mean "light electricity". Photovoltaic technology
can be referred to in short as photovoltaics or PV.

Photovoltaic technology relies on the electrical properties of certain materials known as
semiconductors. When hit by sunlight, a semiconductor material responds by creating an
electrical charge which can then be transferred to anything that uses electricity.

                                                                                     Page | 95
These semiconductors are produced in the form of cells, which can then be assembled in
groups in a panel. There are many different types of panels available, and each has its
particular advantages. Individual panels are often used to charge batteries that power small
or remote electric equipment. Depending on the amount of electricity needed, these panels
can then be connected in an array to provide larger amounts of electricity to a building or
other large user of electricity.

Photovoltaic cells and panels can be manufactured and installed at almost any scale, and as
a result are used to power a broad variety of applications. At its smallest, photovoltaic
technology powers calculators, laptop computers and other appliances that run on batteries.
At its largest, it powers homes, offices and other buildings that use large amounts of
electricity, and can be connected to utilities to increase the diversity of our collective
electricity supply.

In connecting a photovoltaic system to an end use, several additional structures and
technologies are needed. While photovoltaics can be mounted on roofs, it is important to
consider the angle at which they face the sun. To transfer electricity to its end use,
photovoltaics are connected through intermediary technologies that condition and modify
the electricity they produce. These considerations are known as balance of s ystem
components, as they maximize the system's efficiency and allow higher amounts of
electricity to reach its end use.

There are many benefits to using photovoltaics as an electricity source, most notably their
environmental benefits. As one of the cleanest electricity-generating technologies
available, photovoltaics hold much promise for reducing environmental impacts from
energy production. At the same time, several barriers exist for widespread use of this
technology, the largest of which is its current cost.

Solar Thermal Electric (Concentrating Solar) Technologies

While most solar technologies are best used in buildings and other small-scale
applications, solar thermal technologies can be used on a much larger scale. These
technologies are similar in concept to solar heating technologies, using sunlight to generate
heat. They differ in that they create enough heat to power a generator which is then used to
produce electricity.

To generate this intense heat, solar thermal technologies employ arrays of reflective
mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto a central receiver. The resulting heat is used to


                                                                                    Page | 96
produce steam for a steam engine, or is fed directly to a heat engine. These engines then
generate electricity which can be distributed through the electricity grid.

These systems are powerful, but require a large amount of space for their reflectors and
depend on direct sunlight for their reflective components to function. Although there are
opportunities to combine the concentration aspect of this technology for small-scale
applications throughout the country, it is primarily used in the Southwest where land and
direct sunlight are abundant. After the construction of several large facilities in the late
1980s and early 1990s, little new has been built because it remains considerably more
expensive to generate electricity with solar thermal systems than with conventional power
plants.

There are four main types of solar thermal electric systems.

Parabolic Trough Collectors

These collectors combine a curved mirror, shaped like a parabola to maximize the amount
of sunlight collected, with an absorber tube embedded along the center of the mirror. The
absorber tube is filled with oil or another fluid that can easily be heated. When sunlight hits
these collectors, the mirrors focus it on the tube, heating the fluid inside. This hot fluid is
then used to boil water and produce steam in a connected device and the steam is
transferred to a generator that can produce electricity. A large array of connected parabolic
trough collectors is needed to provide enough power for a generator.




Dish/Engine Systems

These systems use an array of mirrors, arranged in the shape of a dish, to concentrate
sunlight onto a receiver placed at the focal point o f the dish. The heat produced by these
systems is transferred to a heat engine which converts the heat into mechanical energy.
This energy then drives a generator to produce electricity.

Power Towers

Power tower systems use a circular array of mirrors that track the sunlight and concentrate
it on a receiver, placed at the top of a central tower at the focal point of the array. In much
the same way as parabolic trough collectors, heat produced by the receiver is used to create
steam which then powers a generator.

                                                                                     Page | 97
Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems combine power towers with natural gas generators, creating a system that
can continuously generate electricity, even when the sun isn't shining. This technology is
still in development and experimental systems have been connected to several utilities in
the Southwest.




The Science Behind Photovoltaics

                                 Photovoltaics depend on the electrical properties of
                                 certain materials, known as semiconductors, which allow
                                 them to transform sunlight into electricity. While a
                                 number of materials have this semiconductor property,
                                 the one most commonly used in photovoltaics is silicon.
                                 On its own, silicon is actually very resistant to electrical
                                 current, but its properties can be altered by doping it, or
                                 combining it with small amounts of other materials that
                                 make it receptive to either a positive or negative electrical
                                 charge.

When a positively charged layer of silicon is placed against a negatively charged layer of
silicon, it forms an electrical field through which electrical charges ca n pass. Sunlight,
carrying solar energy creates this charge. By connecting the silicon to a conductive metal,
this charge can be concentrated into an electrical current, which can then be fed to any
device that uses electricity.

Here we will look at the basic properties of semiconductor materials, using silicon as an
example, and how these materials work in a photovoltaic system to create electricity.

A Material that Translates Photon Energy into Electricity

                                   The key properties of semiconductor material are
                                   determined at the atomic level. Each atom is composed
                                   of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and
                                   electrons. Protons, which have a positive electrical
                                   charge, and neutrons, which have no electrical charge,
                                   form the nucleus, or core of an atom. Electrons, which

                                                                                    Page | 98
each have a negative electrical charge, swirl around the nucleus in one or more layers of
"shells", shown in the diagram as rings. Different types of atoms are defined by their
unique number of protons, neutrons and electrons. It is the electrons that we are
particularly concerned with, as these can be disengaged from certain atoms to collectively
form an electrical charge.

The atomic characteristic that distinguishes semiconductors from other materials is the
number of electrons in its atoms' outermost shells. One thing that all atoms have in
common is that they need a certain number of electrons in each of their shells to make
them stable. Atoms fill up their inner shells first, and any remaining electrons gather on the
outermost shell. Atoms that have less or more electrons than they need in this outermost
                                       shell are always looking for other atoms with which
                                       they can exchange or share electrons.

                                         A silicon atom by definition has three shells of
                                         electrons. Its innermost shell has two electrons and
                                         its second shell has eight - the numbers needed to
                                         stabilize those shells. But the outermost shell only
                                         has four electrons. A silicon atom is always looking
                                         to gain four more electrons to fill this outer shell or
                                         get rid of its four extra electrons to have only two
                                         shells so it can become fully stable. Because all
silicon atoms have four electrons and are looking for four electrons, they easily bond with
each other in a crystalline structure. In this structure, each silicon atom joins with other
silicon atoms, sharing one electron with each and receiving one shared electron from each.
In this configuration, each silicon atom has eight electrons in its outer shell. This ability to
bond in a crystalline structure is the defining feature of all semiconductor materials.




Altering this Material to Create Conductivity

In its crystalline form, silicon is stable because it has no need to add or get rid of electrons
in its outer shell. This actually makes it a very poor conductor of electricity on its own,
because there are no free electrons to be released into an electrical current. But there is a
way to modify a silicon crystal to make it an excellent semiconductor. This is done by
introducing other elements whose atoms carry an extra electron or are missing an electron.
When these materials are added to a silicon crystal, in a process called doping, they make
the crystal receptive to either a positive or a negative charge. A crystal receptive to positive
                                                                                      Page | 99
charges is called p-type silicon ("p” stands for "positive"), and silicon receptive to negative
                                     charges is called n-type silicon ("n" stands for
                                     "negative").

                                     To create n-type, or negatively charged silicon, a
                                     material with five electrons in its outer shell is needed
                                     to bond with the silicon and have one electron left
                                     over. The material most often used in this process is
                                     phosphorous. When small numbers of phosphorous
                                     atoms are introduced into a silicon crystal, each one
                                     displaces a silicon atom and four of its electrons bond
                                     with the silicon atoms nearby. This bonding leaves one
                                     electron in each phosphorous atom with nowhere to go,
                                     and, because all electrons are negatively charged,
                                     provides the added negative charge in n-type silicon.




                                     Similarly, p-type, or positively charged silicon, needs a
                                     material with three electrons on its outer ring to bond
                                     with the silicon but leave a gap in one of its bonds. The
                                     material most often used in this process is boron. When
                                     small numbers of boron atoms are introduced into a
                                     silicon crystal, each one displaces a silicon atom and
                                     its three electrons bond with three of the silicon atoms
                                     nearby. Because it cannot bond with a fourth atom, a
                                     gap is formed where an electron would be needed to
                                     make the crystal stable. Since one negatively charged
                                     electron is missing, this gap creates the positive charge
                                     in p-type silicon.




Creating an Electrical Field

                                                                          Once both n-type
                                                                          and p-type silicon
                                                                          materials       are
                                                                          formed, they can
                                                                                    Page | 100
be placed against each other to create a diode, or an electrical field at the juncture of the
two materials that only allows electrons to flow in one direction which is essentia l for
creating an electrical current in the materials.

Where the positively charged p-type silicon touches the negatively charged n-type silicon,
the electrons and gaps on either side start to react to each other. The extra electrons in the
n-type silicon are attracted to the positive nature of the p-type silicon and move toward it,
some crossing over to create a negative charge on the surface of the p-type silicon.
Likewise, the gaps in p-type silicon are attracted to the negative nature of the n-type silicon
and move toward it, some crossing over to create a positive charge on the surface of the n-
type silicon.

This creates a one way path for electrons to flow through the two materials. They can cross
over from the p-type silicon into the n-type silicon because they are attracted by the
positive charge on the surface of the n-type silicon. But if they try to move the other
direction from the n-type to the p-type silicon, they are repelled back into the n-type silicon
by the negative charge on the p-type silicon's surface.

This pairing of n-type and p-type silicon is what makes up a solar cell, the central element
in a photovoltaic panel. Now we can see what happens when solar energy, in the form of
photons, hits the cell.

                                       Solar Energy Creating an Electrical Charge

                                        Sunlight carries solar energy in the form of photons,
                                        or tiny packets of energy. When photons from
                                        sunlight hit a photovoltaic panel, they travel
                                        uninterrupted through the n-type layer of silicon and
                                        hit the atoms in the p-type layer of silicon. The force
                                        of the solar photons bumps the electrons in atoms
                                        near the diode out of their bond with surrounding
                                        atoms. These electrons are now looking for
                                        somewhere to go, and because they are attracted to
                                        the positive charge on the surface of the n-type layer,
begin crossing over into that layer. This movement of electrons from one atom to another
is the electrical charge that can be used in an electrical current.



Turning this Charge into a Current
                                                                                    Page | 101
Once they cross over to the n-type silicon, the electrons still have nowhere to go. They are
unable to pass back over to the p-type silicon, but are also unable to form any bonds with
                                          the atoms in the n-type layer, which have more
                                          electrons than they need already.

                                          Here, an additional photovoltaic panel component
                                          comes into use. In all photovoltaics, a metal
                                          conductor strip is used to collect and concentrate
                                          the electrons set free in this process. As the
                                          electrons move upward through the n-type layer,
                                          they are attracted to one of many conductor strips
                                          which aggregate electrons into a current of
                                          electricity.

                                          However, if electrons keep moving out of the p-
type silicon into the n-type silicon and the metal conductor strip, soon there will not be
enough electrons available to continue this process. Instead, electrons need to be fed back
into the p-type silicon through another metal conductor strip or plate.

By connecting both conductor strips to an electrical current, a cycle of using and
replenishing electrons is formed, and we can store in a battery or connect an electrical load,
like a light bulb, building or anything else that uses electricity, to this current to take
advantage of the electricity being produced by the photovoltaic panel. In practice, there are
several additional steps that the electricity must go through to serve an electrical load, but
this is the general concept behind photovoltaic current.

Limitations on Efficiency

Though all semiconductor materials can react to the energy in sunlight, there are
limitations to the amount of solar energy each material can use. Each semiconductor
material reacts to solar waves within a specific range of wavelengths, and some react to
broader ranges than others. This range is represented by a number known as the material's
band gap, or conversion efficiency which is calculated as the amount of electricity
produced by the material divided by the amount of solar energy hitting the material. A low
band gap indicates the photovoltaic material can react to a broader spectrum of
wavelengths, while a high band gap indicates the material will react to a more limited set
of wavelengths. Conversely, low conversion efficiency correlates to high band gaps and
high conversion efficiency correlates to low band gaps.


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While this would seem to mean that materials with low band gaps and high conversion
efficiency are always better because they can use much more of the sunlight that hits them,
materials with very low band gaps have a more difficult time converting their electric
charges into usable electricity. At the same time, a material with a high band gap will not
react to enough sunlight to be useful. With these limitations, materials with band gaps
ranging from 1.1 eV to 1.8 eV are most commonly used in photovoltaics, with 1.4 eV as
the ideal band gap.

When waves that fall outside the range of usable wavelengths hit the panel, several things
can happen. Some photons from these waves are reflected by other components of the
photovoltaic panel before they reach the semiconductor material. Others that reach it can
either pass through without dislodging electrons, be absorbed by positively charged atoms
instead of disrupting them, or bounce the electron from one atom only to have it be
absorbed by another atom.

Because we want to get the most electricity possible from a photovoltaic system, the band
gap and conversion efficiency are key factors in selecting panels for installation. The
current limitation on photovoltaic panel efficiency is one of the technology's main
drawbacks, and its economics will significantly improve as higher efficiency is achieved.




Using this Material

We have taken a look at the basic science behind photovoltaic technology and introduced
the concept of the solar cell composed of n-type and p-type silicon. We can now move on
to look at the way a cell is integrated into a panel, and explore the different types of panels
used today.

From Cells to Panels to Arrays

As seen in the science behind PV, a photovoltaic cell is created when a positively charged
(P-type) layer of silicon is placed against a negatively charged (N-type) layer of silicon to
create a diode and this diode is connected in a circuit via metal conductors on the top and
bottom of the silicon sandwich. An actual PV cell includes these elements with an anti-
reflective coating to accept more sunlight into the silicon sandwich:




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                                    1. The photovoltaic cell, a sandwich of two
                                    semiconductor materials, most commonly n-type and
                                    p-type silicon. The cell is what reacts to solar energy
                                    and produces an electrical charge.

                                    2. Metal conductor strips which run along the top n-
                                    type layer of silicon. These strips capture the electrons
                                    freed when solar energy hits the cell and concentrate
                                    them into a current. Another metal panel is attached to
                                    the bottom p-type layer of silicon to be connected to
                                    the return current and feed electrons back into the cell.

3. An anti- reflective sheet or coating placed on top of or directly adhered to the silicon
sandwich. This sheet reduces the amount of sunlight reflected off the glass allowing more
sunlight to hit the cell and increasing the panel's efficiency.

While the photovoltaic cell is the central element in a photovoltaic system, the
photovoltaic panel is what we actually use to make a cell or group of cells usable. Once in
panel form, photovoltaics can be used alone or in groups of panels to power many different
electrical loads.

Though different types of photovoltaics vary in their structure, they generally include the
                                  following elements:

                                   1. The cell or multiple cells are the core of the
                                   photovoltaic panel.

                                   2. A glass cover placed over the photovoltaic cell to
                                   protect it from the elements while allowing sunlight to
                                   pass through to the cell.

                                   3. An additional plastic anti-reflective sheet is often
                                   used to enhance the effect of the glass cover and anti-
                                   reflective coating of the cell to block reflection.

                                   4. A panel backing (typically plastic) and frame
                                   complete the photovoltaic panel, holding all the pieces
together and protecting it from damage during installation.


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This common structure and its variations can be seen in the following types of photovoltaic
panels.

                                          Finally, there are arrays of panels. These are
                                          created when multiple panels are connected
                                          together to form a larger circuit.

                                          Types of Panels

                                         While photovoltaic panels are based on a similar
                                         structure of cells and enabling components, there
                                         are many variations on the standard solar panel,
differing primarily in the types of photovoltaic cell that they use. Each panel type is
manufactured in a different way and has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The vast majority of solar panels produced today depend on the use of crystalline silicon as
the material in their cells. The properties of crystalline silicon are described in The Science
Behind Photovoltaics. It is used in moncrystalline (or single-crystalline), polycrystalline
(or multicrystalline), and ribbon (or thin- layer) silicon panels.

Other panels, like thin- film technologies, depend on amorphous silicon, and still others use
completely different semiconductors known as Group III-IV materials. Panels can also be
enhanced in a number of ways to increase their efficiency or improve their versatility
through the use of multijunction devices, concentrator systems, or building integrated
systems.

Here we will look at the panel types in use today.

Panel Types

1.     Monocrystalline Silicon Panels
2.     Polycrystalline Silicon Panels
3.     String Ribbon or Thin- Layer Silicon Panels
4.     Amorphous Silicon panels or Thin Film
5.     Group III-V Technologies

Enhanced Panels

1.     Building- integrated PV panels
2.     Concentrator systems
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3.     High-Efficiency Multijunction Devices
4.

Monocrystalline Silicon Panels

15-18% efficiency

Monocrystalline panels use crystalline silicon produced in large sheets which can be cut to
the size of a panel and integrated into the panel as a single large cell. Conducting metal
strips are laid over the entire cell to capture electrons in an electrical current.

These panels are more expensive to produce than other crystalline panels b ut have higher
efficiency levels and, as a result, are sometimes more cost-effective in the long run.

Polycrystalline Silicon Panels

12-14% efficiency

Polycrystalline, or multicrystalline, photovoltaics use a series of cells instead of one large
cell. These panels are one of the most inexpensive forms of photovoltaics available today,
though the costs of sawing and producing wafers can be high. At the same time, they have
lower conversion efficiencies than monocrystalline panels.

For this technology, several techniques can be used:

Cast Polysilicon:

In this process, molten silicon is first cast in a large block which, when cooled, is in the
form of crystalline silicon and can be sawn across its width to create thin wafers to be used
in photovoltaic cells. These cells are then assembled in a panel. Conducting metal strips
are then laid over the cells, connecting them to each other and forming a continuous
electrical current throughout the panel.

String Ribbon Silicon

String ribbon photovoltaics use a variation on the polycrystalline production process, using
the same molten silicon but slowly drawing a thin strip of crystalline silicon out of the
molten form. These strips of photovoltaic material are then assembled in a panel with the
same metal conductor strips attaching each strip to the electrical current.

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This technology saves on costs over standard polycrystalline panels as it eliminates the
sawing process for producing wafers. Some string ribbon technologies also have higher
efficiency levels than other polycrystalline technologies.

EFG (RWE Schott):

Figure out what type this is

Amorphous Silicon or Thin Film Panels

5-6% efficiency

Thin- film panels are produced very differently from crystalline panels. Instead of molding,
drawing or slicing crystalline silicon, the silicon material in these panels has no crystalline
structure and can be applied as a film directly on different materials. Variations on this
technology use other semiconductor materials like copper indium diselenide (CIS) and
cadmium telluride (CdTe). These materials are then connected to the same metal conductor
strips used in other technologies, but do not necessarily use the other components typical in
photovoltaic panels as they do not require the same level of protection needed for mo re
fragile crystalline cells.

The primary advantages of thin- film panels lie in their low manufacturing costs and
versatility. Because amorphous silicon and similar semiconductors do not depend on the
long, expensive process of creating silicon crystals, they can be produced much more
quickly and efficiently. As they do not need the additional components used in crystalline
cells, costs can be reduced further. Because they can be applied in thin layers to different
materials, it is also possible to make flexible solar cells.

However, thin- film panels have several significant drawbacks. What they gain in cost
savings, they lose in efficiency, resulting in the lowest efficiency of any current
photovoltaic technology. Thin- film technologies also depend on silicon with high levels of
impurities. This can cause a drop in efficiency within a short period of use.

Thin- film panels have the potential to grow in use, and already figure in some of the most
exciting enhanced photovoltaic systems, including high-efficiency multijunction devices
and building integrated photovoltaics.

Group III-V Technologies

25% efficiency
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These technologies use a variety of materials with very high conversion efficiencies. These
materials are categorized as Group III and Group V elements in the Periodic Table. A
typical material used in this technology is gallium arsenide, which can be combined with
other materials to create semiconductors that can respond to different types of solar energy.

Though these technologies are very effective, their current use is limited due to their costs.
They are currently employed in space applications and continue to be researched for new
applications.

Enhanced Systems

Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)

BIPV technologies are designed to serve the dual purpose of producing electricity and
acting as a construction material. There are many forms that this technology can take. One
common structure is the integration of a semi-translucent layer of amorphous silicon into
glass, which can then be used as window panes that let controlled amounts of light into a
building while producing electricity. Another common structure is the use of shingle-sized
panel of amorphous silicon as a roofing material.

Currently, BIPV technologies have very low efficiency levels due to their use of
amorphous silicon, but present the advantage of replacing other construction materials and
offering a wide variety of aesthetic choices for the integration of photovoltaics into
buildings.

Concentrator Systems

Concentrator systems are designed to increase the efficiency of solar photovoltaics. These
systems cover a standard photovoltaic panel with concentrating optics, or lenses that gather
sunlight and increase its intensity in hitting the photovoltaic panel. These systems reduce
the amount of photovoltaics needed to produce electricity, and also reduce the amount of
space needed for a photovoltaic installation.

Their main disadvantage is that they depend solely on direct light to produce electricity,
while stand-alone photovoltaic panels can use both direct and diffuse light. Many regions
do not receive enough direct light throughout the year for these systems to be practical.
Another disadvantage is the complexity of their construction, which makes these systems
more difficult to build and install than photovoltaic panels on their own.


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High-Efficiency Multijunction Devices

Multijunction devices receive their name from their use of multiple layers of cells, each
layer acting as a junction where certain amounts of solar energy are absorbed. Each layer
in a multijunction device is made from a different material with its own receptivity to
certain types of solar energy.

In a typical device, the top photovoltaic layer responds to solar waves that travel in short
wavelengths and carry the highest energy, absorbing this energy and creating an electrical
charge. As other solar waves pass through this layer, they are absorbed and translated into
electricity by the lower layers. Typical materials used in this device include gallium
arsenide and amorphous silicon.

Though some two-junction devices have successfully been built, these devices are still
largely in the research and development stage, with most research focused on three- and
four-junction devices.

Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual consumers. Many of the
drawbacks of photovoltaics have been reduced as the technology continues to be
developed, and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.

Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.

Environmental Impacts


Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today. As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this
technology has the potential to play a major role in climate change mitigation and pollution
reduction.

Cost and Market Development



                                                                                  Page | 109
Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years. Still, costs can appear
prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to utility power. Markets for
photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost reduction to increase demand for
photovoltaic products.




Product and Installation Issues


Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.
At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues


Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy. As an intermittent power source, they have certain
drawbacks, but these can be mitigated through connections to other power sources. In
some cases, this intermittent power can be a good thing as photovoltaic production can
match electricity needs as they change throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.
Because it is such a low-impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.

Air Emissions

The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fuel and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.


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[possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel]

Site Impacts

Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development

The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity. For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outwe igh its costs. But
for the photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to
increase and reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.

Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity cos ts in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line. However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches
most places and electricity costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.

Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems. In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since
the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first appeared o n the consumer market. In 1975, the
average cost for photovoltaic modules was $30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a
panel could produce. By the 1990s, this cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs. As these costs fall, it is expected that demand

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will continue to increase due to the other benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set
date when photovoltaics are predicted to become competitive with utility power, but some
sources predict it will happen sometime within the next 10-20 years. If advanced
technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant drop in prices,
this timeframe could be shortened even further.

Installation and Use Costs

The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use. In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system.
However, much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases
within the building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and developers, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers
specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.


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Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaics on individual buildings and sites.

Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment

Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electr icity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid providing electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.

While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way. Because their production depends on solar energy, a power
source that is not always available, they produce electricity intermittently. This can
presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics produce enough
electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an individual or utility
system can handle.

Reliability of Power

Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.




                                                                                  Page | 113
Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery storage to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.

Matching Energy Needs

Because photovoltaics produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in
the summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point. In New England and other cooler
climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather causes a sharp increase in demand
for heat. The winter peak is slightly different though, as most of the heat used in New
England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this, photovoltaic systems can be
very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.

The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain level of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.




The Scale of Photovoltaics

A photovoltaic system is made up of several components that collectively capture sunlight
and translate it into an electrical charge. The central piece in this system is the photovoltaic
panel, which is made up of cells and can be connected together to form an array. We have
seen how cells work, how panels are built, and the different types of panels available.
                                                                                     Page | 114
In an array, panels are connected to feed their collective electricity to a building or other
large-scale user of electricity. One of the unique features of photovoltaics is that arrays can
be assembled at any scale, powering a home, a factory, or even a town through its local
utility.

These examples are shown only to give a general sense of the scale needed to meet
different electricity needs. In practice, the amount of electricity used at each of these scales
can vary significantly from what is shown, and the number of panels needed for
applications can also vary depending on which panel type is used. In planning to install a
photovoltaic system, the correct amount of photovoltaics needs to be determined on a case
by case basis.




                                                                                     Page | 115
Making Photovoltaics Work

To work its best, a complete photovoltaic system depends on several
considerations and intermediary technologies to efficiently generate electricity and transfer
it to an end use. These elements include mounting structures that help an array gain the
best tilt towards the sun, and technologies that both condition the



                                                                                  Page | 116
electricity produced and connect it in a variety of ways to one or more end uses. In t he
photovoltaic industry, these elements are called balance of system components because
they help in matching a photovoltaic panel or array to its site and use.

Installing an Array to Maximize Efficiency

A primary consideration in installing a photovoltaic array on a building is the availability
of solar energy in the space where the system will be mounted. As solar cells are connected
within panels and as panels are connected to each other in the array, any shade from a tree,
building or other structure that falls on a cell or panel can significantly reduce the
efficiency of the entire system. For this reason the majority of arrays are installed on roofs
where they can receive unimpeded solar energy throughout the day.

A second consideration for installations is the angle at which the array is mounted. As
explained in Using the Sun, solar energy does not reach the Earth at the same angle
throughout the day or in different parts of the world. In the Northern Hemisphere, the
summer sun is almost directly overhead, but, as the Earth tilts away from the sun in the
winter, the sun follows a path lower in the sky and towards the south, causing solar energy
to reach the Earth's surface at a much more acute angle.

While the sun's angle changes throughout the year, o ur need for electricity does not change
very much. To allow for the breadth of angles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems are
typically mounted at an angle that accommodates both the high summer sun and the low
winter sun, maximizing its efficiency at all times of year.

As a rule of thumb, photovoltaic panels that best accommodate the range of solar angles in
a particular location are tilted at an angle equal to the latitude of the location. In
Massachusetts, this latitude is around 42 degrees north, so p hotovoltaic systems in the state
should ideally be mounted at an angle of 42 degrees and face due south.

While a photovoltaic system can operate without directly facing the path of solar energy,
the closer it comes to meeting this path, the more efficiently it works. However, this
efficiency is often traded off with the additional cost of certain mounting structures.

Mounting Structures

Flat Mounting



                                                                                   Page | 117
Flat mounting is the simplest way to install photovoltaics on a roof. In this situation,
photovoltaic panels are simply arranged in an array and mounted to the roof using direct
attachments or a weighted framework to make the system resistant to the wind.

While efficiency is diminished, the system is still relatively effective and can be an
attractive choice for commercial or office buildings that want to install large arrays at
minimal cost.

Flat mounted systems can also be installed on slanted roofs, more typical on residential
buildings, which keeps installation costs down while gaining a tilt closer to the region's
ideal angle.

Rack Structures

Rack mounting systems allow more control over the array's angle. These systems rely on a
simple metal frame that supports the array at the desired angle toward the south. Rack
systems are best used on buildings with flat roofs or on the ground, as even a slightly tilted
roof can sometimes make installation difficult.

Pole Mounting

Pole mounting is used similarly to rack mounting but supports the photovoltaic array on a
pole mounted in the ground. These systems are most often used in rural locations or
locations where the best sunlight is not near a building.

Tracking Structures

Tracking structures literally track the sun's angle as it changes throughout the day and year.
Two types of tracking structures are available: one-axis and two-axis. One-axis trackers
follow the sun from east to west as it passes through the sky and still need to be mounted at
a 42 degree angle facing the south. Two-axis trackers can track both the sun's daily course
and its changing path throughout the year.

While these systems are the most effective in capturing direct sunlight as its angle changes,
they also require more expensive, high- maintenance components than other mounting
structures. They are typically reserved for technologies like photovoltaic concentrator
systems which depend solely on direct sunlight to function.

Connecting an Array to a Load

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Because photovoltaic technologies rely on the sun, their energy production changes with
the availability of solar energy. To ensure that a photovo ltaic system can provide electricity
when it is needed, additional components are needed to either temporarily store electricity
for later use, or to connect the array to a building that has an alternate power source, like
the local utility, available when electricity from the array is not.

Another factor complicating connection of an array to a building is that buildings use
electricity in a different form than the electricity provided by a photovoltaic array. The
electricity from photovoltaic arrays travels in a direct current (DC current) while buildings
are structured to rely on alternating current (AC current). To make photovoltaic electricity
usable, it needs to be transformed from direct current to alternating current and its flow
needs to be controlled as it joins the currents used in different buildings.

There are several different ways to structure a photovoltaic array in relation to its load. The
most straightforward is a direct connection, or direct-coupled system which connects the
direct current to an end use. These systems are useful for small scale daytime applications
like water pumps and ventilation fans, but because of the complicating factors mentioned
above, most applications require several additional components.

Utility Connected Systems

Increasingly, the most practical way to use photovoltaics is to connect it to a building that
is also served by its local utility. In this arrangement, the photovoltaic system provides a
certain amount of the building's electricity and the rest is provided through the utility.
Other terms for this arrangement are grid-connected or utility- interactive systems.

At night, when the photovoltaic system is not in operation, all electricity comes from the
utility. During the day, particularly in the early afternoon, the photovoltaic system can
provide most or all of the electricity needed. In some cases, the photovoltaic system will
produce more than the building needs. When this happens, electricity can actually be fed
back to the utility, gaining a credit on the building's electric bill and ultimately earning
money on the extra electricity produced. This approach is called net metering.

Utility connected systems do not require many additional parts, though a device that can
translate DC current into AC current is needed. This device, called an inverter, receives the
DC current from the array and translates it into AC current which is then fed to a
distribution panel. This panel combines the electricity from the array with the electricity
provided by the utility and distributes it to the load. In cases where net metering is also
used, a special meter needs to be connected to this system.
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Battery Storage Systems

Battery storage systems can be used in places where utility connected systems are not an
option. In this arrangement, all the electricity produced by the photovoltaic system is fed
through a battery, which transfers electricity on when it is needed and stores it when it is
not. Battery systems can also store electricity well after the sun has gone down, allowing
the system to continue powering an end use during the night.

Battery systems require an additional component called a charge controller to regulate the
quality of electricity flowing from the photovoltaic array to the battery. This charge
controller can serve a dual purpose in channeling electricity to both the battery and a
separate DC electric load.

Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems are a less common but equally functional method for ensuring continuous
electricity. A typical system combines photovoltaics with wind or gas power and can also
connect to the utility for any remaining electricity needed.

This arrangement uses the same structure as a battery system but introduces a rectifier,
which works the opposite way from an inverter. This rectifier translates the electricity from
a utility or other AC power source into DC current to be fed into the battery. The battery
and other components then perform the same functions as in a battery storage system. As
additional backup, utility power can still be provided directly to the end use. Continue
Learning: Where Photovoltaics Are Used.

Installation Guide

If you are interested in installing photovoltaics to power your home or business and want
to know if solar energy is practical for you, this guide from the New York State Energy
Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) provides an overview of basic steps
consumers should follow in planning a photovoltaic installation. Information is provided
on planning, selecting a system type, estimating capacity needed, interconnection
requirements and other aspects of solar photovoltaic installations.

Financing Options

Through its Solar-to-Market Initiative, the Renewable Energy Trust encourages the
installation of solar electric systems in Massachusetts by providing grants to companies

                                                                                  Page | 120
and organizations that market and install solar electric systems. A key objective is to
minimize the installed cost of solar electric systems by encouraging geographic clusters of
PV systems, via bulk purchasing, and by including solar electric during new construction.

If you are interested in installing photovoltaics on your home or business, contact one of
the Trust’s partner organizations to discuss the system options and financial incentives
available in your area.




                       Where Photovoltaics are Used Today

As a versatile, scalable, and independent source of electricity, photovoltaic systems are
used to power a broad variety of technologies, buildings, and systems that need energy.
Here we look at some of the ways photovoltaics are used today.

                                                Residential Buildings

                                                Installations of solar panels on homes
                                                make up one of the broadest current
                                                markets for photovoltaics in the United
                                                States . Because they can be sized to fit
                                                any building and any electrical load, solar
                                                panels are a practical choice for powering
                                                homes.

                                                These       installations have     grown
                                                significantly and there are many
                                                installation companies that specialize in
                                                the residential market. For more on
current residential installations in Massachusetts , see our section on Solar Energy in
Massachusetts . We also provide more detailed information on solar installations for
homeowners and homebuilders in our catalog of How To Guides.

Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Buildings



                                                                                 Page | 121
                              Larger-scale photovoltaic installations are also being seen
                              on downtown office buildings, institutions like museums
                              and community centers, shopping centers, and even some
                              industrial buildings. Photovoltaics offer particular benefits
                              to large scale buildings. In high-density areas like
                              downtown Boston where space is at a premium, rooftop
                              installations of solar panels can be an attractive power
                              option. Other buildings like shopping malls and some
                              industrial facilities have large roof areas which can
                              accommodate many panels to power their high electricity
needs. A certain subset of commercial buildings, hospitals, and high- tech facilities can
benefit in another way, as they often need reliable backup power as insurance against
blackouts and other power failures. As an on-site technology, photovoltaics are a viable
source for this emergency power.

Though there are fewer large-scale buildings than residential ones, photovoltaic
installations on these buildings can have significant impact on reducing emissions from
electricity production and can provide much benefit to their owners. For more on current
commercial, industrial, and institutional installations in Massachusetts , see our section on
Solar Energy in Massachusetts and our How To Guide for large-scale building owners and
developers.

Public Buildings and Municipal Installations




                                                                                   Page | 122
Another area where photovoltaics are becoming widely used is in public applications,
largely on individual town, city and state buildings though some installations are in
development to serve municipalities as a whole.

The benefits of municipal installations are similar to those for large-scale commercial,
institutional and industrial buildings.

Additional benefit is possible when a city or town has developed a climate change action
plan to reduce emissions, or has set a goal of meeting a certain percentage of its electricity
needs with renewable energy.

In each of these situations, photovoltaic can play a significant role in reducing
environmental impacts.




Remote Location Uses




                                                                                   Page | 123
New markets for photovoltaics have emerged in recent years that could have significant
impact on people's access to electricity.

These markets exist in the many locations throughout the world which do not have access
to the electric grid. In many of these locations, photovoltaics have stepped in as a lower-
cost alternative to expanding electric grids, and a large percentage of United States
photovoltaic exports are now shipped to companies working in this market.




Other remote location applications exist throughout the United States , based on the same
principle that when the electric grid cannot be expanded to reach a critical site,
photovoltaics are often the least costly source of power.

These applications range from remote telecommunication stations to the less obvious
application of powering road signs and call boxes on highways.

This last application is already used on most highways throughout the country.

There have been many interesting developments in remote photovoltaic applications.
Photon International, a photovoltaic trade magazine with past articles online, is a good
place to start in learning about these uses.




Space Applications




                                                                                 Page | 124
The first market for photovoltaic was in the space industry, starting in the 1950s and 60s,
where remote power that did not require fuel was essential for successful early missions.

The use of photovoltaic in space is a unique version of remote power, and the space
industry is still a significant user of photovoltaic. NASA offers more information on this
longstanding use of photovoltaic at its website.

                                 Consumer Products




                                At the other extreme from space stations, photovoltaic are
                                already used in a variety of consumer products, most
                                notably the standard desk calculators used in offices
                                everywhere. Though barely noticeable, these calculators
                                have a thin strip of photovoltaic cells at their top which can
                                be activated by either sunlight or artificial light. These tiny
                                photovoltaic systems provide constant, reliable power and
displace the use of batteries which the calculator would otherwise need to work.

Other applications in consumer products have also been developed, though they are not yet
as widely used. X site introduces some of the emerging uses of photovoltaic in consumer
products.


                                                                                    Page | 125
 Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual co nsumers. Many of the
drawbacks of photovoltaic have been reduced as the technology continues to be developed,
and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.

Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.

Environmental Impacts
Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today. As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this
technology has the potential to play a major role in climate change mitigation and pollution
reduction.

Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual consumers.

Many of the drawbacks of photovoltaics have been reduced as the technology continues to
be developed, and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.

Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.

Environmental Impacts

Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today.

As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this technology has the potential
to play a major role in climate change mitigation and pollution reduction.

Cost and Market Development


                                                                                  Page | 126
Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years. Still, costs can appear
prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to utility power. Markets for
photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost reduction to increase demand for
photovoltaic products.

Product and Installation Issues

Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.
At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy. As an intermittent power source, they have certain
drawbacks, but these can be mitigated through connections to other power sources. In
some cases, this intermittent power can be a good thing as photovoltaic production can
match electricity needs as they change throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.
Because it is such a low- impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.

Air Emissions

The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fuel and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.

possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel




Site Impacts
                                                                                    Page | 127
Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development

The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity. For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outweigh its costs. But
for the photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to
increase and reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.

Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity costs in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line. However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches
most places and electricity costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.



Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems. In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since
the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first appeared on the consumer market. In 1975, the
average cost for photovoltaic modules was $30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a
panel could produce. By the 1990s, this cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs. As these costs fall, it is expected that demand
will continue to increase due to the other benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set
date when photovoltaics are predicted to become competitive with utility power, but some
sources predict it will happen sometime within the next 10-20 years. If advanced


                                                                                  Page | 128
technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant drop in prices,
this timeframe could be shortened even further.




Installation and Use Costs

The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use. In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system.
However, much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases
within the building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and developers, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers
specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.

                                                                                     Page | 129
Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaic on individual buildings and sites.




Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment

Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electricity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid providing electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.

While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way. Because their production depends on solar energy, a power
source that is not always available, they produce electricity intermittently. This can
presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics produce enough
electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an individual or utility
system can handle.

Reliability of Powe r



                                                                                  Page | 130
Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.

Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery stora ge to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.




Matching Ene rgy Needs

Because photovoltaic produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in the
summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point. In New England and other cooler
climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather causes a sharp increase in demand
for heat. The winter peak is slightly different though, as most of the heat used in New
England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this, photovoltaic systems can be
very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.

The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain level of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.
                                                                                    Page | 131
Cost and Market Development


Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years. Still, costs can appear
prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to utility power. Markets for
photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost reduction to increase demand for
photovoltaic products.

Product and Installation Issues
Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.
At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues


Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy. As an intermittent power source, they have certain
drawbacks, but these can be mitigated through connections to other power sources. In
some cases, this intermittent power can be a good thing as photovoltaic production can
match electricity needs as they change throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.
Because it is such a low-impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.

Air Emissions

The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fuel and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.

[possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel]

                                                                                 Page | 132
Site Impacts

Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development

The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity. For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outweigh its costs. But
for the photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to
increase and reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.

Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity costs in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line. However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches
most places and electricity costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.

Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems. In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since
the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first appeared on the consumer market. In 1975, the
average cost for photovoltaic modules was $30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a
panel could produce. By the 1990s, this cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs. As these costs fall, it is expected that demand
will continue to increase due to the other benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set
date when photovoltaics are predicted to become competitive with utility power, but some
sources predict it will happen sometime within the next 10-20 years. If advanced


                                                                                  Page | 133
technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant drop in prices,
this timeframe could be shortened even further.

Installation and Use Costs

The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use. In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system.
However, much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases
within the building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and developers, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers
specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.

Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaics on individual buildings and sites.
                                                                                     Page | 134
Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment

Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electricity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid p roviding electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.

While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way. Because their production depends on solar energy, a power
source that is not always available, they produce electricity intermittently. This can
presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics produce enough
electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an individual or utility
system can handle.

Reliability of Power

Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.

Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery storage to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.

Matching Energy Needs


                                                                                  Page | 135
Because photovoltaics produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in
the summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point. In New England and other cooler
climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather causes a sharp increase in demand
for heat. The winter peak is slightly different though, as most of the heat used in New
England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this, photovoltaic systems can be
very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.

The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain level of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.




                                                                                    Page | 136
                    Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the difference between Modified Square wave (also called Modified
Sine wave or Quasi Sine wave) and True Sine wave?
A: The Modified Squarewave output is a stepped approximation of the Sinewave.


The Sinewave output duplicates grid power.



Q: Do I need Sine wave or Modified Squarewave?
A: More and more modern appliances are now fitted with electronic control circuits that
require a pure sinewave to operate correctly. In domestic Solar Power Systems where a
wide range of appliances will be used we recommend to only use a sinewave Inverter.
Sinewave Inverters should be used for the following appliances: TV, VCR, computer, fax,
printers, light dimmers, fans and any variable speed motors.

Q: What size batte ry bank should I use for a particular Inverter?
A: For a quick approximation take the continuous rating of the particular Inverter and
                                                                                  Page | 137
divide by the battery voltage, then multiply by ten.
eg: 600W 12V Inverter requires 600 / 12 * 10 = 500 Amp Hours

Q: How does power factor affect my Inve rter?
A: All Inverter ratings are specified at unity power factor, power factors other than one(1)
place an additional load on the Inverter, (note Watts = VA x power factor). For example a
300 Watt load with a unity power factor presents a load of 300VA on the Inverter, where
as a 300 Watt load with a 0.6 Power factor presents a load of 500VA on the Inverter.

Q: Why doesn't the Latronics range of Inve rters have a finned heatsink?
A: Latronics® designed Inverters use a 3mm aluminum chassis which is more benefic ial
and suitable for use of the case as the heatsink. This gives Latronics® Inverters the highest
size to power ratio on the market, and also lower thermal mass. The benefit of a low
thermal mass is that the inverter will cool down quickly and reduce stress on the
components.

Q: Can I fit an inverte r with a RCD to a vehicle?
A: Latronics® inverters can be fitted with an earth leakage device or RCD, however in
order for these devices to operate the earth and neutral must be bonded at the input of the
RCD. In domestic wiring this scenario does not present any problems due to the large earth
plane that can be created. However, in vehicles the inverter case which is connected to
earth, would need to be connected with the vehicle chassis to provide an earth plane. This
connection results in earth, neutral and battery negative being bonded together, which
results in the loss of the isolation between AC and DC.


Note: When using an RCD an earth plane must be created for a fault path back to earth in
order for the device to trip.


Q: Why is DC / AC isolation important?
A: If the DC and AC are not isolated the Inverter would place dangerous AC voltages on
the battery terminals and greatly increase the potential for electric shock.
All Latronics® Inverters are completely isolated from input to output via a toroidal
transformer. This gives an isolation rating of 3500 V between the DC input and AC output.
Active and neutral are both floating with respect to the DC input and earth.


Q: What is the benefit of a toroidal transformer vs a switchmode transformer?
A: There are 2 styles of Inverter technology. High frequency switchmode transformer and
toroidal transformer technology.
Each technology has advantages and disatvantages.The high frequency switchmode
Inverter is physically smaller and weights less, however it is unable to supply large
currents and therefore has a greatly reduced surge capacity. The toroidal transformer, while
                                                                                   Page | 138
larger and heavier, can supply large currents and is far better suited for applications w hich
require high surge currents.
i.e. motors, fridges, power tools, microwaves, pumps, TV's etc.




Q: What is a Grid Connect / Grid Tied inverter?
A: A Grid connect inverter like the PV Edge converts the power from renewable energy sources
(Solar Panels/Wind turbine) into energy that can be fed back into the power grid, therefore
greatly reducing your own power bill.

Q: Can you add multiple grid connected inverters to one system?
A: Yes, multiple Grid Connected Inverters can be connected in parallel in the one
house/installation. As long as each inverter has there own set of solar panels any amount of
separate inverters can be connected to the electricity grid and feed power simultaneously. For
further information on parallel connections talk to you qualified solar installer or contact Latronics
sales and service.

Q: Can you add different brands of grid connected inverters into one system?
A: Yes, Due to the synchronous nature of grid connect inverters, Latronics PV Edge Inverters are
compatible with any other brand.



                                                                                          Page | 139
Q: My PV Edge Inverter when running is quite hot, is this normal?
A: Yes, this is normal. The conversion process within the inverter generates heat which is
dissipated through the case and into free air.

Q: What is MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking)?
A: With respect to Grid Connected Inverters, MPPT is a method of forcing the solar panels to
provide the inverter with the highest power it can.

Q: The total power of my system according to my solar panel specifications sheet does not
match the output. Why is this?
A: Power rating measurements of solar panels are performed at 25ºC but on a hot day the
temperature on your roof could be up to 55ºC! A rise in temperature means a decrease in power
depending on the type of solar panel. A common monocrystalline Solar Panel will de -rate at
approximately 5% for every 10ºC, or at 55ºC (Typical temp on roof) you would be loosing as much
as 15% power.

Q: I have an existing RAPS (Remote Area Power Supply) and have recently had grid power
connected to my house. Can I buy a grid connected inverter to export the power of the unused
solar panels?
A: Yes, If your solar panels have been set up for a 48V or 96V battery bank this can be done
without any reconfiguration. If not, the solar panels may still be able to be reconfigured. Please
talk to a qualified solar installer or Latronics for further information.

Q: Can a wind turbine be connected to the grid connected inverter?
A: Yes, A 48V wind turbine can be connected through our TC48 turbine controller to our PVE1200
without the need of batteries. Both Solar panels and a wind generator can be connected to one
PVEdge Inverter. See Turbine Controller Page for more details

Q: When my PV Edge Inverter was installed, it all ready had a small amount of power registered
on it. Why?
A: Before leaving the factory, Every single Inverter is bench tested to rated loads and for correct
operation.

Q: Are Latronics products made in Australia?
A: All Latronics Products have been designed and made here in Australia, from component
assembly through to final testing of each individual unit. Benchmark quality standards ensures
Latronics are recognised internationally as one of the most reliable Inverter brands.

Q: Can PV Edge Inverters be mounted outside?


A: The PV Edge Inverter can be purchased with an Outdoor enclosure which is suitable for an
                                                                                        Page | 140
installation that will be exposed to weather. The IP21 rated PV Edge housed inside an IP33
outdoor enclosure provides an extremely safe and cool environment for the inverters to operate.

Q: Can the DC input to the PV Edge inverter be left on even if no mains is connected yet?


A: Yes. As long as open circuit voltage of array does not exceed inverter limit

Q: My inverter drops out in middle of the day with the light Grid out of range on.


A: If you are located at the end of a line the voltage drop might be too high for the Inverter. The
internal resistance of the grid must be less than 1.5 Ohm. You can check this by switching on a
2kw load like a heater. This will reduce the voltage drop. If this solves the problem please contact
your electricity supplier. He will log the voltages and rectify the issue.

Q: What is potential fault current (short circuit current)?


A: The potential fault current is the maximum current the inverter could draw off the mains
supply if faulty. In the PVE1200 and PVE2500 this current is limited to 10A via the Circuit breaker

Q: I have a PVE1200 / PVE2500 with Battery Backup. Sometimes my Circuit breakers trip when I
turn the inverter on. Why is this?


A: Batteries like AGM Batteries (Absorbed Glass Mat) have a low resistance and can lead to a large
inrush of current, consequently tripping the circuit breaker. In this case you may have to turn on
the breakers 2 or 3 times.

Q: How do I monitor the power output from my grid connect inverter?


A: The PV Edge Inverter has a simple kWh meter to give you a total amount of power produced
since installed and a set of LED's show the instantaneous output power in 25% increments.

What is the difference between Modified Squarewave (also called Modified Sinewave or
Quasi Sinewave) and True Sinewave?


The Modified Squarewave output is a stepped approximation of the Sinewave.



                                                                                          Page | 141
The           Sinewave            output          duplicates           grid          power.



Do I need Sinewave or Modified Squarewave?


More and more modern appliances are now fitted with electronic control circuits that
require a pure sinewave to operate correctly. In domestic Solar Power Systems where a
wide range of appliances will be used we recommend to only use a sinewave Inverter.
Sinewave Inverters should be used for the following appliances: TV, VCR, computer, fax,
printers,   light    dimmers,     fans     and     any     variable   speed    motors.

Why is DC / AC isolation important?


If the DC and AC are not isolated the Inverter would place dangerous AC voltages on the
battery terminals and greatly increase the potential for electric shock. All Latronics ®
Inverters are completely isolated from input to output via a toroidal transformer. This gives
an isolation rating of 3500 V between the DC input and AC output. Active and neutral are
both      floating      with    respect    to      the      DC       input     and     earth.

What is the benefit of a toroidal transformer vs a switchmode transformer?
There are 2 styles of Inverter technology. High frequency switchmode transformer and
toroidal transformer technology. Each technology has advantages and disatvantages.The
high frequency switchmode Inverter is physically smaller and weights less, however it is
unable to supply large currents and therefore has a greatly reduced surge capacity. The
toroidal transformer, while larger and heavier, can supply large currents and is far better
suited for applications which require high surge currents. i.e. motors, fridges, power tools,
microwaves, pumps, TV's etc.


                    Wind Energy Power Generation




                                                                                  Page | 142
A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large
                                                 building as in traditional post mills,
                                                 smock mills and tower mills. The
                                                 energy windmills produce can be used
                                                 in many ways, traditionally for grinding
                                                 grain or spices, pumping water, sawing
                                                 wood or hammering seeds. Modern
                                                 wind power machines are used for
                                                 generating electricity and are more
                                                 properly    called    wind     turbines.




                                                                               Page | 143
                                   Early history
Windmills have been around for at least 1,300 years. The first windmills had vertical shafts
and were reportedly built in Persia around the 7th century AD. Made of six to twelve sails
covered in fabric or palm leaves, they were used to grind corn and draw up water. A
similar type of vertical shaft windmill can also be found in 13th century China.


In Europe Muttons Mill, one of the many drainage wind pumps on the Norfolk Broads
(United Kingdom)In Europe, windmills were developed in the Middle Ages. The earliest
mills were probably grinding mills. They were mounted on city walls and could not be
turned into the wind. The earliest known examples date from early 12th century Paris.
Because fixed mills did not suffice for regions with changing wind directions, mill types
that could be turned into the wind were developed. With some subseq uent development
mills became versatile in windy regions for all kind of industry, most notably grain
grinding mills, sawmills (late 16th century), threshing, and, by applying Archimedes'
screws, pumping mills                                                                      .


With the industrial revolution, the importance of windmills as primary industrial energy
source was replaced by steam and internal combustion engines. Polder mills were replaced
by steam, or diesel engines. The industrial revolution and increased use of Steam and later
Diesel power however had a lesser effect on the Mills of the Norfolk Broads in the United
Kingdom, these being so isolated (on extensive uninhabitable marshland), therefore some
of these mills continued use as drainage pumps till as late as 1959. More recently historic
windmills are being preserved for their historic value, which requires regular use because
the wooden machinery is likely to be destroyed by woodworm and dry rot when the mill
remains   stationary   for   too    long                                                   .


With increasing environmental concern, and approaching limits to fossil fuel consumption,

                                                                                  Page | 144
wind power has regained interest as a renewable energy source. This new generation of
wind mills produce electric power and are more generally referred to as wind turbines.


See Flood control in the Netherlands#Windmills for use of windmills in land reclamation
in    the      Netherlands                                                                 .


In the United StatesFarm windmill, Sheridan County, Kansas, USA, 1939 The
development of the water-pumping windmill in the USA was the major factor in allowing
the farming and ranching of vast areas of North America, which were otherwise devoid of
readily accessible water. They contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems
throughout the world, by pumping water from wells to supply the needs of the steam
locomotives of those early times. They are still used today for the same purpose in some
areas of the world where a connection to electric power lines is not a realistic option.


The multi- bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was, for many
years, a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. These mills, made by a variety
of manufacturers, featured a large number of blades so that they would turn slowly but
with considerable torque in low winds and be self regulating in high winds. A tower-top
gearbox and crankshaft converted the rotary motion into reciprocating strokes carried
downward        through      a   pole   or   rod   to   the   pump     cylinder     below.


Windmills and related equipment are still manufactured and installed today on farms and
ranches, usually in remote parts of the western United States where electric power is not
readily available. The arrival of electricity in rural areas, brought by the Rural
Electrification Administration (REA) in the 1930s through 1950s, contributed to the
decline in the use of windmills in the US. Today, the increases in energy prices and the
expense of replacing electric pumps has led to an increase in the repair, restoration and
installation      of      new       windmills                                              .


In the heyday of the windmill, there were thousands of windmill manufacturers in the
                                                                                  Page | 145
United States; today, Aermotor Windmill is the only manufacturer of conventional
windmills left in the USA. GE Energy, a unit of General Electric, manufactures windmills
for        electricity        generation                                                     .


Modern windmills Modern windmill in Aalborg, Denmark Modern Windmills are properly
called wind turbines or wind generators and are operated to generate electricity.




                                                                                    Page | 146
                                  Small Scale Wind System

A wind turbine, which is installed on top of a tall tower, collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.
In a normal residential application, a home is served simultaneously by the wind turbine
and a local utility. If the wind speeds are below cut- in speed (7-10 mph) there will be no
output from the turbine and all of the needed power is purchased from the utility.

As wind speeds increase, turbine output increases and the amount of power purchased
from the utility is proportionately decreased. When the turbine produces more power than
the house needs, the extra electricity is sold to the utility. All of this is done automatically.
There are no batteries in a modern residential wind system. Small wind systems for remote
applications operate somewhat differently                                                      ..
Most small turbines have very few moving parts and do not require any regular
maintenance. They are designed for a long life (up to 20 years) and operate completely
automatically.

The system diagram as follow:




System includes:

1. Wind turbine: which is installed on top of a tall tower,collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.


                                                                                      Page | 147
2. Wind controller:

3. Battery bank: can be a single battery or multiple batteries connected together to create
essentially one large battery of the required voltage and amp- hour capacity.In some ways
the battery configuration and capacity are the most important electrical power decision to
make, and a wise choice can help guarantee a steady supply of electrical power as well as a
system that is simple to operate and maintain.

4. Inverter: A power converter that "inverts" the DC power from the panels into AC
power.The characteristics of the output signal should match the voltage, frequency and
power quality limits in the supply network.

5. loads: Stands for the network connected appliances in the building that are fed from the
inverter(AC loads),or from the battery bank(DC loads).



Wind/Solar hybrid System

Hybrid Systems - Utility Connected with Battery Backup:??A combination of the above
systems, these applications have the advantages of both.They are connected to the utility
grid in case the weather is insufficient for the solar or wind system, but they also have
batteries to store electricity in case the utility grid goes down as well.The design and
installation of these systems is more complicated and expensive,but they are the most
effective in providing constant,reliable electricity.




The system diagram as follow:




                                                                                 Page | 148
System include:

1. PV Array: A number of PV panels connected in series and/or in parallel giving a DC
output out of the incident irradiance. Orientation and tilt of these panels are important
design parameters, as well as shading from surrounding obstructions.

2. Wind turbine: which is installed on top of a tall tower, collects kinetic energy from the
wind and converts it to electricity that is compatible with a home"s electrical system.

3. Solar controller: control battery bank charge and discharge reasonable and safety.

4. Wind controller:

5. Battery bank: can be a single battery or multiple batteries connected together to create
essentially one large battery of the required voltage and amp-hour capacity. In some ways
the battery configuration and capacity are the most important electrical power decision to
make, and a wise choice can help guarantee a steady supply of electrical power as well as a
system that is simple to operate and maintain.

6. Inverter: A power converter that "inverts" the DC power from the panels into AC power.

7. loads: Stands for the network connected appliances in the building that are fed from the
inverter(AC loads), or from the battery bank(DC loads).

                                                                                   Page | 149
In 1892, only four years after the establishment of the Aermotor Company in Chicago, the
American Firm had begun exporting its products to Argentina, one of the largest windmill
markets in the world. In that year the Aermotor firm signed an agreement with Agar, Cross
and Company of Buenos Aires to become exclusive agents in the South American country
for the sale of the Chicago made mills. Founded in 1884, Agar, Cross and Company
became one of the most important distributors of farm and Ranch equipment in Argentina,
a         distinction      which         it       held        for       many          years.


During the peak of export trade, one to three railway carloads of Aermotor windmills left
the Chicago factory each week bound for Argentina. In 1952, however, Agar, Cross and
Company initiated efforts to produce 702 Model Aermotor mills themselves. In 1958 they
turned over their licensed manufacture to another firm, Metalurgica Tandil S.A., and the
mills were sold under several different trade names. Tandil made the mills until its
acquisition by Fiat, the Italian auto maker, in 1962, and then Fiat sold the entire windmill
manufacturing facility to yet another firm, Fabrica de Implementos Agricolas S.A.
(FIASA).


While these events were going to on in South America, Aermotor production in the United
States was undergoing changes. In 1964 the company closed its old Chicago factory and
moved its operation to Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, but there they experienced difficulties in
securing satisfactory castings. Soon Aermotor began contracting for castings produced by
FIASA, the Argentine licensee, and then in 1968-69 the entire manufacturing process
ceased in the United States, with all 702 Model mills being imported from the South
America                                                                            licensee.


For over a decade all new Aermotor windmills sold on the American market continued to
be manufactured by FIASA in Buenos Aires. This changed in 1981 when Aermotor
introduced its new 802 Model mill produced in Conway Arkansas. The Argentine 702

                                                                                  Page | 150
Model windmills, sold under the FIASA brand name, however, also have remained on the
American market, imported and distributed by ESSEX Associates, Inc., of Dallas, Texas.
Thus today one may purchase either the new 802 Model manufactured in Arkansas or the
time-tested 702 Model produced in Argentina. [Windmillers Gazette, V. No 1 (Winter
1986), p.6]




Windmills are mainly known as alternative power generation tools and, of course, as
beautiful garden decoration too. Obviously do it yourself windmills for garden decoration
is a relatively easy to be built. However constructing a power generator is more
complicated.

that you go for option one (windmill plan) simply because it is less costly as compared to later. Of
course there is always an option to get all the required parts for the windmill – tower and turbine,
and               just              to                put             them                together.


Regardless of your approach at this point you will need to decide if you would like to have
wooden windmill or one made of metal. Indeed, aluminum windmills are more expensive but they
are      also       much        more        durable         than      the      wooden         ones.


A very important consideration is how much power your household needs and how much power
your windmill will be providing. To determine the amount of power needed simply check your last
months’ utility bills. Once you have a rough idea about it you are ready to choose a windmill of
size that will be able to generate the same amount of power. Wind spee d and the overall amount
of windy days per year are also factors that need to be taken into account for correct power
supply estimation. If fact it is wiser to start with these calculations as it may turn out that your
windmill will not generate enough power and thus there will be no point in building one.


Another crucial step in do it yourself windmill construction is its location. This depends on the
wind patterns in your area. In any case any good windmill construction plan should give advice
how to choose the best spot as well as the height of the tower.
                                                                                         Page | 151
Wind power can be an excellent complement to a solar power system. Here in Colorado,
when the sun isn't shining, the wind is usually blowing. Wind power is especially helpful
here in the winter to capture both the ferocious and gentle mountain winds during the times
of least sunlight and highest power use. In most locations (including here) wind is not
                                      suitable as the ONLY source of power--it simply fills
                                      in the gaps left by solar power quite nicely.




                                      Building a wind generator from scratch is not THAT
                                      difficult of a project. You will need a shop with basic
                                      power and hand tools, and some degree of
                                      dedication. Large wind generators of 2000 Watts and
up are a major project needing very strong construction, but smaller ones in the 700-1000
Watt, 8-11 foot range can be built fairly easily! In fact, we highly recommend that you
tackle a smaller wind turbine before even thinking about building a large one. You'll need
to be able to cut and weld steel, and a metal lathe can be handy (though you could hire a
machine shop that turns brake rotors do do some small steps for you).

In most locations, GENTLE winds (5-15 mph) are the most common, and strong winds are
much more rare. As you'll see by examining our latest machines, our philosophy about
designing wind turbines is to make large, sturdy machines that produce good power in low
wind speeds, and are able to survive high wind events while still producing maximum
power. The power available in the wind goes up by a factor of 8 as the windspeed doubles.
Other critical factors are rotor size and tower height. The power a wind turbine can
harvest goes up by at least a factor of 4 as you double the rotor size. And making a tower
higher gets you above turbulence for better performance and substially increased power
output. Putting a wind turbine on a short tower is like mounting solar panels in the shade!


Wind Turbine

                                                                                      Page | 152
moulding. The rotor runs smoothly and quietly. The aerodynamic performance of rotor is
excellent with high energy coefficient and low start- up/cut-in wind speed. The rotor is able
to protect from over-speed by blade aerodynamic elasticity.
 Using high performance NdFeB permanent magnet, the alternator is high efficient and
compact. The unique electro- magnet design makes the bonding force and cut- in speed very
low.
2. Relying on the blade aeroelastic and electronic protection and discarding any
mechanical protection set, CHF wind turbines have only two pairs of parts with relative
rotation to make structure compacter and more reliable.
3. The system controller, using PWM and microprocessor technology, makes the
wind/solar hybrid system output maximum, and protects the wind turbine and battery from
malfunction.
4. With high quality aluminum alloy house and stainless steel hardware, the wind turbine is
light in weight, easy for electing, and conforms for environments such as temperature from
-30℃--+60℃,high humidity, salt fog and sandstorm. The wind turbine is reliable.


WS400

400W:



Rotor diameter:1.4m
Weight:19kg
Start up wind speed:2.3m/s

Cut- in wind speed:3m/s
Rated wind speed:12m/s
Voltage:12V , 24V
Rated output:400W
Peak power:457W
                                                                                   Page | 153
WS600

600W:


Rotor diameter:1.8m
Weight:25kg
Start up wind speed:2.3m/s
Cut- in wind speed:3m/s

Rated wind speed:12m/s
Voltage:24V , 48V
Ratedoutput:600W
Peak power:750W


Item                               Technical Data
                              400w             600w
Start up wind speed(m/s)       2.3              2.3
Rated wind speed (m/s)         12                   12
Cut- in wind speed (m/s)       3                    3
Voltage (DCV)                12 \ 24            24
Rated Output (W)              400               600
Peak Power (W)                450               750
Rotor diameter   (m)           1.4              1.8
Turbine (pcs)                  3                    3
Peak wind speed(m/s)           60                   60
Weight(kg)                    22.0             45.00
Over-speed protection         YES               YES
Over- load protection         YES               YES

                                                         Page | 154
Page | 155
HOW WINDMILL WORKS




                     Page | 156
Wind is a form of solar energy. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the
sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are
modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetation. Humans use this wind flow, or
motion energy, for many purposes: sailing, flying a kite, and even generating electricity.

The terms wind energy or wind power describe the process by which the wind is used to generate
mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into
mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain
or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity.

So how do wind turbines make electricity? Simply stated, a wind turbine works the opposite of a


                                                                                       Page | 157
fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make
electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and
makes electricity. Take a look inside a wind turbine to see the various parts. View the wind
turbine animation to see how a wind turbine works.

This aerial view of a wind power plant shows how a group of wind turbines can make electricity
for the utility grid. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to homes,
businesses, schools, and so on.




Types of Wind Turbines

Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety, as shown in the
photo, and the vertical-axis design, like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model, named after its
French inventor.

Horizontal-axis wind turbines typically either have two or three blades. These three-bladed wind
turbines are operated "upwind," with the blades facing into the wind.




                                                                                     Page | 158
Many wind farms have sprung up in the Midwest in recent years, generating power for utilities.
Farmers benefit by receiving land lease payments from wind energy project developers.




Wind Energy's 3.6 megawatt wind turbine is one of the largest prototypes ever erected. Larger
wind turbines are more efficient and cost effective.

Sizes of Wind Turbines

Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger
turbines are grouped together into wind farms, which provide bulk power to the electrical grid.

Single small turbines, below 100 kilowatts, are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or
water pumping.




                                                                                    Page | 159
Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and
photovoltaic systems.

These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off- grid
locations, where a connection to the utility grid is not available.


Inside the Wind Turbine




Ane mometer:
         Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the controller.
Blades:
         Most turbines have either two or three blades. Wind blowing over the blades causes the
         blades to "lift" and rotate.
Brake:


                                                                                    Page | 160
         A disc brake, which can be applied mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically to stop the
         rotor in emergencies.
Controller:
         The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph)
         and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above
         about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the high winds.
Gear box:
         Gears connect the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increase the rotational
         speeds from about 30 to 60 rotations per minute (rpm) to about 1000 to 1800 rpm, the
         rotational speed required by most generators to produce electricity. The gear box is a
         costly (and heavy) part of the wind turbine and engineers are exploring "direct-drive"
         generators that operate at lower rotational speeds and don't need gear boxes.
Generator:
         Usually an off-the-shelf induction generator that produces 60-cycle AC electricity.
High-speed shaft:
         Drives the generator.
Low-speed shaft:
         The rotor turns the low-speed shaft at about 30 to 60 rotations per minute.
Nacelle:
         The nacelle sits atop the tower and contains the gear box, low- and high-speed shafts,
         generator, controller, and brake. Some nacelles are large enough for a helicopter to land
         on.
Pitch:
         Blades are turned, or pitched, out of the wind to control the roto r speed and keep the rotor
         from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity.
Rotor:
         The blades and the hub together are called the rotor.
Tower:


                                                                                         Page | 161
      Towers are made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Because wind
      speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and
      generate more electricity.
Wind direction:
      This is an "upwind" turbine, so-called because it operates facing into the wind. Other
      turbines are designed to run "downwind," facing away from the wind.
Wind vane:
      Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the turbine
      properly with respect to the wind.
Yaw drive:
      Upwind turbines face into the wind; the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the
      wind as the wind direction changes. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive, the
      wind blows the rotor downwind.
Yaw motor:
      Powers the yaw drive.




                                                                                   Page | 162
                   Rechargeable Battery and
                              Battery Charger
5.    A   Battery is something that supplies DC power through chemical reaction.
      Batteries in different form have existed for over 150 years.


6.    "Alessandro Volta" developed Battery around year 1800 when he found the
      generation of electrical current from chemical reactions between different metal of
      different properties.


7.    Research work still continues for batteries with better performance, as the demand
      increases.
8.    The battery now a days we use are broadly divided into the following two
      categories
9.    Primary/Single Use Battery
10.   Secondary/Rechargeable Battery


Primary Battery
11.   Primary batteries are for single use as the chemical reactions that produce the
      electric current in them are irreversible.
12.   These batteries are cheap and simple to use. Some of the common primary cells are
      the common Zinc-Carbon battery, Zinc Manganese Alkaline battery etc.
13.   These are used for domestic purpose like watches, tape recorders, torch etc.

Secondary Battery
                                                                                Page | 163
14.   Secondary batteries are rechargeable batteries i.e. they can be used multiple times,
      after using the charge stored in them, they can be recharged and reused.
15.   These batteries are mainly used in industries and automobiles where higher initial
      current is required. Disadvantage of these batteries is they are costly and require
      regular maintenance.
16.   Some of the common examples of secondary batteries are Nickel-Cadmium battery,
      Lead-Acid battery etc.

Cell & Batteries
17.   The basic building block of batteries is cells. Each cell
18.   has a positive and a negative terminal. The battery is made up of one or more cells.
      Cells in different type of battery produce different volls.
19.   Normally, voltage obtained from a battery or the voltage required to recharge a
      battery is given in per cell basis.
20.   One can multiply the number of cells in a battery with this per cell values to find
      the actual voltage generated by the battery or the actual recharge voltage required
      to charge the battery.




21.   The capacity of a cell is defined as the number of electrons obtained from it. The
      number of electrons per unit time can be called current, so, the capacity of a cell
      can be the current supplied by it over a time.
22.   The cell's capacity is measured in Ampere-Hours and is defined as the current (in
      ampere) multiplied by the time the current is flowing.
                                                                                  Page | 164
23.   The capacity of a cell normally depends on the active material used in the eel! and
      on the volume of the cell.
24.   In many applications the cell's ability to supply power (current x voltage) or energy
      (current x voltage over time) is more important then the capacity of the cell.




Rechargeable Battery
25.   When the energy of a battery gets exhausted, i.e. when the battery is discharged, it
      is no longer usable. But this is not true for a rechargeable battery, a rechargeable
      battery can be recharged and reused.
26.   When a battery is connected to a load, the electrical energy stored in it get utilized,
      this is known as "discharging of battery".
27.   When the energy stored in the battery is completed exhausted, the battery stops
      providing supply to the load, and this battery is called a "discharged batte ry".
28.   This discharged battery can be given power from some external source to once
      again store energy into it. This process is known as "charging of the battery".
29.   Once a battery gets charged, it can be reused like a new battery to provide energy to
      the load connected to it.
30.   All batteries cannot be recharged, a battery which can be recharged to restore its
      energy is known as a "rechargeable battery" or a "storage battery".
31.   Battery is an important part of the Inverter, an Inverter converts the DC supply of
      battery into AC supply to provide supply to the various appliances/equipments
      connected to it
32.   This process slowly discharge the battery, after some time the battery becomes
      fully discharged, and it no longer provide the supply.
33.   When the AC mains is available, a charger circuit in the Inverter converts the AC
      mains supply into DC supply and charge the battery.
34.   This makes sure that the battery is kept fully charged and ready to provide supply
      to the Inverter, whenever the AC mains supply fail.

                                                                                    Page | 165
                     A Common Automobile Rechargeable Battery.
35.   As the battery used in an Inverter keeps on charging and discharging, a
      rechargeable battery is used with the Inverter.
36.   A "Lead-Acid" type of battery is most common battery . used with the Inverter.
      These batteries can provide very . high current for longer duration.
37.   Also, these batteries are inexpensive, compared to other rechargeable batteries.
38.   Main use of the lead-acid battery is in the automobile sector, that is why these
      batteries are commonly known .as "Automobile Battery".
39.   There are two types of lead-acid battery
40.   Wet Lead-Acid Battery
41.   Dry Lead-Acid Battery or Maintenance Battery
Wet Lead-Acid Battery
42.   In these batteries, the electrolyte is in liquid form therefore these batteries are
      known as "wet cell".



                                                                                     Page | 166
43.   Given figure shows a wet lead-acid battery. This battery is made of combination of
      several lead-acid cells, each cell delivering 2.1V.
44.   To get 12V from a lead-acid battery, one need to connect all 6 lead-acid cells in
      series. A 6V battery would require IITF lead-acid cells.
45.   These cells are connected together using thick mental strips, as large current is
      involved.
46.   Each cells have a removable cap to check/add the water/acid level of the cell.
47.   In a lead-acid cell the positive electrode is made of lead peroxide, and the negative
      electrode is made of spongy lead.
48.   A combination of sulphuric acid and water is used as electrolyte in these batteries.
      The negative and positive electrodes are immersed in a combination of 8 parts of
      water and 3 parts of concentrated sulphuric acid.
49.   The specific gravity of the electrolyte of a fully charged battery is about 1.25 to
      1,28.
50.   As the battery gets discharged the sulfuric acid gets reduced and the water content
      increase. This reduces the specific gravity of the battery to around 1.13 to 1.15,
      when the battery is fully discharged.
51.   When the battery is recharged, the sulfuric acid content and water level is again
      restored to its fully charged state.


      Dry Lead-Acid Battery or Maintenance Free Battery
52.   A dry or maintenance free battery does not use liquid as electrolyte, it uses an
      electrolyte paste.
53.   These batteries do not require frequent topping-up with water or acid. As these
      batteries are completely sealed pack, these are also known as "Sealed Maintenance
      Free" Battery or "SMF" battery.
54.   As these are fully sealed batteries, these can be used in any position.
55.   SMF batteries are generally used in Inverter, inverter, emergency light,
      telecommunication equipment etc.

                                                                                 Page | 167
56.    The following are most commonly used SMF batteries
57.    6V/4.3Ah
58.    12V/6.5Ah
59.    12y/7Ah
60.    12V/7.6AH
61.    All these batteries require 20 hour charging.
62.    SMF batteries should be charged using "constant charging voltage" method,
       otherwise these batteries could get damaged.
63.    Following table gives the charging voltage and charging voltage and charging
       current for these SMF batteries


 Battery          Max. Volt.                    Max. Amp.      Volt, at full ' Charge


 6V/4.2Ah         7.2V-7.5V                     1.26           6. 75-6. 9V


 12W7Ah           14.4V- 15V                    2.1            13.5~13.8V


12W7.6Ah          14. 4V- 15V                   2.28           13.5-13. 8V




           Current Rating/Capacity of the Lead-Acid Battery
                                (Ah - Ampere Hour)

64.    The lead-acid batteries are generally rated in terms of how much current the battery
       can supply for a fixed period of time.
65.    Battery capacity is rated in ampere-hour (Ah), Generally Ah value is based on 8
       hours discharge time.



                                                                                  Page | 168
66.   The capacity of any battery depends on the number of plates used in each cell of the
      battery. For example, a 15 plate battery will have 90Ah and a 21 plate battery will
      have 150Ah rating.
67.   A 200Ah battery can provide the load current of 25 Amp. (200/8 =25), for 8 hours.


68.   The battery can supply less current for longer time or more current for shorter time.
69.   A lOOAh battery can provide 12.5 ampere current for 8 hours (100/8 = 12.5), if a
      high current is taken from this same battery then the duration for which it can
      provide the required supply will reduce.
70.   If 20 Ampere current is consumed, the battery will be able to provide the current
      only for 5 hours (100/20=5).




                                                                                 Page | 169
                            WHAT IS SOLAR POWER
Solar energy is all the rage these days. With the current concerns about global warming
and energy rates going up every day, it’s no wonder people are looking for alternative
ways to power their lives. Solar power is one of the most efficient and affordable energy
alternatives available today. Whether you are interested in solar power for economic
reasons, environmental concerns, or both, Daniel Olalekan Shoetan is the best
professional you can think of in this field of Solar Power Generatio n !

He compare solar energy advantages & disadvantages, review the benefits of solar
power, and evaluate all the ways you can use solar power, so that you will be ready to
tackle the solar power projects in your home and office. Are you thinking of powering
your estates and be free from National Grid Power problem then go green. Call Daniel
Olalekan today +234-703-791-4178 and you will be connected to 24/7 Solar Power
supply. See Advantages of Solar power system below.

Seven reason why You must go Green
                                                       1/2
1.     Daniel has been using this power system for 2         years now without having 1 sec
       power failure.

2.     The power system is free from polluting, of carbon monoxide that is dangerous to
       human health.

       What are the medical effects of CO?

                                                                                 Page | 170
Carbon monoxide inhibits the blood's ability to carry oxygen to body tissues

including vital organs such as the heart and brain.




When CO is inhaled, it combines with the oxygen carrying hemoglobin of the blood

to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). Once combined with the hemoglobin, that

hemoglobin is no longer available for transporting oxygen.




   "The four globin chains (two alpha chains and two beta chains) are depicted as
        something like "folded worms". Each globin chain contains a small,
     rectangular heme group. In the center of each heme group is an iron (Fe)
                    atom." Image courtesy of Robert J. Huskey.


How quickly the carboxyhemoglobin builds up is a factor of the concentration

of the gas being inhaled (measured in parts per million or PPM) and the duration

                                                                                   Page | 171
of the exposure.

Compounding the effects of the exposure is the long half- life of

carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Half- life is a measure of how quickly levels return

to normal.




The half- life of carboxyhemoglobin is approximately 5 hours. This means

that for a given exposure level, it will take about 5 hours for the level of carboxyhemoglobin

in the blood to drop to half its current level after the exposure is terminated.




               Symptoms Associated with a Given Conce ntration of
                                   COHb

               %               Symptoms and Medical Consequences
              COHb

               10       No symptoms. Heavy smokers can have as much as 9%
                                             COHb.

                                                                                   Page | 172
                15                            Mild headache.

                25     Nausea and serious headache. Fairly quick recovery after
                               treatment with oxygen and/or fresh air.

                30         Symptoms intensify. Potential for long term effects
                          especially in the case of infants, children, the elderly,
                             victims of heart disease and pregnant women.

                45                           Unconsciousness

               50+                                 Death



Since one can't easily measure COHb levels outside of a medical environment, CO toxicity levels
are usually expressed in airborne concentration levels (PPM) and duration of exposure.
Expressed in this way, symptoms of exposure can be stated as follows:


               Symptoms Associated with a Given Conce ntration of
                                CO Over Time

               PPM        Time                         Symptoms
               CO

                35       8 hours      Maximum exposure allowed by OSHA in the
                                        workplace over an eight hour period.

               200     2-3 hours          Mild headache, fatigue, nausea and
                                                      dizziness.

               400     1-2 hours     Serious headache-other symptoms intensify.
                                            Life threatening after 3 hours.

               800        45             Dizziness, nausea and convulsions.
                        minutes      Unconscious within 2 hours. Death within 2-3
                                                        hours.

               1600       20            Headache, dizziness and nausea. Death
                        minutes                     within 1 hour.

               3200      5-10           Headache, dizziness and nausea. Death
                        minutes                     within 1 hour.

               6400       1-2           Headache, dizziness and nausea. Death
                        minutes                within 25-30 minutes.

              12,800      1-3                              Death
                        minutes



As can be seen from the above information, the symptoms vary widely
based on exposure level, duration and the general health and age on an
individual.
                                                                                      Page | 173
Also note the one recurrent theme that is most significant in the
recognition of carbon monoxide poisoning- headache, dizziness and
nausea. These 'flu like' symptoms are often mistaken for a real case of
the flu and can result in delayed or misdiagnosed treatment.

When experienced in conjunction with a the sounding of a carbon
monoxide these symptoms are the best indicator that a potentially
serious buildup of carbon monoxide exists.
3.     No Noise Pollution “ Picture a building where each of the tenant are using 6
       Generator in a 6 Flat with the noise from this generation” or pictures a building
       where each tenant of 10 rooms are using 10 I PASS MY NEIGHOUR GENERATOR.

4.     No consumption of Fuel, It is economical, It is one time Investment. Save the
       money for children school fees and holiday abroad

5.     No Power Failure

6.     It is Automatic

Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight. This can be direct as with
photovoltaics (PV), or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP), where the sun's
energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide power.

The solar power gained from photovoltaic can be used to eliminate the need for
purchased electricity (usually electricity gained from burning fossil fuels) or, if energy
gained from photovoltaic exceeds the home's requirements, the extra electricity can be
sold back to the home's supplier of energy, typically for credit.

The largest solar power plants, like the 354 MW SEGS, are concentrating solar thermal
plants, but recently multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have been built. Completed in
2008, the 46 MW Moura photovoltaic power station in Portugal and the 40 MW
Waldpolenz Solar Park in Germany are characteristic of the trend toward larger
photovoltaic power stations.

Much larger ones are proposed, such as the 100 MW Fort Peck Solar Farm, the 550 MW
Topaz Solar Farm, and the 600 MW Rancho Cielo Solar Farm. Solar power is a predictably
intermittent energy source, meaning that whilst solar power is not available at all times,
we can predict with a very good degree of accuracy when it will and will not be available.
Some technologies, such as solar thermal concentrators have an element of thermal

                                                                                Page | 174
storage, such as molten salts. These store spare solar energy in the form of heat which is
made available overnight or during periods that solar power is not available to produce
electricity.

Applications
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight to electricity. Sunlight can be converted directly into
electricity using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly with concentrating solar power (CSP), which
normally focuses the sun's energy to boil water which is then used to provide power, and
technologies such as the Stirling engine dishes which use a Stirling cycle engine to power a
generator. Photovoltaics were initially used to power small and medium-sized applications, from
the calculator powered by a single solar cell to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array.

Solar power plants can face high installation costs, although this has been decreasing due to the
learning curve Developing countries have started to build solar power plants, replacing other
sources of energy generation.

Since solar radiation is intermittent, solar power generation is usually combined either with
storage or other energy sources to provide continuous power, although for small distributed
producer/consumers, net metering makes this transparent to the consumer. On a slightly larger
scale, in Germany, a combined power plant has been demonstrated, using a mix of wind, biomass,
hydro-, and solar power generation, resulting in 100% renewable energy.

                               Concentrating solar power




                        Solar troughs are the most widely deployed.

A legend claims that Archimedes used polished shields to concentrate sunlight on the invading
Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse. Auguste Mouchout used a parabolic trough to
produce steam for the first solar steam engine in 1866. [


                                                                                      Page | 175
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a
large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated heat is then used as a heat source for a
conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exists; the most developed
are the parabolic trough, the concentrating linear fresnel reflector, the Stirling dish and the solar
power tower. Various techniques are used to track the Sun and focus light. In all of these systems
a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or
energy storage.

A parabolic trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver
positioned along the reflector's focal line. The receiver is a tube positioned right above the middle
of the parabolic mirror and is filled with a working fluid. The reflector is made to foll ow the Sun
during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Parabolic trough systems provide the
best land-use factor of any solar technology. [11] The SEGS plants in California and Acciona's
Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada are representatives of this technology. [12][13] The
Suntrof-Mulk parabolic trough, developed by Melvin Prueitt, uses a technique inspired by
Archimedes' principle to rotate the mirrors.[14]

Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead
of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid. This has the
advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that
more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available
sunlight to be used. Concentrating linear fresnel reflectors can be used in either large or more
compact plants.

A Stirling solar dish, or dish engine system, consists of a stand-alone parabolic reflector that
concentrates light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector's focal point. The reflector tracks the
Sun along two axes. Parabolic dish systems give the highest efficiency among CSP technologies.

 The 50 kW Big Dish in Canberra, Australia is an example of this technology.The Stirling solar dish
combines a parabolic concentrating dish with a Stirling heat engine which normally drives an
electric generator.

The advantages of Stirling solar over photovoltaic cells are higher efficiency of converting sunlight
into electricity and longer lifetime. A solar power tower uses an array of tracking reflectors
(heliostats) to concentrate light on a central receiver atop a tower. Power towers are more cost
effective, offer higher efficiency and better energy storage capability among CSP technologies.

 The Solar Two in Barstow, California and the Planta Solar 10 in Sanlucar la Mayor, Spain are
representatives of this technology.

A solar bowl is a spherical dish mirror that is fixed in place. The receiver follows the line focus
created by the dish (as opposed to a point focus with tracking parabolic mirrors).
                                                                                          Page | 176
                                          Photovoltaics




                          11 MW Serpa solar power plant in Portugal

A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the
photoelectric effect.[19] This is based on the discovery by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel who
noticed that some materials release electrons when hit with rays of photons from light, which
produces an electrical current. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s.
Although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity,
both Ernst Werner von Siemens and James Clerk Maxwell recognized the importance of this
discovery. Following the work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin
Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the silicon solar cell in 1954. These early solar cells cost
286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.5–6%.

Solar power has great potential, but in 2008 supplied less than 0.02% of the world's total energy
supply. There are many competing technologies, including fourteen types of photovoltaic cells,
such as thin film, monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, and amorphous cells, as well as
multiple types of concentrating solar power. It is too early to know which technology will become
dominant.[

The earliest significant application of solar cells was as a back-up power source to the Vanguard I
satellite in 1958, which allowed it to continue transmitting for over a year after its chemical
battery was exhausted.

 The successful operation of solar cells on this mission was duplicated in many other Soviet and
American satellites, and by the late 1960s, PV had become the established source of power for
them.

 After the successful application of solar panels on the Vanguard satellite it still was not until the
energy crisis, in the 1970s, that photovoltaic solar panels gained use outside of back up power
suppliers on spacecraft.


                                                                                            Page | 177
Photovoltaics went on to play an essential part in the success of early commercial satellites such
as Telstar, and they remain vital to the telecommunications infrastructure today. [29]




Building-integrated photovoltaics cover the roofs of an increasing number of homes.

The high cost of solar cells limited terrestrial uses throughout the 1960s. This changed in the early
1970s when prices reached levels that made PV generation competitive in remote areas without
grid access. Early terrestrial uses included powering telecommunication stations, offshore oil rigs,
navigational buoys and railroad crossings. [30] These off-grid applications accounted for over half of
worldwide installed capacity until 2004.[31]

The 1973 oil crisis stimulated a rapid rise in the production of PV during the 1970s and early
1980s.[32] Economies of scale which resulted from increasing production along with improvements
in system performance brought the price of PV down from 100 USD/watt in 1971 to 7 USD/watt
in 1985.[33] Steadily falling oil prices during the early 1980s led to a reduction in funding for
photovoltaic R&D and a discontinuation of the tax credits associated with the Energy Tax Act of
1978. These factors moderated growth to approximately 15% per year from 1984 through
1996.[34]

Since the mid-1990s, leadership in the PV sector has shifted from the US to Japan and Europe.
Between 1992 and 1994 Japan increased R&D funding, established net metering guidelines, and
introduced a subsidy program to encourage the installation of residential PV systems. [35] As a
result, PV installations in the country climbed from 31.2 MW in 1994 to 318 MW in 1999,[36] and
worldwide production growth increased to 30% in the late 1990s. [37]




                                                                                          Page | 178
                        Concentrating photovoltaics in Catalonia, Spain.

Germany became the leading PV market worldwide since revising its feed-in tariffs as part of the
Renewable Energy Sources Act.

Installed PV capacity in Germany has risen from 100 MW in 2000 to approximately 4,150 MW at
the end of 2007. [38][39] After 2007, Spain became the largest PV market after adopting a similar
feed-in tariff structure in 2004, installing almost half of the photovoltaics (45%) in the world, in
2008, while France, Italy, South Korea and the U.S. have seen rapid growth recently due to various
incentive programs and local market conditions.

The power output of domestic photovoltaic devices is usually described in kilowatt-peak (kWp)
units, as most are from 1 to 10 kW.[41]

Concentrating photovoltaics (CVP) are another new method of electricity generation from the
sun. CPV systems employ sunlight concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of
electrical power production. Solar concentrators of all varieties may be used, which are often
mounted on a solar tracker in order to keep the focal point upon the cell as the sun moves across
the sky. Tracking can increase flat panel photovoltaic output by 20% in winter, and by 50% in
summer.

Advantages of Solar Energy
Solar energy is the newest and most cost effective way to satisfy the huge energy needs of human beings.

There are many useful applications of the solar energy in day-to-day life, wit h many advantages over

traditional and the conventional sources of energy


Solar Energy Is Abundant



                                                                                            Page | 179
Solar energy is everywhere, it’s abundant and we’ll practically never run out. Even in mid winter we are

blessed with a moderate amount of natural daylight provided courtesy of the sun. Okay, it might not be sunny

everyday but we are still experiencing radiation from the sun and it is this which can be gleaned for our own

renewable energy purposes. Thus the need for finding a long lasting energy resource is over!


Solar Energy Is Free

Solar energy is completely free. Sure, there is an initial capital cost but once you have made the investment

the energy harvested from the sun costs you nothing. No one will be sending you a bill for sunshine. Thus no

worries of spending enormous amounts of your salary in satisfying your energy requirements.


Solar Energy Is Cost Effective

While solar photovoltaic are still relatively expensive,, the technology is growing rapidly as is production – and

as a result the costs involved are coming down and is now cost effective. Solar hot water panels have been

greatly improved in recent years and, with lower cost, payback times for domestic systems can no be as short

as five years. As coal, gas and oil prices continue to rise solar energy will become a viable alternative. It’s

secure. We live in uncertain times and we are increasingly relying on our fossil fuel supplies coming from

areas abroad over which we have little or no control.


Solar Energy Is Clean

Finally solar energy is clean. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels and nuclear power and it will never run out.

It’s silent. Solar power can be captured anywhere without creating noise pollution that might otherwise up set

neighbours and wildlife. It works wherever the sun shines. It doesn’t matter how remote, solar can generate

energy where no other form of power can be obtained. Thus, no danger of damaging our already damaged

environment further and you can be part of the Green initiative, low er your carbon footprint , and save our

planet from harmful greenhouse gases.




Residential Applications For Solar Energy Systems




                                                                                                        Page | 180
We don’t typically think of our home polluting or
 having impact on the env ironment. Buildings
(homes and businesses) consume tw o-third of
 of total U.S. electric demand. New structures
  may be more energy efficient due to new er
  heating and cooling systems, energy-star™
  appliances, better insulation, w indows and
   doors. The U.S. Green Building Council’s
   Leadership in Energy and Envir onmental
 Des ign ( LEED) has set guidelines for “green” buildings that many customers and builders
 are embracing. In general, any improvement to the efficiency of your home (reduc ing your
  total energy consumption) helps to r educe the size of the solar installation needed or it
  allow s the solar to satisfy a higher portion of your energy requirements. In short, energy
  efficiency and energy conservation amplify and complement the values and benefits to
 having a residential solar ener gy system. This section w ill help consumers understand the
          different types of solar energy systems used in residential applications.


                   Residential Applications For Solar Energy: Photovoltaic




  Photovoltaic Systems “ PV” or solar electr ic: Compared to solar hot w ater, photovoltaic
(pronounced: foh-toh-vol-tay-ik) is a relatively new technology. The first photovoltaic effect
  was discovered by Edmund Becquerel, a 19-year old Fr ench experimental physicist in
1839. Albert Einstein received a Nobel Pr ize in 1923 for explaining the photov oltaic effect.
But not until Bell Labs in 1954 did solar PV finally reach a level w here its pow er began to be
  useful for commercial purposes, such as Western Electric’s dollar bill changer in 1955.

  Unlike a solar hot w ater system, w hich is essentially a plumbing device, PV uses semi-
conductors and sunlight to make electricity. The more solar modules a PV system or array
 has, the more electricity w ill be generated. DC electricity can be “inverted” into alternating
current (AC), so it can be useable pow er for a home or business, w hich can off -set or even
                                   eliminate the electric bill.

              PV systems to pow er buildings fall into four general categor ies:

        1. Grid- Interconnected or “Grid-Tied” PV systems are the most popular and use spec ial inverters to allow
                   electricity to flow safely back into the electric grid. When solar pow er is generated, this pow er is
                  typically first used by the building, and then surplus electricity can actually flow back into the grid,
                 giving full r etail credit per kilow att-hour from your utility prov ider. Since there are no batter ies, these
                 systems cannot stored energy and are designed to shut dow n if the grid is dow n for safety reasons
                                                                                                                  Page | 181
                                                  (mainly to protect utility line w orkers).


        2. Grid- Interconnected w ith Battery Back-up systems offer customers continued pow er w hen the gr id goes
                 dow n, w hile still being connected to the grid for seamless pow er. New er systems also accept other
                pow er sources, in addition to PV, such as w ind or even traditional gas -pow ered generators to provide
                              pow er and/or charge the battery at night and/or if the grid is not available.


      3. “Off-Grid” PV systems are used w hen a completely independent or “stand alone” system is needed. Since
                no grid pow er is used, the system must be carefully designed based on pow er usage, peak demand
                  and seasonal solar var iations. Batteries are typically used to provide pow er at night, in low sun or
                   high electric demand conditions. These systems are ideal for remote locations w here no utilities
                                                                    exist.


          4. Utility-Scale PV systems, sometimes called “solar far ms” provide pow er for regional users by (or in
                                                cooperation) w ith electric utility providers.



                Grid-tied systems may be metered by tw o different methods:

   Net m etering is the practice of using a single utility meter that “nets out” both w hat is
  “draw n” from the grid and w hat is “returned” or fed back to the grid. When a PV system
generates pow er beyond w hat the building is consuming, this surplus pow er is fed back into
  the utility grid, making the electric meter actually spin backw ards. If you generate more
  electricity than you consume at the end of the month, the customer w ill receive full retail
             credit (and possibly cash) from the utility provider per their policy.

Dual m etering configurations use tw o separate meters. One meter tracks the total ener gy
consumed by the building and the other meter tracks total energy produced by the solar and
    fed back into the grid. Because this method accurately meters both the total energy
 consumed and solar energy produced, different billing rates can be applied by the utility.
 This metering method is used for Feed- In- Tar iff (FIT) progr ams w here customers can be
 paid for solar pow er generated, typically at a higher rate than the conventional electricity
                                          purchased.

  Regardless of PV system or metering, most homeow ners w ill install a solar hot w ater
    system along w ith the PV system. Why both? Because a solar hot w ater system is
   significantly more cost-effective and requires a fraction of the roof space to create the
 equivalent amount of energy to heat w ater. This w ill also allow the PV system to satisfy a
 higher proportion of household electric demand, making the PV system even more cost-
                                           effective.

    PV systems are rated by “standar d test conditions” (STC) w attage during peak sun
  intensity. Most residential grid-tied PV systems w ill typically range from 2 kilow atts to 8
   kilow atts. The total energy per year it generates w ill vary depending on the part of the
country in w hich it is located and other factors related to design and installation. In Florida,
 for example, a 5 kilow att PV system w ill generate about 700 kilow att-hours per month of
clean, renew able energy on average, based on a one-year period. At 15 cents per kilow att-

                                                                                                               Page | 182
  hour, this w ill offset $1,260.00 of electricity. As for carbon dioxide, the EPA reports that
each kilow att-hour of electricity pr oduced from a coal creates 2.3 lbs. of carbon diox ide, so
this 5 kilow att residential PV system in Florida w ill also offset about 19,320 lbs. (9.7 tons) of
                                    carbon dioxide per year.


         Residential Applications For Solar Energy: Solar Thermal (Hot Water)
 About solar Hot Water: For hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, humans have heated
 water w ith sunshine simply by leaving a buc ket of w ater in the sun. It takes a lot of energy
  to heat w ater. Typically, up to 30% of a home’s energy consumption is used just to heat
      water for bathing, laundry and cleaning. By installing a solar hot w ater system,
   homeow ners may shave off 200 to 500 kilow att-hours per month off their electric bill,
thereby saving money and reducing pollution at the same time. Installing a solar hot w ater
system is typically the first and most cost-effective step w hen turning to the sun for energy.
 Ev en if a photovoltaic system is your primary interest, a solar (ther mal) hot w ater system
along w ith a PV system w ill provide the best economics and space-efficiency on your roof.

The type of solar w ater heating system chosen w ill largely be deter mined by your climate as
  freezing temperatures may damage components. Technology for solar ther mal has had
  great innovations in the recent decade bringing better efficiency, cost-effectiveness and
   reliability not pr evious ly know n. A “drainback” hot w ater system is the state-of-the-art
  system design that can be used in any climate and is now the system of choice for most
                           residential and commercial applications.

                                              1. Drain Back Systems. State-of-the-art, fail-safe freeze protected w ith
                                       ther mal limiting (active, indirect): Collector w ater is separate from potable w ater
                                           and the collector w ater drains into a spec ial tank to prevent freezing and
                                       overheating concerns, once potable w ater reaches proper temperature or if no
                                                                   sunlight (heat) is available.


                                               2. Glycol Systems: Indirect Heating, Differential or Photovoltaic ( PV)
                                     Controlled Antifreeze Pr otection (active, indirect): Collector w ater is separate from
                                           potable w ater and contains non-toxic propylene glycol antifreeze. This is
                                        sometimes referred to as a “pressurized glycol” system and is freeze tolerant.
                                         The s mall electr ic circulation pump can be pow ered by a s mall PV collector.


                                              3. Active Direct Systems: Direct Heating, Differential or PV Controlled
                                       (active, direct): Potable w ater is circulated from the storage tank to the collector
                                      when heat is available. No additional heat exchanger is required as the collector
                                        serves this purpose. The s mall electric circulation pump can be pow ered by a
                                             small PV collector. This system is for tropical, non-freezing climates.


       4. Integrated Collector Storage “ICS” (passive, direct): Potable w ater is both pre-heated and stored in a
                roof-top unit before going into a conventional w ater heater. This basic system uses regul ar “street” or
                 well w ater pressure to circulate w ater and does not require pumps or temperature controllers, but is
                                                         subject to freeze damage.



                                                                                                                Page | 183
       5. Therm o-siphon (passive, direct): Potable w ater is naturally circulated from the collector to the storage
                     tank positioned above the collector(s). Based on the pr inciple that hot w ater rises, these self -
                contained systems heat w ater w ithout use of pumps or controllers, but are subject to freeze damage.
                                     These are typically used in tropical and/or developing countries.


Each of the above systems has their ow n benefits, limitations and aesthetic cons iderations.
 There are many factors that go into selecting a system that meets your needs. As w e can
 have cloudy days and/or high-demand times for hot w ater, our systems include back-up
    heating (us ing electric or gas) to ensure you are never w ithout hot w ater. Hav ing a
  solarener gy.com dealer perfor m a professional site survey is your first step in having a
 properly sized and installed solar hot w ater system. Because there are different types of
systems and each system requires proper sizing (based on total usage, peak demand and
      part of the country), it is a critical task to ensure its performance and durability.


       Residential Applications For Solar Energy: Solar Thermal (Pool Heating)
Solar Pool Heating : Heating sw imming
pools w ith the sun can save thousands
of dollars in energy costs to keep a pool
at the preferred temperature. Ev en if no
LP/natural gas or electric pool heater is
    installed, a solar pool heater w ill
significantly extend your sw im season. If
shading or an enc losure is keeping your
 pool even cooler, heating w ith solar is
 likely to be the best long-ter m option.

Solar pool panels are made of a flexible and durable poly mer material. Pool temperature is
 maintained using an electronic controller, temperature sensors and an automatic diverter
 valve. Most of the time, your existing pool pump is adequate to operate the system. Solar
   pool panels come in a var iety of sizes and can be attached to a roof or even ground-
 mounted on a framew ork if no roof is available. If an electric or gas pool heater is already
 installed, a solar pool heater can w ork in conjunction w ith any pool heating appliance to
 significantly reduce oper ating costs by serving as the pre-heater. A professionally sized,
  selected and installed solar pool heating system w ill add value to your home and more
                                    enjoy ment of your pool.




Residential Applications For Solar Energy: Day Lighting

  Day lighting: Lighting homes and businesses w ith natural day lighting reduces energy
 consumption and can improve livability and productivity as w ell. Skylights are one w ay to
do this, but installation requires extensive retrofit labor and can create additional heat gai n
  (or loss). SolaTube® installations are simple and bring in the light w ithout all the heat,
                       providing all the benefits w ithout the draw backs.

 SolaTube®: When it comes to br inging natural sunlight to into your home, SolaTube® is
                                                                                                              Page | 184
your answ er. SolaTube® lighting kits come in 10, 14 and 21 inch diameter tubes and can
  carry “piped” sunlight over 25 feet to the room w here you w ant it. SolaTube® also has
optional features that can be added, such as exhaust fans and integrated electric lighting
 inside the lens to serve night lighting needs. SolaTubes® can also be fitted w ith a light
damper to “tur n off” the sunlight in a room w hen darkness is needed, giv ing full-flexibility to
                                        this product line.

 SolaTube® offers industry-leading lighting perfor mance and quality of mater ials to meet
                     both residential and commercial day lighting needs.




                                                                                                     Page | 185
 The Science of Electricity

Introduction to Solar Energy




     Many different design techniques (passive solar) and
     technologies (active solar) are used to collect the sun’s
     energy. Some ways to use the sun have been practiced for
     centuries. Buildings use passive solar design to capture
     heat during colder weather and block it during warmer
     weather, and provide natural lighting for their occupants.
     This use of solar energy minimizes the need for fuel-

                                                     Page | 186
powered heat and electricity and is a cornerstone of energy efficient buildings.

Solar energy can also provide this heat and power more directly through active solar
technologies, which capture sunlight and use its energy to produce heat or electricity.
Solar heating technologies can warm a building, heat water, or even create steam for use
in industrial processes. Solar thermal technologies generate steam to power utility scale
electric generators. Solar photovoltaic technology (or PV for short) uses the electrical
properties of certain materials to convert solar energy into usable electricity. For reasons
ranging from its environmental benefits to its scale and accessibility, this technology's
promise of clean electricity has gained much attention in recent decades.

Pictured here: This 13.2 kW (DC) solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the BJ's
Wholesale Club, Stoneham, MA, was co- funded by the Renewable Energy Trust. BJ's is
participating in an electric utility congestion relief study with NStar Electric. The electric
output of the solar installation will be correlated to the load on the local electric grid to
demonstrate how PV can be deployed in load constrained areas to help prevent brown-outs
during hot, sunny weather.

This introduction to solar energy focuses on solar photovoltaic technology as a renewable
energy source, though basic information and plenty of links are provided on other uses of
the sun's energy. Here is a summary of the solar information included on this website:

As background to understanding how photovoltaics and other technologies use the sun's
energy, the Powe r of the Sun explains the basics of the sun’s energy and how it reaches
the Earth.

The human uses of solar energy can be divided into several broad categories. You can
learn more about Passive Solar Design, Solar Heating, and Solar Thermal Electric
technologies.

To understand how solar energy has been used in the past, the History of Solar Energy
outlines solar inventions and innovations developed throughout human history.

The Power of the Sun

The sun is the Earth's primary source of energy, powering its most basic systems and
cycles and shaping the world around us. It provides the planet with light and heat. The
reaction between the sun’s energy and the Earth’s atmosphere determines weather patterns
and rainfall, and our planet's tilt towards the sun creates the seasons. Its role in

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photosynthesis helps plants to grow and its role in biodegradation helps complete the
natural cycle of ecosystems.

A lesser known role of solar energy is that it is the root of most the other forms of energy
humans use for power. Wind power depends on the sun's impact on atmospheric
movement to create wind patterns. Bioenergy (wood and other plant material) depends on
photosynthesis. Even fossil fuels indirectly owe their creation millions of years ago to solar
energy

The Sun's Energy

The sun is composed of two layers of gas: an inner core of hydrogen and an outer layer of
helium. For millions of years, the core of hydrogen gas has been burning and producing the
outer layer of helium. An enormous amount of energy is created in this process. This solar
energy radiates outward from the sun and into space, and some of this energy reaches the
Earth's surface. This movement of energy is known as solar radiation.

How Solar Energy Travels

                                                    The energy radiating from the sun is
                                                    released as concentrated particles called
                                                    photons, smaller than atoms and
                                                    invisible to the human eye. These tiny
                                                    packets of energy travel in a pattern
                                                    best described as a wave. These waves,
                                                    like the photons that travel along them,
                                                    are too small to be visible, ranging from
                                                    160 to 1,500 nanometers (a nanometer
is one billionth of a meter) in length.

Wavelength, defined as the distance between one peak of a wave to the next peak of the
same wave, is key to understanding the varying qualities of solar energy. Wavelength is
directly linked to the amount of energy carried by a particular wave. A wave with a very
short wavelength carries a high amount of photon energy. Likewise, a wave with a longer
                                                      wavelength carries a lower amount
                                                      of photon energy.




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How Humans Perceive Solar Energy

The lengths of different solar waves determine how they are perceived and used on Earth.
Solar waves with wavelengths between 400 and 780 nanometers are perceived by the
human eye as visible light. Most of the solar energy that reaches the Earth travels in waves
within this range. In essence, the sunlight we see is the primary form of solar energy, and
solar technologies depend on this sunlight to create heat and electricity.

In addition to energy perceived as visible light, the sun releases smaller amounts of energy
in waves with shorter and longer wavelengths. Solar waves with wavelengths between 160
and 400 nanometers are known as ultraviolet rays and carry higher levels of energy than
sunlight. Solar waves with wavelengths between 780 and 1,500 nanometers are known as
infrared rays and carry lower levels of energy than sunlight. Both types of energy have
important roles on Earth, but, largely because only small amounts hit the Earth's surface,
they are not used in solar energy techniques and technologies.

Solar waves carry very little heat. Rather, most solar heat is created when waves of solar
energy hit certain materials on Earth. The Earth's surface and various materials absorb
some of this solar energy, then release energy back into the air in the form of heat. This
process is the central element in both passive solar techniques and solar heating
technologies.




                                     What Happens when Solar Energy Reaches the
                                     Earth?

                                     As solar energy radiates outward from the sun, some
                                     of it reaches the outer layer of the Earth's atmosphere.
                                     At this point, several factors affect how much solar
                                     energy penetrates the atmosphere and the way it
                                     reaches different parts of the Earth's surface at
                                                       different times of year.

                                                       The Earth's atmosphere significantly
                                                       impacts the amount of solar energy
                                                       reaching the surface of the Earth.
                                                       Some waves are reflected by the
                                                       outer layers of the atmosphere,
                                                                                  Page | 189
while others are blocked by a lower layer of ozone. Still others are interrupted by clouds,
some reflected back into the atmosphere and some deflected in their route to the Earth's
surface. Finally, some waves pass through the atmosphere unimpeded, hitting the surface
of the Earth as direct light.

Waves that are deflected by clouds before hitting the surface are known as diffuse light
because they hit the earth at different angles than direct light. Some direct light is also
reflected when it hits the surface, creating more diffuse light. This distinction is relevant to
the human uses of solar energy, as certain technologies, like solar thermal, can only use
direct light to produce energy while others, like photovoltaics, can use both direct and
diffuse light.

Levels of direct light vary greatly from region to region because of differing atmospheric
qualities, ozone levels, and weather patterns. The level of direct sunlight typically received
in a region is measured as solar intensity. Solar intensity affects the amount of energy
available for solar technologies, and as a result impacts the ir efficiency.

Another important factor in using solar energy is the angle at which solar waves reach the
Earth. This angle is constantly changing as the Earth rotates toward the sun in the morning
and away from the sun at night. The tilt of the Earth's axis also impacts the angle at which
solar waves reach different regions at different times of year.

These changes in the angle of solar radiation do not affect the amount of energy carried by
solar waves, but need to be considered when designing solar techniques and technologies
to best accommodate solar energy throughout the day and in different regions.

Passive Solar: Buildings that Work with the Sun

The sun's energy provides light and heat to the Earth each day, both essential to people’s
thermal and visual comfort.

But at different times of year, the amount of energy provided directly by the sun is either
too much or too little for us to be comfortable. A central function of buildings is to use this
solar energy when it meets our needs, and protect us when it is inadequate or too harsh.

Passive solar design refers to a building that effectively uses the sun’s energy, simply
through the way the structure is oriented, designed, and constructed.



                                                                                     Page | 190
Buildings that use passive solar design can use fewer or smaller-scale active technologies
to meet the remainder of their heating and lighting needs.

Because the sun's energy is free, maximizing use of natural solar energy before adding
active technologies can significantly reduce ongoing energy costs.

Passive solar design has a long history, stretching back to early indigenous cultures and the
Greeks and Romans, whose written records indicate thoughtful use of passive solar design
to accommodate sunlight and solar heat.

Modern passive solar design use some of these same techniques but add newer ones that
depend on advanced structures and materials.

Here are some key aspects of passive solar design:

Building Orientation

The correct orientation of a building is the foundation of passive solar design. Because of
the Earth's tilted axis and its orbit around the sun, sunlight does not hit the Earth's surface
at the same angle in everywhere or at all times of the year. A building must be oriented in
relationship to this range of angles in order to maximize the use of solar energy for interior
lighting and winter heating.

In the Northern hemisphere, this means focusing on the southern side of buildings. In the
summer, the sun passes nearly directly over our heads. But in the winter, it follows a path
lower in the sky and to the south. To take advantage of this winter sun for heat, and to take
advantage of the sun year round for light, a building must be designed to allow the entry of
sunlight from the south.

Using Natural Light

Once a building is oriented to the south, a means of accommodating sunlight is needed. At
a basic level, a building's windows serve this purpose, passing light through while
protecting the building from other natural elements. Advanced passive solar design takes
this concept further to receive specific amounts of light at different times of year, and even
channel sunlight deeper into the parts of buildings that cannot receive as much direct
sunlight. These designs use elements like atriums, sk ylights, light shelves and reflective
panels to bring large amounts of light inside and reflect it into less well- lighted areas.


                                                                                    Page | 191
These methods are generally categorized as daylighting techniques. Daylighting has many
benefits, both reducing electric lighting costs and providing a more pleasant indoor
environment. However, daylighting can also have drawbacks, most notably in its potential
to capture large amounts of solar energy inside a building, creating more heat than the
building needs. Finding the right balance between maximizing natural light and
minimizing overheating presents a significant design challenge.

Blocking Heat While Using Light

The level of heat produced inside a building as a result of solar energy is called solar gain.
In the winter, solar gain is desirable as it reduces the need for active heat production. But
in the summer, solar gain needs to be minimized to keep buildings cool.

One method for allowing heat at certain times of year and blocking it at others is the use of
well-designed overhangs or sunshades. These shading devices are sized and placed to
block sunlight and prevent overheating in the summer, when the sun is above the building,
and to accommodate sunlight and create heat during the winter, when the sun is lower in
the sky.

Overhangs have been used in buildings for centuries, and are a practical design element for
small scale buildings whose roofs can be extended to shade windows below. Sunshades are
a newer way to provide shading and can be used on larger buildings where ove rhangs may
be impractical.

Storing Solar Heat

Though the majority of sunlight, and therefore heat, enters buildings directly through
windows, other building materials can be used to capture sunlight and transfer controlled
amounts of heat into a building.

One such approach is known as a Trombe wall, named after Felix Trombe, a French
scientist who developed techniques for using this heat-storage concept. At its most basic, a
Trombe wall is simply a dark-colored building wall constructed from concrete, adobe or
stone, all good materials for storing heat. When hit by sunlight, the wall converts the solar
energy into heat which is slowly transferred through the wall and into the building, often
timed to reach the interior late in the day when direct solar energy is no longer available.

Another heat storage method is called a double facade wall, typically made of glass and
used in larger-scale buildings. This design uses two layers of windows with an air barrier

                                                                                   Page | 192
in between that accommodates fresh air. As sunlight hits the outside layer of windows and
passes through the second layer into the building, it heats the air in between. This air can
then be vented into the building during the winter and out of the building during the
summer, allowing for significant control over solar gain by reducing heat in the summer
and allowing it inside in the winter.

Solar Heating Technologies

Buildings require heat for a variety of purposes, from space heating to hot water. While
some of this heat can be provided through passive so lar design, additional heat is usually
needed in cold weather, and is needed year-round to provide hot water on demand.

Solar heating technologies can provide this more intense heat. Solar heating systems are
based around a material that absorbs the energy carried by sunlight and releases it in the
form of heat. This heat is then transferred to air or water which can be used immediately or
stored in its heated state until needed.

Solar heating is used on a scale ranging from small residential buildings to large industrial
facilities. They can be quite cost-effective and more than one million systems are operating
in the United States .

Here are the key solar heating technologies used today:

Small-Scale Water Heating

Water heating in residential and commercial buildings is a common application for solar
heating technologies. Solar hot water systems are installed directly on or next to a building
and connected to its plumbing system to provide hot water on demand. Two types of solar
heaters can be used in this way.

The first is called a flat plate collector, which pumps water through a series of pipes
enclosed in an insulated box with a glass panel on one side. When sunlight passes through
the glass, its energy is absorbed in the pipes, producing heat. Because the pipes are
enclosed, most of their heat is retained and transferred to the water moving through them.
This heated water then moves on to a separate storage tank where it retains its heat and is
pumped into the building as needed.

A second type of solar water heater is called a batch collector, or more formally, an
integral collector storage system, because it combines its collector and storage aspects in

                                                                                   Page | 193
one device. In this system, the pipes used in a flat plate collector are replaced with the
storage tank itself, still enclosed with a glass cover. One side of the tank is glazed to absorb
higher levels of solar energy, which it transfers as heat to the water stored inside.

Each solar hot water system has its advantages and disadvantages. As they combine
multiple components in one device, batch collectors are typically more efficient and cost-
effective. But in colder climates, flat plate collectors can be preferable since most of their
components can be stored inside the building, protecting against freezing temperatures in
the winter.

Small-Scale Space Heating

A variation on the flat-plate collector is typically used for space heating. Instead of pipes, a
heat-absorbing plate is installed in an insulated box. Solar energy entering the box is
absorbed by the plate which releases heat back into the box. Air is then blown or pumped
through the box to be heated as it passes over the plate. This heated air is then pumped
directly into the building as needed.

A transpired air collector, another solar technology used for space heating, also depends on
an absorbent metal plate to capture sunlight and heat air, but draws the air through holes in
the plate itself instead of blowing air over the plate in an enclosed box. This technology
allows far more heat to be transferred to the air and, as it requires fewer components, is
more cost-effective than most flat-plate systems.

Solar Cooling and Refrigeration

Heat generated by solar panels can be used to power cooling systems. In fact, solar heaters
match up well with a building’s cooling needs, because they produce more energy in the
summer when air cooling needs are highest.

Standard cooling devices depend on heat to separate a mixture of an absorbent and
refrigerant fluid. The refrigerant is then rapidly condensed and evaporated to create the
cooling effect in an air conditioner or refrigerator. In a solar cooling application, solar
heating technologies simply replace electricity as the source of heat.

The two technologies powerful enough for use in solar cooling applications are evacuated
tube collectors and concentrating collectors. Both are also used in large-scale commercial
and industrial heating applications, as seen below.


                                                                                     Page | 194
Large-Scale Commercial and Industrial Heating

Two other solar technologies can provide high levels of heat for use in commercial and
industrial applications. The first is an evacuated tube collector, which uses a series of glass
tubes, each attached to a strip of absorbent material. When the tubes are manufactured, the
air is evacuated from them, allowing them to transfer heat more efficiently. During use, the
absorbent strips transform solar energy into heat, which is captured and transferred by the
evacuated tubes with minimal loss of heat. While these systems are very efficient and
powerful, their manufacturing process significantly increases their costs.

Another solar heating technology that can produce more intense heat is a concentrating
collector, or parabolic trough collector, which relies on a trough-shaped mirror that reflects
sunlight onto a tube in the center of the trough. This tube receives intense energy and
produces a large amount of heat.

Solar Thermal Electric (Concentrating Solar) Technologies

While most solar technologies are best used in buildings and other s mall-scale
applications, solar thermal technologies can be used on a much larger scale. These
technologies are similar in concept to solar heating technologies, using sunlight to generate
heat. They differ in that they create enough heat to power a generator which is then used to
produce electricity.

To generate this intense heat, solar thermal technologies employ arrays of reflective
mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto a central receiver. The resulting heat is used to
produce steam for a steam engine, or is fed directly to a heat engine. These engines then
generate electricity which can be distributed through the electricity grid.

These systems are powerful, but require a large amount of space for their reflectors and
depend on direct sunlight for their reflective components to function. Although there are
opportunities to combine the concentration aspect of this technology for small-scale
applications throughout the country, it is primarily used in the Southwest where land and
direct sunlight are abundant. After the construction of several large facilities in the late
1980s and early 1990s, little new has been built because it remains considerably more
expensive to generate electricity with solar thermal systems than with conventional power
plants.

There are four main types of solar thermal electric systems.


                                                                                    Page | 195
Parabolic Trough Collectors

These collectors combine a curved mirror, shaped like a parabola to maximize the amount
of sunlight collected, with an absorber tube embedded along the center of the mirror. The
absorber tube is filled with oil or another fluid that can easily be heated. When sunlight hits
these collectors, the mirrors focus it on the tube, heating the fluid inside. This hot fluid is
then used to boil water and produce steam in a connected device and the steam is
transferred to a generator that can produce electricity. A large array of connected parabolic
trough collectors is needed to provide enough power for a generator.

Dish/Engine Systems

These systems use an array of mirrors, arranged in the shape of a dish, to concentrate
sunlight onto a receiver placed at the focal point of the dish. The heat produced by these
systems is transferred to a heat engine which converts the heat into mechanical energy.
This energy then drives a generator to produce electricity.

Power Towers

Power tower systems use a circular array of mirrors that track the sunlight and concentrate
it on a receiver, placed at the top of a central tower at the focal point of the array. In much
the same way as parabolic trough collectors, heat produced by the receiver is used to create
steam which then powers a generator.

Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems combine power towers with natural gas generators, creating a system that
can continuously generate electricity, even when the sun isn't shining. This technology is
still in development and experimental systems have been connected to several utilities in
the Southwest.

Introducing Solar Photovoltaics

Solar photovoltaic systems use solar energy to produce electricity. The term photovoltaic is
composed of "photo", the Greek root for "light", and "volt", a common measurement of
electricity named after Alessandro Volta, a scientist renowned for his research on
electricity. Together, these terms literally mean "light electricity". Photovoltaic technology
can be referred to in short as photovoltaics or PV.


                                                                                    Page | 196
Photovoltaic technology relies on the electrical properties of certain materials known as
semiconductors. When hit by sunlight, a semiconductor material responds by creating an
electrical charge which can then be transferred to anything that uses electricity.

These semiconductors are produced in the form of cells, which can then be assembled in
groups in a panel. There are many different types of panels available, and each has its
particular advantages. Individual panels are often used to charge batteries that power small
or remote electric equipment. Depending on the amount of electricity needed, these panels
can then be connected in an array to provide larger amounts of electricity to a building or
other large user of electricity.

Photovoltaic cells and panels can be manufactured and installed at almost any scale, and as
a result are used to power a broad variety of applications. At its smallest, photovoltaic
technology powers calculators, laptop computers and other appliances that run on batteries.
At its largest, it powers homes, offices and other buildings that use large amounts of
electricity, and can be connected to utilities to increase the diversity of our collective
electricity supply.

In connecting a photovoltaic system to an end use, several additional structures and
technologies are needed. While photovoltaics can be mounted on roofs, it is important to
consider the angle at which they face the sun. To transfer electricity to its e nd use,
photovoltaics are connected through intermediary technologies that condition and modify
the electricity they produce. These considerations are known as balance of system
components, as they maximize the system's efficiency and allow higher amounts of
electricity to reach its end use.

There are many benefits to using photovoltaics as an electricity source, most notably their
environmental benefits. As one of the cleanest electricity-generating technologies
available, photovoltaics hold much promise for reducing environmental impacts from
energy production. At the same time, several barriers exist for widespread use of this
technology, the largest of which is its current cost.

Solar Thermal Electric (Concentrating Solar) Technologies

While most solar technologies are best used in buildings and other small-scale
applications, solar thermal technologies can be used on a much larger scale. These
technologies are similar in concept to solar heating technologies, using sunlight to generate
heat. They differ in that they create enough heat to power a generator which is then used to
produce electricity.
                                                                                  Page | 197
To generate this intense heat, solar thermal technologies employ arrays of reflective
mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto a central receiver. The resulting heat is used to
produce steam for a steam engine, or is fed directly to a heat engine. These engines then
generate electricity which can be distributed through the electricity grid.

These systems are powerful, but require a large amount of space for their re flectors and
depend on direct sunlight for their reflective components to function. Although there are
opportunities to combine the concentration aspect of this technology for small-scale
applications throughout the country, it is primarily used in the Southwest where land and
direct sunlight are abundant. After the construction of several large facilities in the late
1980s and early 1990s, little new has been built because it remains considerably more
expensive to generate electricity with solar thermal systems than with conventional power
plants.

There are four main types of solar thermal electric systems.

Parabolic Trough Collectors

These collectors combine a curved mirror, shaped like a parabola to maximize the amount
of sunlight collected, with an absorber tube embedded along the center of the mirror. The
absorber tube is filled with oil or another fluid that can easily be heated.

When sunlight hits these collectors, the mirrors focus it on the tube, heating the fluid
inside. This hot fluid is then used to boil water and produce steam in a connected device
and the steam is transferred to a generator that can produce electricity.

A large array of connected parabolic trough collectors is needed to provide enough power
for a generator.

Dish/Engine Systems

These systems use an array of mirrors, arranged in the shape of a dish, to concentrate
sunlight onto a receiver placed at the focal point of the dish.

The heat produced by these systems is transferred to a heat engine which converts the heat
into mechanical energy. This energy then drives a generator to produce electricity.

Power Towers


                                                                                  Page | 198
Power tower systems use a circular array of mirrors that track the sunlight and concentrate
it on a receiver, placed at the top of a central tower at the focal point of the array.

In much the same way as parabolic trough collectors, heat produced by the receiver is used
to create steam which then powers a generator.




Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems combine power towers with natural gas generators, creating a system that
can continuously generate electricity, even when the sun isn't shining. This technology is
still in development and experimental systems have been connected to several utilities in
the Southwest.

The Science Behind Photovoltaics
                                 Photovoltaics depend on the electrical properties of
                                 certain materials, known as semiconductors, which allow
                                 them to transform sunlight into electricity. While a
                                 number of materials have this semiconductor property,
                                 the one most commonly used in photovoltaics is silicon.
                                 On its own, silicon is actually very resistant to electrical
                                 current, but its properties can be altered by doping it, or
                                 combining it with small amounts of other materials that
                                 make it receptive to either a positive or negative electrical
                                 charge.

When a positively charged layer of silicon is placed against a negatively charged layer of
silicon, it forms an electrical field through which electrical charges can pass. Sunlight,
carrying solar energy creates this charge. By connecting the silicon to a conductive metal,
this charge can be concentrated into an electrical current, which can then be fed to any
device that uses electricity.

Here we will look at the basic properties of semiconductor materials, using silicon as an
example, and how these materials work in a photovoltaic system to create electricity.


                                                                                   Page | 199
A Material that Translates Photon Energy into Electricity

                                    The key properties of semiconductor material are
                                    determined at the atomic level. Each atom is composed
                                    of three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and
                                    electrons. Protons, which have a positive electrical
                                    charge, and neutrons, which have no electrical charge,
                                    form the nucleus, or core of an atom. Electrons, which
each have a negative electrical charge, swirl around the nucleus in one or more layers of
"shells", shown in the diagram as rings. Different types of atoms are defined by their
unique number of protons, neutrons and electrons. It is the electrons that we are
particularly concerned with, as these can be disengaged from certain atoms to collectively
form an electrical charge.

The atomic characteristic that distinguishes semiconductors from other materials is the
number of electrons in its atoms' outermost shells. One thing that all atoms have in
common is that they need a certain number of electrons in each of their shells to make
them stable. Atoms fill up their inner shells first, and any remaining electrons gather on the
outermost shell. Atoms that have less or more electrons than they need in this outermost
                                       shell are always looking for other atoms with which
                                       they can exchange or share electrons.

                                       A silicon atom by definition has three shells of
                                       electrons. Its innermost shell has two electrons and
                                       its second shell has eight - the numbers needed to
                                       stabilize those shells. But the outermost shell only
                                       has four electrons.

A silicon atom is always looking to gain four more electrons to fill this outer shell or get
rid of its four extra electrons to have only two shells so it can become fully stable. Because
all silicon atoms have four electrons and are looking for four electrons, they easily bond
with each other in a crystalline structure.

In this structure, each silicon atom joins with other silicon atoms, sharing one electron with
each and receiving one shared electron from each. In this configuratio n, each silicon atom
has eight electrons in its outer shell.

This ability to bond in a crystalline structure is the defining feature of all semiconductor
materials.
                                                                                   Page | 200
Altering this Material to Create Conductivity

In its crystalline form, silicon is stable because it has no need to add or get rid of electrons
in its outer shell. This actually makes it a very poor conductor of electricity on its own,
because there are no free electrons to be released into an electrical current. But there is a
way to modify a silicon crystal to make it an excellent semiconductor.

This is done by introducing other elements whose atoms carry an extra electron or are
missing an electron. When these materials are added to a silicon crystal, in a process called
doping, they make the crystal receptive to either a positive or a negative charge. A crystal
receptive to positive charges is called p-type silicon ("p” stands for "positive"), and silicon
                                      receptive to negative charges is called n-type silicon
                                      ("n" stands for "negative").

                                     To create n-type, or negatively charged silicon, a
                                     material with five electrons in its outer shell is needed
                                     to bond with the silicon and have one electron left
                                     over. The material most often used in this process is
                                     phosphorous. When small numbers of phosphorous
                                     atoms are introduced into a silicon crystal, each one
                                     displaces a silicon atom and four of its electrons bond
                                     with the silicon atoms nearby. This bonding leaves one
                                     electron in each phosphorous atom with nowhere to go,
                                     and, because all electrons are negatively charged,
                                     provides the added negative charge in n-type silicon.




                                                                     Similarly, p-type, or
                                                                     positively charged
                                                                     silicon, needs a
                                                                     material with three
                                                                     electrons on its outer
                                                                     ring to bond with the
                                                                     silicon but leave a
                                    gap in one of its bonds. The material most often used
in this process is boron. When small numbers of boron atoms are introduced into a silicon
crystal, each one displaces a silicon atom and its three electrons bond with three of the
silicon atoms nearby. Because it cannot bond with a fourth atom, a gap is formed where an
                                                                                     Page | 201
electron would be needed to make the crystal stable. Since one negatively charged electron
is missing, this gap creates the positive charge in p-type silicon.


Creating an Electrical Field
                                    Once both n-type and p-type silicon materials are
                                    formed, they can be placed against each other to create
                                    a diode, or an electrical field at the juncture of the two
                                    materials that only allows electrons to flow in one
                                    direction which is essential for creating an electrical
                                    current in the materials.

Where the positively charged p-type silicon touches the negatively charged n-type silicon,
the electrons and gaps on either side start to react to each other. The extra electrons in the
n-type silicon are attracted to the positive nature of the p-type silicon and move toward it,
some crossing over to create a negative charge on the surface of the p-type silicon.
Likewise, the gaps in p-type silicon are attracted to the negative nature of the n-type silicon
and move toward it, some crossing over to create a positive charge on the surface of the n-
type silicon.

This creates a one way path for electrons to flow through the two materials. They can cross
over from the p-type silicon into the n-type silicon because they are attracted by the
positive charge on the surface of the n-type silicon. But if they try to move the other
direction from the n-type to the p-type silicon, they are repelled back into the n-type silicon
by the negative charge on the p-type silicon's surface.

This pairing of n-type and p-type silicon is what makes up a solar cell, the central element
                                      in a photovoltaic panel. Now we can see what
                                      happens when solar energy, in the form of photons,
                                      hits the cell.

                                      Solar Energy Creating an Electrical Charge

                                   Sunlight carries solar energy in the form of photons,
                                   or tiny packets of energy. When photons from
                                   sunlight hit a photovoltaic panel, they travel
                                   uninterrupted through the n-type layer of silicon and
hit the atoms in the p-type layer of silicon. The force of the solar photons bumps the
electrons in atoms near the diode out of their bond with surrounding atoms. These
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electrons are now looking for somewhere to go, and because they are attracted to the
positive charge on the surface of the n-type layer, begin crossing over into that layer. This
movement of electrons from one atom to another is the electrical charge that can be used in
an electrical current.



Turning this Charge into a Current

Once they cross over to the n-type silicon, the electrons still have nowhere to go. They are
unable to pass back over to the p-type silicon, but are also unable to form any bonds with
                                          the atoms in the n-type layer, which have more
                                          electrons than they need already.

                                          Here, an additional photovoltaic panel component
                                          comes into use. In all photovoltaics, a metal
                                          conductor strip is used to collect and concentrate
                                          the electrons set free in this process. As the
                                          electrons move upward through the n-type layer,
                                          they are attracted to one of many conductor strips
                                          which aggregate electrons into a current of
                                          electricity.

                                          However, if electrons keep moving out of the p-
type silicon into the n-type silicon and the metal conductor strip, soon there will not be
enough electrons available to continue this process. Instead, electrons need to be fed back
into the p-type silicon through another metal conductor strip or plate.

By connecting both conductor strips to an electrical current, a cycle of using and
replenishing electrons is formed, and we can store in a battery or connect an electrical load,
like a light bulb, building or anything else that uses electricity, to this current to take
advantage of the electricity being produced by the photovoltaic panel. In practice, there are
several additional steps that the electricity must go through to serve an electrical load, but
this is the general concept behind photovoltaic current.

Limitations on Efficiency

Though all semiconductor materials can react to the energy in sunlight, there are
limitations to the amount of solar energy each material can use. Each semiconductor
material reacts to solar waves within a specific range of wavelengths, and some react to
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broader ranges than others. This range is represented by a number known as the material's
band gap, or conversion efficiency which is calculated as the amount of electricity
produced by the material divided by the amount of solar energy hitting the material. A low
band gap indicates the photovoltaic material can react to a broader spectrum of
wavelengths, while a high band gap indicates the material will react to a more limited set
of wavelengths. Conversely, low conversion efficiency correlates to high band gaps and
high conversion efficiency correlates to low band gaps.

While this would seem to mean that materials with low band gaps and high conversion
efficiency are always better because they can use much more of the sunlight that hits them,
materials with very low band gaps have a more difficult time converting their electric
charges into usable electricity. At the same time, a material with a high band gap will not
react to enough sunlight to be useful. With these limitations, materials with band gaps
ranging from 1.1 eV to 1.8 eV are most commonly used in photovoltaics, with 1.4 eV as
the ideal band gap.

When waves that fall outside the range of usable wavelengths hit the panel, several things
can happen. Some photons from these waves are reflected by other components of the
photovoltaic panel before they reach the semiconductor material. Others that reach it can
either pass through without dislodging electrons, be absorbed by positively charged atoms
instead of disrupting them, or bounce the electron from one atom only to have it be
absorbed by another atom.

Because we want to get the most electricity possible from a photovoltaic system, the band
gap and conversion efficiency are key factors in selecting panels for installation. The
current limitation on photovoltaic panel efficiency is one of the technology's main
drawbacks, and its economics will significantly improve as higher efficiency is achieved.

Using this Material

We have taken a look at the basic science behind photovoltaic technology and introduced
the concept of the solar cell composed of n-type and p-type silicon. We can now move on
to look at the way a cell is integrated into a panel, and explore the different types of panels
used today.

From Cells to Panels to Arrays

As seen in the science behind PV, a photovoltaic cell is created when a positively charged
                                    (P-type) layer of silicon is placed against a negatively
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charged (N-type) layer of silicon to create a diode and this diode is connected in a circuit
via metal conductors on the top and bottom of the silicon sandwich. An actual PV cell
includes these elements with an anti-reflective coating to accept more sunlight into the
silicon sandwich:

1. The photovoltaic cell, a sandwich of two semiconductor materials, most commonly n-
type and p-type silicon. The cell is what reacts to solar energy and produces an electrical
charge.

2. Metal conductor strips which run along the top n-type layer of silicon. These strips
capture the electrons freed when solar energy hits the cell and concentrate them into a
current. Another metal panel is attached to the bottom p-type layer of silicon to be
connected to the return current and feed electrons back into the cell.

3. An anti- reflective sheet or coating placed on top of or directly adhe red to the silicon
sandwich. This sheet reduces the amount of sunlight reflected off the glass allowing more
sunlight to hit the cell and increasing the panel's efficiency.

While the photovoltaic cell is the central element in a photovoltaic system, the
photovoltaic panel is what we actually use to make a cell or group of cells usable. Once in
panel form, photovoltaics can be used alone or in groups of panels to power many different
electrical loads.

Though different types of photovoltaics vary in their structure, they generally include the
following elements:

                                    1. The cell or multiple cells are the core of the
                                    photovoltaic panel.

                                    2. A glass cover placed over the photovoltaic cell to
                                    protect it from the elements while allowing sunlight to
                                    pass through to the cell.

                                    3. An additional plastic anti-reflective sheet is often
                                               used to enhance the effect of the glass
                                               cover and anti- reflective coating of the cell
                                               to block reflection.

                                                4. A panel backing (typically plastic) and

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frame complete the photovoltaic panel, hold ing all the pieces together and protecting it
from damage during installation.

This common structure and its variations can be seen in the following types of photovoltaic
panels.

Finally, there are arrays of panels. These are created when multiple panels are connected
together to form a larger circuit.

Types of Panels

While photovoltaic panels are based on a similar structure of cells and enabling
components, there are many variations on the standard solar panel, differing primarily in
the types of photovoltaic cell that they use. Each panel type is manufactured in a different
way and has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The vast majority of solar panels produced today depend on the use of crystalline silicon as
the material in their cells. The properties of crystalline silicon are described in The Science
Behind Photovoltaics. It is used in moncrystalline (or single-crystalline), polycrystalline
(or multicrystalline), and ribbon (or thin- layer) silicon panels.

Other panels, like thin- film technologies, depend on amorphous silicon, and still others use
completely different semiconductors known as Group III-IV materials. Panels can also be
enhanced in a number of ways to increase their efficiency or improve their versatility
through the use of multijunction devices, concentrator systems, or building integrated
systems.

Here we will look at the panel types in use today.

Panel Types

1.     Monocrystalline Silicon Panels
2.     Polycrystalline Silicon Panels
3.     String Ribbon or Thin- Layer Silicon Panels
4.     Amorphous Silicon panels or Thin Film
5.     Group III-V Technologies

Enhanced Panels

1.     Building- integrated PV panels
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2.     Concentrator systems
3.     High-Efficiency Multijunction Devices




Monocrystalline Silicon Panels

15-18% efficiency

Monocrystalline panels use crystalline silicon produced in large sheets which can be cut to
the size of a panel and integrated into the panel as a single large cell. Conducting metal
strips are laid over the entire cell to capture electrons in an electrical current.

These panels are more expensive to produce than other crystalline panels but have higher
efficiency levels and, as a result, are sometimes more cost-effective in the long run.

Polycrystalline Silicon Panels

12-14% efficiency

Polycrystalline, or multicrystalline, photovoltaics use a series of cells instead of one large
cell. These panels are one of the most inexpensive forms of photovoltaics available today,
though the costs of sawing and producing wafers can be high. At the same time, they have
lower conversion efficiencies than monocrystalline panels.

For this technology, several techniques can be used:

Cast Polysilicon:

In this process, molten silicon is first cast in a large block which, when cooled, is in the
form of crystalline silicon and can be sawn across its width to create thin wafers to be used
in photovoltaic cells. These cells are then assembled in a panel. Conducting metal strips
are then laid over the cells, connecting them to each other and forming a continuous
electrical current throughout the panel.

String Ribbon Silicon

String ribbon photovoltaics use a variation on the polycrystalline production process, using
the same molten silicon but slowly drawing a thin strip of crystalline silicon out of the

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molten form. These strips of photovoltaic material are then assembled in a panel with the
same metal conductor strips attaching each strip to the electrical current.

This technology saves on costs over standard polycrystalline panels as it eliminates the
sawing process for producing wafers. Some string ribbon technologies also have higher
efficiency levels than other polycrystalline technologies.

Amorphous Silicon or Thin Film Panels

5-6% efficiency

Thin- film panels are produced very differently from crystalline panels. Instead of molding,
drawing or slicing crystalline silicon, the silicon material in these panels has no crystalline
structure and can be applied as a film directly on different materials. Variations on this
technology use other semiconductor materials like copper indium diselenide (CIS) and
cadmium telluride (CdTe). These materials are then connected to the same metal conductor
strips used in other technologies, but do not necessarily use the other components typical in
photovoltaic panels as they do not require the same level of protection needed for more
fragile crystalline cells.

The primary advantages of thin- film panels lie in their low manufacturing costs and
versatility. Because amorphous silicon and similar semiconductors do not depend on the
long, expensive process of creating silicon crystals, they can be produced much more
quickly and efficiently.

As they do not need the additional components used in crystalline cells, costs can be
reduced further. Because they can be applied in thin layers to different materials, it is also
possible to make flexible solar cells.

However, thin- film panels have several significant drawbacks. What they gain in cost
savings, they lose in efficiency, resulting in the lowest efficiency of any current
photovoltaic technology.

Thin- film technologies also depend on silicon with high levels of impurities. This can
cause a drop in efficiency within a short period of use.

Thin- film panels have the potential to grow in use, and already figure in some of the most
exciting enhanced photovoltaic systems, including high-efficiency multijunction devices
and building integrated photovoltaics.

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Group III-V Technologies

25% efficiency

These technologies use a variety of materials with very high conversion efficiencies. These
materials are categorized as Group III and Group V elements in the Periodic Table.

A typical material used in this technology is gallium arsenide, which can be combined with
other materials to create semiconductors that can respond to different types of solar energy.

Though these technologies are very effective, their current use is limited due to their costs.
They are currently employed in space applications and continue to be researc hed for new
applications.

Enhanced Systems

Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)

BIPV technologies are designed to serve the dual purpose of producing electricity and
acting as a construction material. There are many forms that this technology can take. One
common structure is the integration of a semi-translucent layer of amorphous silicon into
glass, which can then be used as window panes that let controlled amounts of light into a
building while producing electricity. Another common structure is the use of shingle-sized
panel of amorphous silicon as a roofing material.

Currently, BIPV technologies have very low efficiency levels due to their use of
amorphous silicon, but present the advantage of replacing other construction materials and
offering a wide variety of aesthetic choices for the integration of photovoltaics into
buildings.

Concentrator Systems

Concentrator systems are designed to increase the efficiency of solar photovoltaics. These
systems cover a standard photovoltaic panel with concentrating optics, or lenses that gather
sunlight and increase its intensity in hitting the photovoltaic panel. These systems reduce
the amount of photovoltaics needed to produce electricity, and also reduce the amount of
space needed for a photovoltaic installation.

Their main disadvantage is that they depend solely on direct light to produce electricity,
while stand-alone photovoltaic panels can use both direct and diffuse light.
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Many regions do not receive enough direct light throughout the year for these systems to
be practical. Another disadvantage is the complexity of their construction, which makes
these systems more difficult to build and install than photovoltaic panels on their own.

High-Efficiency Multijunction Devices

Multijunction devices receive their name from their use of multiple layers of cells, each
layer acting as a junction where certain amounts of solar energy are absorbed. Each layer
in a multijunction device is made from a different material with its own receptivity to
certain types of solar energy.

In a typical device, the top photovoltaic layer responds to solar waves that travel in short
wavelengths and carry the highest energy, absorbing this energy and creating an electrical
charge.

As other solar waves pass through this layer, they are absorbed and translated into
electricity by the lower layers.

Typical materials used in this device include gallium arsenide and amorphous silicon.

Though some two-junction devices have successfully been built, these devices are still
largely in the research and development stage, with most research focused on three- and
four-junction devices.

Photovoltaic Technology

Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual consumers.

Many of the drawbacks of photovoltaics have been reduced as the technology continues to
be developed, and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.

Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.




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Environmental Impacts
Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today.

As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this technology has the potential
to play a major role in climate change mitigation and pollution reduction.

Cost and Market Development
Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years.

Still, costs can appear prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to
utility power. Markets for photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost
reduction to increase demand for photovoltaic products.

Product and Installation Issues


Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.

At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues
Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy. As an intermittent power source, they have certain
drawbacks, but these can be mitigated through connections to other power sources. In
some cases, this intermittent power can be a good thing as photovoltaic production can
match electricity needs as they change throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.
Because it is such a low-impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.

Air Emissions

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The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fue l and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.

[possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel]

Site Impacts

Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development

The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity.

 For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outwe igh its costs. But for the
photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to increase and
reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.

Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity cos ts in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line.

However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches most places and electricity
costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.

Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems.
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In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first
appeared on the consumer market. In 1975, the average cost for photovoltaic modules was
$30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a panel could produce. By the 1990s, this
cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs.

As these costs fall, it is expected that demand will continue to increase due to the other
benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set date when photovo ltaics are predicted to
become competitive with utility power, but some sources predict it will happen sometime
within the next 10-20 years.

If advanced technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant
drop in prices, this timeframe could be shortened even further.

Installation and Use Costs

The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use.

In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system. However,
much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases within the
building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and developers, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers


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specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.

Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaics on individual buildings and sites.

Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment

Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electricity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid providing electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.



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While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way. Because their production depends on solar energy, a power
source that is not always available, they produce electricity intermittently. This can
presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics produce enough
electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an individual or ut ility
system can handle.

Reliability of Power

Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.

Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery storage to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.

Matching Energy Needs

Because photovoltaics produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in
the summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point.

In New England and other cooler climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather
causes a sharp increase in demand for heat. The winter peak is slightly different though, as
most of the heat used in New England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this,
photovoltaic systems can be very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.
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The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain leve l of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.

 The Scale of Photovoltaics

A photovoltaic system is made up of several components that collectively capture sunlight
and translate it into an electrical charge.

The central piece in this system is the photovoltaic panel, which is made up of cells and
can be connected together to form an array. We have seen how cells work, how panels are
built, and the different types of panels available.

In an array, panels are connected to feed their collective electricity to a building or other
large-scale user of electricity. One of the unique features of photovoltaics is that arrays can
be assembled at any scale, powering a home, a factory, or even a town through its local
utility.

These examples below are shown only to give a general sense of the scale needed to meet
different electricity needs.

In practice, the amount of electricity used at each of these scales can vary significantly
from what is shown, and the number of panels needed for applications can a lso vary
depending on which panel type is used.

In planning to install a photovoltaic system, the correct amount of photovoltaics needs to
be determined on a case by case basis.




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Making Photovoltaics Work

To work its best, a complete photovoltaic system depends on several considerations and
intermediary technologies to efficiently generate electricity and transfer it to an end use.
These elements include mounting structures that help an array gain the best tilt towards the
sun, and technologies that both condition the



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electricity produced and connect it in a variety of ways to one or more end uses. In the
photovoltaic industry, these elements are called balance of system components because
they help in matching a photovoltaic panel or array to its site and use.

Here we will look at the two areas of consideration in installing photovoltaics.

1.     Installing an Array to Maximize Efficiency
2.     Connecting an Array to a Load

Installing an Array to Maximize Efficiency

A primary consideration in installing a photovoltaic array on a building is the availability
of solar energy in the space where the system will be mounted.

As solar cells are connected within panels and as panels are connected to each other in the
array, any shade from a tree, building or other structure that falls on a cell or panel can
significantly reduce the efficiency of the entire system.

For this reason the majority of arrays are installed on roofs where they can receive
unimpeded solar energy throughout the day.

A second consideration for installations is the angle at which the array is mounted. As
explained in Using the Sun, solar energy does not reach the Earth at the same angle
throughout the day or in different parts of the world.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the summer sun is almost directly overhead, but, as the Earth
tilts away from the sun in the winter, the sun follows a path lower in the sky and towards
the south, causing solar energy to reach the Earth's surface at a much more acute angle.

While the sun's angle changes throughout the year, our need for electricity does not change
very much. To allow for the breadth of angles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems are
typically mounted at an angle that accommodates both the high summer sun and the low
winter sun, maximizing its efficiency at all times of year.

As a rule of thumb, photovoltaic panels that best accommodate the range of solar angles in
a particular location are tilted at an angle equal to the latitude of the location.

In Massachusetts, this latitude is around 42 degrees north, so photovoltaic systems in the
state should ideally be mounted at an angle of 42 degrees and face due south.

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While a photovoltaic system can operate without directly facing the path of solar energy,
the closer it comes to meeting this path, the more efficiently it works.

However, this efficiency is often traded off with the additional cost of certain mounting
structures.

Mounting Structures

Flat Mounting

Flat mounting is the simplest way to install photovoltaics on a roof. In this situation,
photovoltaic panels are simply arranged in an array and mounted to the roof using direct
attachments or a weighted framework to make the system resistant to the wind.

While efficiency is diminished, the system is still relatively effective and can be an
attractive choice for commercial or office buildings that want to install large arrays at
minimal cost.

Flat mounted systems can also be installed on slanted roofs, more typical on residential
buildings, which keeps installation costs down while gaining a tilt closer to the region's
ideal angle.

Rack Structures

Rack mounting systems allow more control over the array's angle. These systems rely on a
simple metal frame that supports the array at the desired angle toward the south. Rack
systems are best used on buildings with flat roofs or on the ground, as even a slightly tilted
roof can sometimes make installation difficult.

Pole Mounting

Pole mounting is used similarly to rack mounting but supports the photovoltaic array on a
pole mounted in the ground. These systems are most often used in rural locations or
locations where the best sunlight is not near a building.

Tracking Structures

Tracking structures literally track the sun's angle as it changes throughout the day and year.
Two types of tracking structures are available: one-axis and two-axis. One-axis trackers
follow the sun from east to west as it passes through the sky and still need to be mounted at
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a 42 degree angle facing the south. Two-axis trackers can track both the sun's daily course
and its changing path throughout the year.

While these systems are the most effective in capturing direct sunlight as its angle changes,
they also require more expensive, high- maintenance components than other mounting
structures. They are typically reserved for technologies like photovoltaic concentrator
systems which depend solely on direct sunlight to function.

Connecting an Array to a Load

Because photovoltaic technologies rely on the sun, their energy production changes with
the availability of solar energy.

To ensure that a photovoltaic system can provide electricity when it is needed, additional
components are needed to either temporarily store electricity for later use, or to connect the
array to a building that has an alternate power source, like the local utility, available when
electricity from the array is not.

Another factor complicating connection of an array to a building is that buildings use
electricity in a different form than the electricity provided by a photovoltaic array. The
electricity from photovoltaic arrays travels in a direct current (DC current) while buildings
are structured to rely on alternating current (AC current).

To make photovoltaic electricity usable, it needs to be transformed from direct current to
alternating current and its flow needs to be controlled as it joins the currents used in
different buildings.

There are several different ways to structure a photovoltaic array in relation to its load. The
most straightforward is a direct connection, or direct-coupled system which connects the
direct current to an end use. These systems are useful for small scale daytime applications
like water pumps and ventilation fans, but because of the complicating factors mentioned
above, most applications require several additional components.

Utility Connected Systems

Increasingly, the most practical way to use photovoltaics is to connect it to a building that
is also served by its local utility. In this arrangement, the photovoltaic system provides a
certain amount of the building's electricity and the rest is provided through the utility.
Other terms for this arrangement are grid-connected or utility- interactive systems.

                                                                                    Page | 220
At night, when the photovoltaic system is not in operation, all electricity comes from the
utility. During the day, particularly in the early afternoon, the photovo ltaic system can
provide most or all of the electricity needed. In some cases, the photovoltaic system will
produce more than the building needs.

When this happens, electricity can actually be fed back to the utility, gaining a credit on the
building's electric bill and ultimately earning money on the extra electricity produced. This
approach is called net metering.

Utility connected systems do not require many additional parts, though a device that can
translate DC current into AC current is needed. This device, called an inverter, receives the
DC current from the array and translates it into AC current which is then fed to a
distribution panel. This panel combines the electricity from the array with the electricity
provided by the utility and distributes it to the load. In cases where net metering is also
used, a special meter needs to be connected to this system.

Battery Storage Systems

Battery storage systems can be used in places where utility connected systems are not an
option. In this arrangement, all the electricity produced by the photovoltaic system is fed
through a battery, which transfers electricity on when it is needed and sto res it when it is
not. Battery systems can also store electricity well after the sun has gone down, allowing
the system to continue powering an end use during the night.

Battery systems require an additional component called a charge controller to regulate the
quality of electricity flowing from the photovoltaic array to the battery. This charge
controller can serve a dual purpose in channeling electricity to both the battery and a
separate DC electric load.

Hybrid Systems

Hybrid systems are a less common but equally functional method for ensuring continuous
electricity. A typical system combines photovoltaics with wind or gas power and can also
connect to the utility for any remaining electricity needed.

This arrangement uses the same structure as a battery system but introduces a rectifier,
which works the opposite way from an inverter. This rectifier translates the electricity from
a utility or other AC power source into DC current to be fed into the battery. The battery
and other components then perform the same functions as in a battery storage system. As

                                                                                    Page | 221
additional backup, utility power can still be provided directly to the end use. Continue
Learning: Where Photovoltaics Are Used.

Installation Guide

If you are interested in installing photovoltaics to power your home or business and want
to know if solar energy is practical for you, this guide from the New York State Energy
Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) provides an overview of basic steps
consumers should follow in planning a photovoltaic installation. Information is provided
on planning, selecting a system type, estimating capacity needed, interconnection
requirements and other aspects of solar photovoltaic installations.

Financing Options

Through its Solar-to-Market Initiative, the Renewable Energy Trust encourages the
installation of solar electric systems in Massachusetts by providing grants to companies
and organizations that market and install solar electric systems. A key objective is to
minimize the installed cost of solar electric systems by encouraging geographic clusters of
PV systems, via bulk purchasing, and by including solar electric during new construction.

If you are interested in installing photovoltaics on your home or business, contact one of
the Trust’s partner organizations to discuss the system options and financial incentives
available in your area.

Where Photovoltaics are Used Today

As a versatile, scalable, and independent source of electricity, photovo ltaic systems are
used to power a broad variety of technologies, buildings, and systems that need energy.
Here we look at some of the ways photovoltaics are used today.




                                                                                 Page | 222
                                  Residential Buildings




Installations of solar panels on homes make up one of the broadest current markets for
photovoltaics in the United States . Because they can be sized to fit any building and any
electrical load, solar panels are a practical choice for powering homes.

These installations have grown significantly and there are many installation companies that
specialize in the residential market. For more on current residential installations in
Massachusetts , see our section on Solar Energy in Massachusetts . We also provide more
detailed information on solar installations for homeowners and homebuilders in our catalog
of How To Guides.

Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Buildings




                                                                                 Page | 223
Larger-scale photovoltaic installations are also being seen on downtown office buildings,
institutions like museums and community centers, shopping centers, and even some
industrial buildings.

Photovoltaics offer particular benefits to large scale buildings. In high-density areas like
downtown Boston where space is at a premium, rooftop installations of solar panels can be
an attractive power option.

Other buildings like shopping malls and some industrial facilities have large roof areas
which can accommodate many panels to power their high electricity needs. A certain
subset of commercial buildings, hospitals, and high-tech facilities can benefit in another
way, as they often need reliable backup power as insurance against blackouts and other
power failures. As an on-site technology, photovoltaics are a viable source for this
emergency power.

Though there are fewer large-scale buildings than residential ones, photovoltaic
installations on these buildings can have significant impact on reducing emissions from
electricity production and can provide much benefit to their owners. For more on current
commercial, industrial, and institutional installations in Massachusetts , see our section on
Solar Energy in Massachusetts and our How To Guide for large-scale building owners and
developers.

Public Buildings and Municipal Installations




                                                                                   Page | 224
Another area where photovoltaics are becoming widely used is in public applications,
largely on individual town, city and state buildings though some installations are in
development to serve municipalities as a whole.

The benefits of municipal installations are similar to those for large-scale commercial,
institutional and industrial buildings.

Additional benefit is possible when a city or town has developed a climate change action
plan to reduce emissions, or has set a goal of meeting a certain percentage of its electricity
needs with renewable energy.

In each of these situations, photovoltaic can play a significant role in reducing
environmental impacts.

In Massachusetts , school buildings have been the pioneering examples of municipal
installations, with 16 schools developing or completing photovoltaic installations to date.

We also provide information on municipal planning efforts and setting goals for
photovoltaic installations in our How To Guide for municipalities.




                                    Remote Location Uses




                                                                                   Page | 225
New markets for photovoltaics have emerged in recent years that could have significant
impact on people's access to electricity.

These markets exist in the many locations throughout the world which do not have access
to the electric grid. In many of these locations, photovoltaics have stepped in as a lower-
cost alternative to expanding electric grids, and a large percentage of United States
photovoltaic exports are now shipped to companies working in this market.

 Other remote location applications exist throughout the United States , based on the same
principle that when the electric grid cannot be expanded to reach a critical site,
photovoltaics are often the least costly source of power.

These applications range from remote telecommunication stations to the less obvious
application of powering road signs and call boxes on highways.

This last application is already used on most highways throughout the country.

There have been many interesting developments in remote photovoltaic applications.
Photon International, a photovoltaic trade magazine with past articles online, is a good
place to start in learning about these uses.

                                    Space Applications




The first market for photovoltaic was in the space industry, starting in the 1950s and 60s,
where remote power that did not require fuel was essential for successful early missions.
                                                                                 Page | 226
The use of photovoltaic in space is a unique version of remote power, and the space
industry is still a significant user of photovoltaic. NASA offers more information on this
longstanding use of photovoltaic at its website.




                                Consumer Products




At the other extreme from space stations, photovoltaic are already used in a variety of
consumer products, most notably the standard desk calculators used in offices everywhere.
Though barely noticeable, these calculators have a thin strip of photovoltaic cells at their
top which can be activated by either sunlight or artificial light. These tiny photovoltaic
systems provide constant, reliable power and displace the use of batteries which the
calculator would otherwise need to work.

Other applications in consumer products have also been developed, though they are not yet
as widely used. X site introduces some of the emerging uses of photovoltaic in consumer
products.

 Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual consumers. Many of the
drawbacks of photovoltaic have been reduced as the technology continues to be developed,
and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.


                                                                                 Page | 227
Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.

Environmental Impacts
Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today. As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this
technology has the potential to play a major role in climate change mitigation a nd pollution
reduction.

Benefits and Barriers for Photovoltaics

Like any technology, photovoltaic technology has its benefits and drawbacks. Its benefits
range from its extremely low environmental impact, in fact the lowest of any electricity
generating technology, and its accessibility to individual consumers.

Many of the drawbacks of photovoltaics have been reduced as the technology continues to
be developed, and it is expected they will be reduced much further in coming years.

Here we will look at the benefits and issues surrounding development and use of
photovoltaics.

Environmental Impacts

Photovoltaic technology is one of the most environmentally friendly power producing
technologies available today.

As its systems require no fuel and produce no emissions, this technology has the potential
to play a major role in climate change mitigation and pollution reduction.

Cost and Market Development

Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years. Still, costs can appear
prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to utility power. Markets for
photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost reduction to increase demand for
photovoltaic products.

Product and Installation Issues



                                                                                   Page | 228
Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.
At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy.

As an intermittent power source, they have certain drawbacks, but these can be mitigated
through connections to other power sources. In some cases, this intermittent power can be
a good thing as photovoltaic production can match electricity needs as they change
throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.

Because it is such a low-impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.




Air Emissions

The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fuel and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.

possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel

Site Impacts

Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development
                                                                                   Page | 229
The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity. For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outweigh its costs. But
for the photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to
increase and reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.

Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity costs in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line.

However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches most places and electricity
costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.

Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems.

In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first
appeared on the consumer market. In 1975, the average cost for photovoltaic modules was
$30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a panel could produce. By the 1990s, this
cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs. As these costs fall, it is expected that demand
will continue to increase due to the other benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set
date when photovoltaics are predicted to become competitive with utility power, but some
sources predict it will happen sometime within the next 10-20 years. If advanced
technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant drop in prices,
this timeframe could be shortened even further.

Installation and Use Costs

                                                                                  Page | 230
The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use. In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system.
However, much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases
within the building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and develope rs, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers
specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.

Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaic on individual buildings and sites.

Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment




                                                                                     Page | 231
Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electricity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid providing electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.

While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way.

Because their production depends on solar energy, a power source that is not always
available, they produce electricity intermittently.

This can presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics
produce enough electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an
individual or utility system can handle.

Reliability of Powe r

Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.

Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery storage to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.




                                                                                  Page | 232
Matching Ene rgy Needs

Because photovoltaic produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in the
summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point.

In New England and other cooler climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather
causes a sharp increase in demand for heat. The winter peak is s lightly different though, as
most of the heat used in New England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this,
photovoltaic systems can be very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.

The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain level of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.

Cost and Market Development
Though costs for solar electricity remain high in comparison to other electricity sources,
they have gone down significantly over the past thirty years. Still, costs can appear
prohibitive for many electricity users, particularly compared to utility power. Markets for
photovoltaics have grown, but will depend on further cost reduction to increase demand for
photovoltaic products.

Product and Installation Issues
Photovoltaics are one of the simplest renewable technologies to install and maintain,
making them one of the most viable renewable energy options for individual consumers.

                                                                                   Page | 233
At the same time, the approval processes for photovoltaic installations can present some
complications and even barriers for some installations.

Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues
Photovoltaics can provide significant benefits for both building owners and utilities in
diversifying sources of energy. As an intermittent power source, they have certain
drawbacks, but these can be mitigated through connections to other power sources. In
some cases, this intermittent power can be a good thing as photovoltaic production can
match electricity needs as they change throughout the day and year.

Environmental Impacts

Solar power is one of the most environmentally friendly ways to produce electricity,
producing no emissions and having minimal impact on the sites where it is installed.
Because it is such a low-impact technology, it has become a major focus for people and
groups concerned with the environmental impacts of conventional energy production.

Air Emissions

The greatest environmental benefit of using solar cells is that they require no fuel and
therefore produce no emissions and do not generate waste.

[possibly add comparison chart - how much can air emissions be reduced by installing a
solar panel; list the energy produced by a panel compared to same energy produced by
natural gas or coal and then list the emissions from each that are saved by PV panel]

Site Impacts

Because photovoltaic systems can be mounted on roofs and other scattered sites, they have
minimal or no impact on land use or the ecology of sites.

Cost and Market Development

The cost of solar power is currently the primary barrier to its use. Photovoltaics are one of
the more expensive renewable energy technologies, particularly when compared to utility
electricity. For some, the environmental benefits of this technology outweigh its costs. But
for the photovoltaic market to fully develop and sustain itself, demand will need to
increase and reduced costs will need to play a significant role in this demand.


                                                                                  Page | 234
Comparative costs can vary depending on how much utility electricity costs in particular
areas. Because extension of utility lines can be prohibitive, photovoltaics are actually the
most economical option in remote areas because they are easy to transport and cost less to
install than a new power line. However, in areas like Massachusetts where the grid reaches
most places and electricity costs are low, photovoltaics can seem much more expensive.

Production Costs

The main factors behind the high cost of photovoltaics are twofold. First, photovoltaic
panels are relatively expensive to produce. Second, the market for photovoltaics has been
relatively small until recent years, so photovoltaic production has not achieved the
economy of scale necessary for truly low costs.

Both of these factors are gradually changing. Demand has increased over the past thirty
years, and much research and development work has been done to increase the efficiency
and lower the costs of photovoltaic systems. In fact, costs have fallen dramatically since
the 1970s when photovoltaic panels first appeared on the consumer market. In 1975, the
average cost for photovoltaic modules was $30 per watt, or $30 per the unit of electricity a
panel could produce. By the 1990s, this cost had dropped to approximately $5 per watt.

Technological developments that improve efficiency and lower manufacturing costs are
expected to continue reducing overall costs. As these costs fall, it is expected that demand
will continue to increase due to the other benefits of photovoltaic systems. There is no set
date when photovoltaics are predicted to become competitive with utility power, but some
sources predict it will happen sometime within the next 10-20 years. If advanced
technologies emerge from research and development that cause a significant drop in prices,
this timeframe could be shortened even further.

Installation and Use Costs

The other area where costs can be incurred is in installation of a photovoltaic system, as
multiple components are needed to help photovoltaic panels transfer their electricity to an
end use. In many cases, these components can double the cost of a photovoltaic system.
However, much of this additional cost can be reduced as installation experience increases
within the building trades and as new methods are developed for installing and connecting
photovoltaics to their end use.

There are several financial benefits linked to installed photovoltaic systems. The primary
benefit is the possibility of reduced electric bills and the potential for net metering, where

                                                                                   Page | 235
excess electricity from a photovoltaic system can be sold back to the utility. While these
benefits do not currently balance out the initial costs of a photovoltaic installation, they can
help in reducing these costs.

Product and Installation Issues

For individual consumers, building owners and developers, photovoltaic systems are the
most accessible and easily installed form of renewable energy. Today, there are a broad
variety of panel manufacturers, balance of system component providers, and installers
specializing in photovoltaic installations. These professionals assist customers in
developing and installing a system that is sized and installed to meet their needs.

One barrier can arise in this process at the permitting level, particularly when a system is to
be connected to a building that is also connected to a building. This process, called
interconnection is currently complex, but many regulatory efforts are being developed to
simplify and standardize the steps needed for approvals.

Product Availability

Solar electricity is the most accessible clean energy technology to individuals and building
owners. Many companies offer solar electric products directly to consumers.

Scale and Modularity

The small scale and modular approach to photovoltaic installations make it easy to install
different amounts of photovoltaics on individual buildings and sites.

Maintenance and Reliability of Equipment

Photovoltaic equipment is highly regulated by national standards and is generally a very
reliable technology. Maintenance costs are extremely low and are often not factored into
system costs because they are so minimal.

Getting Systems Approved

There are a number of issues in connecting photovoltaics to other power and storage
sources, particularly when a grid- interconnected system must be approved for
interconnection by the local utility. These issues are being addressed through regulation
and policy developments. Many states, including Massachusetts , have either developed or
are in the process of establishing standard processes for these approvals.
                                                                                     Page | 236
Powe r Quality Benefits and Issues

Power quality, or the consistency and reliability of our electr icity sources, is an issue of
great interest to both utilities who maintain the complex grid providing electricity to
millions of buildings and to individual owners who expect electricity to work when and
where it is needed.

While most electricity today is provided by centralized, fuel-powered plants, photovoltaics
operate in a very different way. Because their production depends on solar energy, a power
source that is not always available, they produce electricity intermittently. This can
presents issues for owners and utilities alike in ensuring that photovoltaics produce enough
electricity to meet needs and do not produce more electricity than an individual or utility
system can handle.

Reliability of Power

Providing consistent power is one of the things that most photovoltaic systems cannot
guarantee as they are an intermittent electricity source dependent upon the sun.

Although solar power is intermittent, there are many ways to increase its reliability by
pairing it with another energy source or using battery storage to store the energy produced
for a period of time when the PV is not producing energy.

Matching Energy Needs

Because photovoltaics produce most of their energy during the day and produce more in
the summer, their power production can match energy needs in many buildings.

Particularly in the summer, air conditioners and other energy- intensive appliances are used
more frequently, creating a surge in demand for electricity. This is called the summer peak,
when the demand for energy reaches its highest point. In New England and other cooler
climates, there is also a winter peak, when cold weather causes a sharp increase in demand
for heat. The winter peak is slightly different though, as most of the heat used in New
England comes from non-electric sources. Because of this, photovoltaic systems can be
very practical for meeting the summer peak in the region.

Although this benefit works for many uses, there are some applications that need more
power at night or even need it continuously, as in some industrial applications. In these


                                                                                  Page | 237
cases, photovoltaics can still provide much of the building's electricity, but a second power
source is still essential for times when the photovoltaic system is not producing electricity.

Security of Energy Sources

Photovoltaics, acting as a distributed energy resource on buildings and sites connected to
the utility, can provide certain benefits to the utility system as a whole. On a larger scale,
they help to displace fossil fuel use which can be subject to volatile price changes.

The opportunities for using photovoltaics as a means to energy security depends on large-
scale planning of energy sources, and depends on a certain level of installation activity
which we have not yet reached.




Following table shows for how many hours one can use a fully charged
180Ah battery, when different amount of current is consumed.

                                                                                    Page | 238
Current (Ampere)   Time (Hours)

       1               180

       2                90

       3                60

       4                45

       5                36

       6                30

       8               22.5

       10               18

       12               15

       15               12

       20               9

       25               7.2

       30               6

       40               4.5

       60               3

       90               2

      120               1.5

      150               1.2

      180               1




                                  Page | 239
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  POWER INVERTERS
            (Free course)
COURSE CODE:    DOKS 312
DURATION:       8 Week (boot-camp)
REGISTRATION:   N5,000:00

TUITION: FREE
INVERTER KIT:    N25,000:00



                                     Page | 246
This training is free..!! but you'll be building a
Standard Solar Power inverter (which you'll keep )
during the training, so buying the inverter kit is
compulsory.

You can register to book your place and pay for
the kit one week before training commences.
CALL DANIEL: 2347037914178
Email:             danieloshoetan@yahoo.com
               NEW COURSE COMMENCE ON
                   FROM 17TH DECEMBER 2009
                                            TO
                   DECEMBER 2010 IN BATCHES
                                REGISTER NOW


              WORLD SOLAR CEL MANUFACTURERS
Company Name        A ddress                Contact Details      Cell Technology


A l-Afandi Solar                            Tel: 966 2 6634442
                    P.O.Box 452, Je ddah,
Wafers and Cells                            Fax: 966 2 6657597   Multicrystalline silicon
                    21411, Saudi Arabia
Factory                                     E Mail:




                                                                            Page | 247
                      No. 9, Daye 1st Road,         Tel: 886-6-5058787
                      Tainan Science Park ,         Fax: 886-6-5053371                  Amorphous Silicon Thin
A uria Solar
                      Sinshih Township Tainan,      E Mail:                             Film
                      74146, Taiwan R .O.C .        auria_se rvice @auriasolar.com


                      39/1 Moo 1, Bangpakong -
                      Chachoengsao Road,            Tel: 66(0) 3857-7373
Bangkok Solar co.,                                                                      Amorphous Silicon Thin
                      Sanpudad, Banpho,             Fax: 66(0) 3857-7370
Ltd                                                                                     Film
                      Chachoengsao 24140            E Mail: k risada@bangkoksolar.com
                      Thailand


                      2nd Floor S.N.Bldg, 25    Tel: 91 80 5595729
Bharat Electronics
                      M.G.Road, Bangalore - 560 Fax: 91 80 5584911                      Monocrystalline silicon
Limited
                      001, India                    E Mail: imd@bel-india.com


Bharat Heavy          Inte grated Office Complex,   Tel: 91 11 51793242
                                                                                        Monocrystalline
Electricals Limited   Lodhi Road, Ne w Delhi -      Fax: 91 11 26493021
                                                                                        siliconC rystalline silicon
(BHEL)                110003, India                 E Mail: que ry@bhe l.com


                      No.458, Sinsing R d. ,
                                                    Tel: 886-3-5980288
Big Sun Energy        Hukou Township , Hsinchu
                                                    Fax: 886-3-5980299                  C rystalline silicon
Technology            County 303 , Taiwan
                                                    E mail: info@bigsun-ene rgy.com
                      (R .O .C.)


                      No.3055 Fux ing Middle
                      Road National Ne w & High-
                                                 Tel: 86 312 3100509
                      te ch Industrial
Boading Yingli                                   Fax: 86 312 3151881                    C rystalline silicon
                      De velopment Zone ,
                                                 E Mail: comme rce @yinglisolar.com
                      Baoding,China.
                      Pos:071000


                      630 Solarex Court             Tel: 1 301 698 4200
                                                                                        Monocrystalline and
BP Solar              Frede rick , Maryland         Fax: 1 410 981 0278
                                                                                        multicrystalline silicon
                      21703, USA                    E Mail:


                                                    Tel: 81 3 3758 2111 or
                      3-30-2, Shimo-Maruko,
Canon Inc                                           81 3 3757 6675                      Amorphous silicon thin
                      Ohta -ku, Tok yo 146-8501,
E Business Division                                 Fax: 81 3 3757 7134                 film
                      Japan
                                                    E Mail:


                      108 Aikman Ave nue ,          Tel: 1 905 526 7634
Canrom
                      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada     Fax: 1 905 526 9341                 Monocrystalline silicon
Photovoltaics Inc
                      L8M 1P9                       E Mail: info@canrom .com


                      4 Industrial Are a,           Tel: 91 120 2895165
Central Electronics
                      Ghaziabad, 201 010,           Fax: 91 120 2895148                 Monocrystalline silicon
Limited (CEL)
                      Sahibabad, India              E mail: ce l@ce lsolar.com


                                                    Tel: 886-3-5781999
                      No. 2, R &D 2nd Road,                                             Mono and multi-
DelSolar                                            Fax: 886-3-5781799
                      Science -Based Industrial                                         crystalline silicon
                                                    E mail:
                      Park Hsinchu 30076,


                                                                                                    Page | 248
                      Taiwan, R.O .C.


                                                    Tel: 1 248 293 0440
Energy Conversion     2956 Wate rvie w Drive
                                                    Fax: 1 313 844 1214                       Amorphous silicon thin
Devices Inc (ECD      Rocheste r Hills, MI 48309,
                                                    E Mail:                                   film
Ovonics)              USA
                                                    investor.re lations@ovonic.com


Energy                276 Bake rs Basin Road        Tel: 1 609 587 3000                       Amorphous silicon and
Photovoltaics Inc     Lawrence ville, NJ 08648,     Fax: 1 609 587 5355                       coppe r indium
(EPV)                 USA                           E Mail: sales@epv.ne t                    dise lenide thin film


                                                    Tel: 39 06 985 60300
                      Via A D'Andre a 6, 00048,                                               Monocrystalline and
EniTecnologie                                       Fax: 39 06 985 60234
                      Ne ttuno, Roma, Italy                                                   multicrystalline silicon
                                                    E Mail: infoe t@e nite cnologie.e ni.it


                      No.106, Huax iang Road,
                      Economic and
                                                    Tel: 86 316 259 5194
                      Te chnological                                                          Amorphous silicon thin
ENN So lar Energy                                   Fax: 86 316 259 5187
                      De velopment Zone ,                                                     film
                                                    E Mail: e nnsolar@e nn.cn
                      Langfang, 065001,
                      P.R.C hina


EOPLLY New            No.8, West Huanghai Rd        Tel: 86 88782787
Energy Technology     Hai'an Jiangsu 226611         Fax: 86 88782810                          C rystalline silicon
Co Ltd                China                         E Mail: e oplly@eoplly.com.cn


                                                    Tel: 49 3 61 4 42 46 - 0
                      W ilhelm -Wolff-Str. 23
Ersol                                               Fax: 49 3 61 4 42 46 - 25                 Multicrystalline silicon
                      99099 Erfurt, Ge rmany
                                                    E Mail: info@e rsol.de


                                                    Tel: 886-6-3840777                        Monocrystalline and
E-Ton Solar           No. 498, Se c. 2, Be ntian
                                                    Fax: 886-6-3840966                        Multicrystalline silicon
Technology            Rd., Tainan, Taiwan, 709
                                                    E Mail: business@e-ton.com.tw             ce lls


                                                    Tel: 1 508 357 2221
                      259 Cedar Hill Stree t        Fax: 1 508 357 2279                       String ribbon
Evergreen Solar Inc
                      Marlboro, MA 01752 USA        E Mail: info@e ve rgreen                  crystalline silicon
                                                    solar.com


                      4050 E Cotton Cente r         Tel: 1 602 414 9300
First Solar LLC       Blvd. Suite 6-69 Phoenix,     Fax: 1 602 414 9400                       Cadm ium Te lluride
                      Arizona 85040, USA            E Mail: fsinfo@firstsolar.com


                      35, Kuang Fu North Road
                                                    Tel: 886 3 696 89
Formosun Solar        Hsinchu Industrial Park ,
                                                    Fax: 886 3 696 38                         Thin film manufacture r
Corporation           Hsinchu County Taiwan
                                                    E Mail: sales@form osun.com
                      30351 Republic of C hina


                      2, Rue Leon Droux , BP 66,                                              Amorphous silicon thin
Free Energy Europe                                  Tel: 33 03 21 79 30 60
                      62302 Lens, Cedex, France                                               film
                                                    Fax: 33 03 21 43 65 88


                                                                                                          Page | 249
                                                    E mail: free.e ne rgy@wandadoo.fr


                       2-2-1 Nagasaka Yokosuka,     Tel: 81 46 857 67 30
Fuji Electric Co Ltd   Chiyoda -ku, 240-01,         Fax: 81 46 6857 27 91                  Amorphous silicon
                       Kanagawa, Japan              E Mail: info@fujie le ctric.co.jp


                                                    Tel: 1 302 451 7500
GE Energy (Solar       231 Lake Drive , Ne wark ,
                                                    Fax: 1 302 451 7501                    Monocrystalline silicon
Division)              Delaware, USA
                                                    E Mail: solarsales@ps.ge.com


                       8F, No.396, Ne i Hu          Tel: 886-2-2656-2000
Gintech Energy         Rd.,Se c.1 Taipe i 114,      Fax: 886-2-2656-0593                   C rystalline silicon
                       Taiwan                       E Mail:


                       P.O. Box 60212, The rmi      Tel: 30 310 469 140
                                                                                           Amorphous silicon thin
Heliodomi S.A .        57001 Thessalonik i,         Fax: 30 310 469 141
                                                                                           film
                       Gree ce                      E mail: mail@he liodom i.gr


                       Rodovia Raposo Tavares
                       km 41, Vargem Grande         Tel: 11 4158-3511
Heliodinâmica          Paulista - C EP 06730-970,   Fax: 11 4158-3755                      C rystalline silicon
                       Caixa Postal 111, São        E mail: he liodin@te rra.com .br
                       Paulo, Brasil


                       Via Postumia 11, 35010       Tel: 39 049 9430288
Helios Technology
                       Carm ignano di Brenta (PD)   Fax: 39 049 9430323                    Monocrystalline silicon
srl
                       Italy                        E Mail: info@he lioste chnology.com


                       No.86 Jianguolu,             Tel: 86 335-3035394
Huamei PV
                       Q inhuangdao, Hebe i, C hina Fax:                                   Monocrystalline silicon
Company
                       066000                       E Mail:


                       6995 Jeanne -Mance           Tel: 1 514 270 5770
ICP Solar                                                                                  Amorphous silicon thin
                       Montreal, Quebe c Canada     Fax: 1 514 270 3677
Technologies Inc                                                                           film
                       H3N 1W5                      E Mail: info-custome rs@icpsolar.com


                                                    Tel: 49 30 6264060
Inventux               Rudowe r Chaussee 12
                                                    Fax: 49 30 62640406                    Thin Film manufacture r
Technologies A G       Be rlin 12489 Ge rmany
                                                    E Mail: info@inve ntux .com


                                                    Tel: 34 91 531 2625
                       c/ Montalban No9, 2 Izq.
Isofotón SA                                         Fax: 34 91 531 1007                    Monocrystalline silicon
                       28014 Madrid, Spain
                                                    E Mail: isofoton@isofoton.e s


                       No 1011 Zhe ncheng Rd,       Tel: 86-510-86687300
Jetion Science and
                       Jiangyin, Jiangsu, 214443,   Fax: 86-510-86687315                   C rystalline silicon
Technology Co.Ltd
                       China                        E Mail: she nyang@jetion.com.cn


JingA o Solar Co. Ltd JingLong Industrial Park ,    Tel: 86 319 580 0751                   C rystalline silicon
                      JingLong Street, NingJin      Fax: 86 319 580 0754


                                                                                                       Page | 250
                      County, Xingtai, Hebe i,       E Mail:
                      China 055550


                      No.45 XinhuaDongjie,           Tel: 86 378 597722
Kaifeng Solar Cell
                      Kaifeng, He nan, C hina        Fax: 86 378 5958025               Monocrystalline silicon
Factory
                      475000                         E Mail:


                                                     Tel: 81 6 6226 5237
                      3-2-4,Nakanoshima, Kita -                                        Amorphous silicon thin
Kaneka Corporation                                   Fax: 81 6 6226 5144
                      ku Osaka 530-8288, Japan                                         film
                                                     E Mail:


                      300, C heoncheon-dong,
                                                     Tel: 82 55 294 2116
                      Jangan-gu, Suwon-si,
KPE Solar                                            Fax: 82 55 294 2118               C rystalline silicon
                      Gyeonggi-do, 440-746
                                                     E Mail: maste r@kpesolar.com
                      Korea


                                                     Tel: 380 (44) 205 34 50
                      3 Se ve ro-syre tskaya str.                                      Monocrystalline and
Kvazar JSC                                           Fax: 380 (44) 205 34 05
                      04136 Kie v, Uk raine                                            multicrystalline silicon
                                                     E Mail: info@k vazar.com


                      Kyoce ra Corporation
                                                     Tel: 81 75 604 3476
Kyocera               Headquarte rs Building 6
                                                     Fax: 81 75 604 3475
Corporation (Solar    Takeda Tobadono -cho,                                            Multicrystalline silicon
                                                     E Mail: we bmaste r_se
Energy Division)      Fushim i-k u, Kyoto 612-
                                                     @k yoce ra.co.jp
                      8501, Japan


                                                     Tel: 1 480 948 8003
Kyocera Solar Inc.,   7812 East Acoma
                                                     Fax: 1 480 483 6431               Multicrystalline silicon
(US Division)         Scottsdale , Arizona 85260
                                                     E Mail: info@k yoce rasolar.com


                      A–14, Mohan Co-ope rative
                                                     Tel: 91 11 6959701
Maharishi So lar      Industrial Estate Mathura
                                                     Fax: 91 11 6836682                Multicrystalline silicon
Technology Pvt. Ltd   Road, Ne w De lhi–110 044,
                                                     E Mail: solar@maharishi.ne t
                      India.


                      Photovoltaic Division,
Matsushita Battery                                   Tel: 81 (0)6 6991 1141            C rystalline silicon,
                      1-1 Matshushita -cho,
Industrial Company                                   Fax:                              cadm ium te lluride thin
                      Moriguchi-shi, 570-8511,
(MBI)                                                E Mail:                           film
                      Osaka, Japan


                      4017, Shimonakata,             Tel: 81 0568 81 1511
Matsushita Seiko
                      Takak i-cho, Kasugai, Aichi,   Fax:                              Monocrystalline silicon
Co Ltd
                      486-8522, Japan                E Mail:


                      P. O . Box 4940, Fujairah      Tel: 971 9 2282138
Microsol              Free Zone Phase II,            Fax: 971 9 2282139
                                                                                       Monocrystalline silicon
International         Fujairah, Unite d Arab         E Mail:
                      Em irates 4940                 info@microsolinte rnational.com




                                                                                                   Page | 251
                       Mitsubishi Denk i Building
                                                      Tel: 81 3 3218 2111
Mitsubishi Electric    2-2-3, Marunouchi,
                                                      Fax:                                  Multicrystalline silicon
Corporation            Chiyoda -ku, Tok yo 100-
                                                      E Mail:
                       8310, Japan


Mitsubishi Heavy
                       5-1 Marunouchi 2-C home,       Tel: 81 (0)3 3212 9408
Industries                                                                                  Amorphous silicon thin
                       Chiyoda -ku Tok yo 100-        Fax: 81 (0)3 3212 9874
(Powe r Systems                                                                             film
                       8315, Japan                    E Mail:
Division)


                       43 B, Okhla Industrial         Tel: 9141635201
Moser Baer
                       Estate Ne w Delhi Delhi        Fax: 9141635211                       C rystalline silicon
Photovoltaic
                       110020 India                   E Mail: pv@mose rbae r.in


                       Solar Ele ctricity Division,
                                                      Tel: 886 6 505 07 89 x204
Motech Industries      No 3 Da-Shun 9th Road,
                                                      Fax: 886 6 505 17 89                  Multicrystalline silicon
Inc                    Tainan County, 744, Hsin-
                                                      E Mail: sim on_tsuo@mote c hind.com
                       Shi, Taiwan


                       2, Wen-Hua Rd., Hsinchu
                                                      Tel: 886-3-598-0126
Neo Solar Power        Industrial Park., Hu-Kou,
                                                      Fax: 886-3-598-6066                   C rystalline silicon
Corp.                  Hsinchu County, Taiwan
                                                      E Mail: sales@neosolarpowe r.com
                       303


                       Zhou Fuuzhang, 315012          Tel: 86 574 712 1761
Ningbo So lar
                       No 80 Q iafe ngjie , Ningbo,   Fax: 86 574 712 1586                  Monocrystalline silicon
Energy Power Co
                       Zhe jiang, China               E Mail:


Pentafour Solec        Chitra Towe rs, 332-2
                                                      Tel: 91 44 4836 351
Technology Limited     Aarcot Road,
                                                      Fax: 91 44 4834 517                   Monocrystalline silicon
(lice nsee of Sole c   Kodambakkam, Che nnai
                                                      E Mail:
Inte rnational)        600 024, India


                                                      Tel: 32 1 6805-850
                       Grijpe nlaan 18 3300
Photovoltech NV SA                                    Fax: 32 1 6805-905                    Multicrystalline silicon
                       Tienen, Belgium
                                                      E Mail: info@photovolte ch.be


Photowatt
                       33 rue St Honore, ZI           Tel: 33 (0)474 93 80 20
International SA
                       Champfleuri, 38300             Fax: 33 (0) 474 93 80 40              Multicrystalline silicon
(part of ATS
                       Bourgoin Jallie u, France      E Mail: m arke ting@ photowatt.com
Automation)


                                                      Tel: 86 552 3178212
                       268 Tanghe Road, Be ngbu,                                            Amorphous Silicon Thin
Polar Photovoltaics                                   Fax: 86 552 3178211
                       Anhui 233030 China                                                   Film
                                                      E Mail: sales@polar-pv.com


                                                      Tel: 1 515 292 7606                   Amorphous silicon thin
                       2337 230th Stree t, Boone ,
PowerFilm Inc                                         Fax: 1 515 292 1922                   film on plastic
                       Iowa 50014, USA
                                                      E Mail:                               substrate




                                                                                                        Page | 252
                                                   Tel: 49 3494 66 86-0
                     Guardianstr. 16, D-06766
Q-Cells A G                                        Fax: 49 3494 66 86-10                 Multicrystalline silicon
                     Thalheim , Ge rmany
                                                   E Mail: sales@q-ce lls.com


REC (Renewable                                     Tel: 47 67 57 44 50
                     Kjørbove ien 29, 1337
Energy                                             Fax: 47 67 57 44 99                   C rystalline silicon
                     Sandvika, Norway
Corporation)                                       E Mail: post@re cgroup.com


                                                   Tel: 49 (0)6023 91-17 12              Monocrystalline silicon,
                     Industriestraße 13, ,
                                                   Fax: 49 (0)6023 91-17 00              Multi-crystalline and
Schott Solar         Alzenau, Ge rmany. D
                                                   E Mail: ase _sales@                   amorphous silicon thin
                     63755
                                                   ase .tessag.com                       film


Sanyo Electric Co
                     222-1, Kam inaizen,           Tel: 81 799 23 2901                   Amorphous silicon/
Ltd
                     Sumoto City, Hyogo 656        Fax: 81 799 24 4128                   monocrystalline silicon
Soft Energy Co.,
                     Japan                         E Mail:                               hybrid
Business HQ


                     Sharp Photovoltaics Div.
                                                   Tel: 81 745 63 3579
Sharp Corporation    282-1 Hajikam i , Shinjo -
                                                   Fax: 81 745 62 8253                   Monocrystalline and
(Photovoltaics       cho, Kita -Katsuragi-gun,
                                                   E Mail: we bmaste r@                  multicrystalline silicon
Division)            Nara Prefe cture 639-2198,
                                                   sharp.co.jp
                     Japan


                     Yee fung Industrial Area,
ShenZhen Global      Longx i Hi-te ch Industrial   Tel: 86 135 10993695
                                                                                         Thin film amorphous
Solar Energy         Park , Longcheng Road,        Fax: 86 755 89982834
                                                                                         silicon solar modules
Technology Co.,Ltd   Longgang Town,                E Mail: sunnyzhao81@ya hoo.com
                     Shenzhen, C hina


                     6th Floor, 2nd Block ,        Tel: 86 755 3709226
Shenzhen Topray      Yue zhong Industrial Area,    Fax: 86 755 3703226                   Amorphous silicon thin
Solar Co Ltd         Zhuzilin, Futian She nzhen    E Mail: topsolar@public.              film
                     Guangdong China 518040        szptt.net.cn


                     8 Prospe rity Road 1,         Tel: 886 3 5783366
Sinonar                                                                                  Amorphous silicon thin
                     Science -Based Industrial     Fax: 886 3 5781812
Corporation                                                                              film
                     Park , Hsinchu, Taiwan        E Mail: sales_solar@sinonar.com .tw


                                                   Tel: 1 724 379 2001
Solar Power          13 Airport Road Belle         Fax: 1 724 379 4028
                                                                                         Multicrystalline silicon
Industries           Ve rnon, PA 15012, USA        E Mail: rrose y@solarpowe r
                                                   industries.com


                     218 Wusong Road BM
                                                   Tel: (86 21) 2602 2888
                     Towe r, 26th Floor
Solarfun Power                                     Fax: (86 21) 2602 2889                C rystalline silicon
                     Shanghai, China (PRC )
                                                   E Mail: sales@solarfun-powe r.com
                     200080


                     Kurt-Schumache r-Str. 12-
SolarWorld A G                                     Tel: 49 - (0) 228 / 55 92 00          C rystalline silicon
                     14 53113 Bonn, Ge rmany
                                                   Fax: +49 - (0) 228 / 55 92 099


                                                                                                     Page | 253
                                                     E Mail: se rvice @solarworld.de


Solar Cells                                          Tel: 385 21 374 510
                      Tezacki put BB, 21000,                                                 Amorphous silicon thin
(formerly Koncar                                     Fax: 385 21 374 111
                      Split, C roatia                                                        film
Solar Cells )                                        E Mail: contact@solar-cells.ne t


                      1 Máje 1000/M3, C Z- 756       Tel: 42 0651 603377
Solartec s.r.o.       64 Roznov pod Radhostem        Fax: 42 0651 603393                     Monocrystalline silicon
                      3 , Cze ch Republic            E Mail: solarte c@solarte c.cz


                      No.51, Dinghu 1st St., 4th     Tel: 886-3-318-3969
Solartech Energy                                                                             Monocrystalline and
                      Industrial Park, Gue ishan,    Fax: 886-3-318-5977
Corp.                                                                                        Multicrystalline Silicon
                      Taoyuan 333, Taiwan            E Mail: sales@solarte ch-e ne rgy.com


                                                     Tel: 7(861) 26672813
                      15, Korotkaya str.
Solar Wind Ltd                                       Fax: 7(861) 26672817                    C rystalline silicon
                      Krasnodar, 350063 Russia
                                                     E Mail: solwind@mail.kuban.ru


                      C / Doctor Esque rdo, 17 -
                      2º 28028 Madrid, Spain
                                                     Tel: 34 97 5 23 28 47
Solar Wind Europe
                                                     Fax: 34 97 5 23 28 46                   Monocrystalline silicon
S.L.                  HEAD O FFIC E: Pol. Ind.
                                                     E Mail: info@solar-windeurope.com
                      Las Casas II C / L, nave
                      227 42005 Soria, Spain


                      970 East 236th Stree t,        Tel: 1 310 834 5800
Solec International
                      Carson, California USA         Fax: 1 310 834 0728                     Monocrystalline silicon
Inc (part of Sanyo)
                      90745                          E Mail: sole c@sole cintl.com


                      3, rue Léon Blum Zone          Tel: 33 1 69 19 43 40
                                                                                             Amorphous silicon thin
Solems SA             d’Activité "Les Glaises"       Fax: 33 1 60 13 37 43
                                                                                             film
                      91124 PALAISEAU Cedex          E Mail: info@solems.com


                      Ome r Industrial Park , P.O.   Tel: 972 7 6900950
Solmecs (Israel)
                      Box 3026, Ome r 84965,         Fax: 972 7 6900953                      Monocrystalline silicon
Ltd
                      Israel                         E Mail: m ichae l@solmecs.co.il


                      Viale de lle Scienze , 5       Tel: 39 0746 604 500
Solsonica S.p.A.      02015 C ittaducale (R I),      Fax: 39 0746 604 309                    C rystalline Silicon
                      Italy                          E Mail: info@solsonica.com


                                                     Tel: 41 91 695 40 60
Solterra              via Milano 7 CH - 6830
                                                     Fax: 41 91 695 40 70                    Monocrystalline silicon
Fotovoltaico SA       Chiasso Switze rland
                                                     E Mail: info@solte rra.ch


                      5/F, D.J. Building, 173 Hoi
                                                     Tel: (852) 3583 5286
Sungen (HK )          Bun Rd., Kwun Tong,                                                    Amorphous silicon thin
                                                     Fax: (852) 2411 6334
Limited               Kowloon, Hong Kong,                                                    film
                                                     E Mail: m ichae l.zhang@sunge n.com
                      China




                                                                                                         Page | 254
                                                      Tel: 1 (408) 240-5500
                      3939 N. 1st Stree t, San
SunPower                                              Fax:
                      Jose, California 95134,                                             Monocrystalline silicon
Corporation                                           E Mail:
                      USA
                                                      we bmaste r@sunpowe rcorp.com


Sunstar Hellas        Dimok ratias 2, Perea           Tel: 30 23920 25510
International         57019, The ssaloniki,           Fax: 30 23920 22958                 Thin film manufacture r
Technology            Gree ce                         E Mail: info@sunstarhe llas.com


                      17-6 ChangJiang South           Tel: 86 510 8531 8000
Suntech Power Co.,                                                                        Monocrystalline and
                      Road, Ne w District Wux i,      Fax: 86 510 8534 3321
Ltd                                                                                       Multicrystalline silicon
                      China 214028                    E Mail: sales@sunte ch-powe r.com


                                                      Tel: 49 7531 99677-0
                      Macairestr. 3-5, 78467
Sunways A G                                           Fax: 49 7531 99677-10               Multicrystalline silicon
                      Konstanz, Ge rmany
                                                      E Mail: info@sunways.de


                      220 Wen Hwa 2nd Rd.             Tel: 886 3 2550250
Sun Well Solar
                      Gue ishan Township Tao -        Fax: 886 3 3187012                  Thin film manufacture r
Corp.
                      Yuan County 333 Taiwan          E Mail: Sales@SunWe llSolar.com


TA TA /BP Solar (JV   #78, Ele ctronic C ity, Hosur   Tel: 91 80 8521016
be twee n BP          Road, Bangalore , 560 100       Fax: 91 80 8520972                  Monocrystalline silicon
Solar/TATA)           India                           E Mail: tata@tatabp.com


                      44 Court Stree t, Towe r B,     Tel: 1 718 422 0100
                                                                                          Amorphous silicon thin
TerraSolar Inc        Brook lyn, Ne w York ,          Fax: 1 718 422 0300
                                                                                          film
                      11201, USA                      E Mail: info@te rrasolar.com


                      Tianjin High Te ch
                                                      Tel: 86 022 23078366                Amorphous silicon thin
Tianjin Jinneng       Industrial Park, Chine se
                                                      Fax: 86 022 23078367                film, mono, multi-
Solar Cell Co.,Ltd    Catalpa Park Road 20,
                                                      E Mail: postmaste r@jns.cn          crystalline
                      Tianjin, 300384 PR China


                      1/482, Avanashi Road,           Tel: 91 422-827545, 827003.
Udhaya
                      Nee lambur, Coimbatore          Fax: 91 422-828504, 572675          C rystalline silicon
Semiconductors Ltd
                      641 014, India                  E Mail: udaya@uslsolar.com


                                                      Tel: 1 248 475 0100
                      3800 Lapee r Raod, Auburn                                           Amorphous silicon thin
United Solar Ovonic                                   Fax: 1 248 364 0510
                      Hills, Michigan 48326, USA                                          film
                                                      E Mail: info@uni-solar.com


                      12/1, Mathura Road              Tel: 91 129 5277641-45
Usha India Ltd        Faridabad Haryana,121           Fax: 91 129 5277679                 C rystalline silicon
                      003, India                      E Mail: sales@uslsolar.com


                      Av. des Sports 18 C H-1400 Tel: 41 (0) 24 423 04 90                 Amorphous silicon thin
VHF-Technologies
                      Yve rdon-les-Bains         Fax: 41 (0) 24 423 04 99                 film on plastic
SA
                      Switze rland                    E Mail: m arke ting@flex ce ll.ch   substrate




                                                                                                        Page | 255
                        P.O. Box 53004, 10 Royal      Tel: 1 905 762 9076
Viva Solar Inc          O rchard Blvd, Thornhill,     Fax: 1 905 762 9060                   Monocrystalline silicon
                        Ontario, L3T 7R 9, Canada     E Mail: sales@vivasolar.com


West Bengal
Electronics             Plot No. NI, Block GP,
                                                      Tel: 91 33 2357 8840
Industry                Se ctor V Salt Lake
                                                      Fax: 91 33 2357 3258                  Monocrystalline silicon
Development             Ele ctronics Complex
                                                      E Mail: info@we belsolar.com
Corporation Limited     Kolkata - 700 091, India
(Webel SL Solar)


                        Ludwigsburge r Strasse        Tel: 49 07144 94 14-0
                                                                                            Coppe r indium
Würth Solar             100, 71672 Marbach an         Fax: 49 07144 94 14-19
                                                                                            dise lenide thin film
                        Ne ckar, Ge rmany             E Mail: wue rth.solar@we-online.de


                                                      Tel: 86 871 538 9169
Yunnan                  Jianshe Road, 295
                                                      Fax: 86 871 533 6346                  Monocrystalline silicon
Semiconductor           Kunming, Yunnan, C hina
                                                      E Mail: greenstar@km169.ne t


Zhejiang Sunflower
                        Sanjiang Road, Paojiang       Tel: 86-575-88919118
Light Energy
                        Industrial Zone, Shaox ing,   Fax: 86-575-88919129                  Monocrystalline silicon
Science &
                        Zhe jiang, China              E Mail: nancy.yu@suowe .com
Technology Co.,Ltd




WORLD SOLAR PANEL MANUFACTURES



Company Name                 Country          A ddress                         Contact details


                                              671 North Plano Road,            Tel: 1 972-231-1158
1 Soltech Inc                Unite d States   Suite #202, R ichardson, Texas   Fax: 1 972-231-0873
                                              75081 USA                        E Mail: 1solte ch@1solte ch.com


                                                                               Tel: 49 441 219 88-0
                                              Staugraben 4, D-26122
A leo Solar                  Ge rmany                                          Fax: 49 441 219 88-15
                                              O ldenburg, Ge rmany
                                                                               E Mail: de ttmann@aleo -solar.de


A lfasolar                                                                     Tel: 49 5 11 131 71 90
                                              Calenbe rge r Str. 28, D-30169
Vertriebsgesellschaft        Ge rmany                                          Fax: 49 5 11 131 71 92
                                              Hannove r, Ge rmany
GmbH                                                                           E Mail: m ail@alfasolar.de


A plicaciones Tecnicas de                                                      Tel: 34 915 178 452
                                              Embajadore s 187, Madrid
las Energía                  Spain                                             Fax: 34 914 747 467
                                              28045, Spain
(A TERSA )                                                                     E Mail: ate rsa@ate rsa.com




                                                                                                       Page | 256
                                           He imshe ime r Straße 62,         Tel: 49 7033 30 42 0
AXITEC Vertrieb
                          Ge rmany         71263 We il de r Stadt            Fax: 49 7033 30 42 222
Deutschland
                                           (Hausen), Ge rmany                E Mail: info@ax ite c.de


                                                                             Tel: 86 10 69500086
Beijing Hope Solar New                     No.6-8 Hope Road Taihu Town
                          China                                              Fax: 86 10 69509987
Energy Co., Ltd                            Tongzhou Dist Be ijing C hina
                                                                             E Mail: hopee d@vip.163.com


                                                                             Tel: 49 5251 500 500
BIOHA US PV Handels                        O tto-Stadle r-Str. 23, D-33100
                          Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 5251 500 5010
GmbH                                       Pade rborn, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail:


                                           4056 Jefton C resce nt,           Tel: 1 905 828 2437
Canadian Solar Inc.       Canada           Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1Z3,     Fax: 1 905 828 9062
                                           Canada                            E Mail:


                                           8114-B Trans Canada St-           Tel: 1 (514) 461-9822
Centennial Solar Inc      Canada           Laurent, Québe c H4S 1M5          Fax: 1 (514) 461-9824
                                           Canada                            E Mail: info@centennialsolar.com


                                           3rd building, Yida Business
                                                                             Tel: 86 595 28192868
China Shine Solar Panel                    Mansion, FengZe Destrict,
                          China                                              Fax: 86 595 22980682
Factory                                    Quanzhou C ity, FuJian
                                                                             E Mail: info@shinesolar.ne t
                                           Province, China 362000


                                                                            Tel: 1 805-269-1260
Crown Renewable                            805 Ae rovista Place , Suite 202
                          Unite d States                                    Fax: 1 805-269-1270
Energy                                     San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
                                                                            E Mail: info@crownrene wables.com


DaSol Solar Energy                                                           Tel: 0086-572-5119058
                                           Fantan industrial park , Anji,
Science & Technology      China                                              Fax: 0086-572-5119077
                                           Zhe jiang, China, 313300
Co., Ltd                                                                     E Mail: dasol@126.cn


                                                                       Tel: 1 604 759 3294
                                           #101 – 5898 Trapp Avenue
Day4 Energy               Canada                                       Fax: 1 604 759 3295
                                           Burnaby, BC V3N 5G4, Canada
                                                                       E Mail: info@day4ene rgy.com


                                                                             Tel: 1 866-299-2565
                                           1370 Re ynolds Ave, Suite 116,
ecoSolargy Inc            Unite d States                                     Fax: 1 888-442-7144
                                           Irvine , California, 92614
                                                                             E Mail: Info@e cosolargy.com


                                                                             Tel: 30 2106861461
                                           1 Vladaisko vastanie Str.
Energy Solutions S.A.     Bulgaria                                           Fax: 30 2106861399
                                           2304, Pernik, Bulgaria
                                                                             E Mail: info@e ne rgysolutions.gr


                                                                             Tel: 86 25 86898098
                                           Shan Xi Road Nanjing Jiangsu
ET Solar                  China                                              Fax: 86 25 86898097
                                           210009 China
                                                                             E Mail: sales@e tsolar.com




                                                                                                        Page | 257
Gällivare PhotoVoltaic                                                       Tel: 46 970 15830
                                            Före tagscentrum Hus 60, Box
AB (GPV)                   Swe de n                                          Fax: 46 970 15898
                                            840, 98228 Gällivare, Sweden
Part of SolarWorld Group                                                     E Mail:


                                                                             Tel: 49 36602 509676
Gebaude-Solarsysteme                        W indmue hle nstrasse 2, 04626
                           Ge rmany                                          Fax: 49 9573 9224 24
GmbH (GSS)                                  Loebishau, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail:


                                            5th Floor, Building C , No.3,
                                                                             Tel: 886 6 505 9500 ex t. 5201
                                            Nanke 7th R d., Sinshin
Gloria Solar Co., Ltd.     Taiwan                                            Fax: 886 6 505 7100
                                            Township, Tainan county,
                                                                             E Mail: john.tsai@gloriasolar.com
                                            74144, Taiwan


                                                                             Tel: +30 210 7295506
                                            3 P. Ioak im 5th fl. Athens
Hellas Solar               Gree ce                                           Fax: +30 210 7257892
                                            10673 Gree ce
                                                                             E mail: andreasc@he llassolar.gr


                                            Rodovia Raposo Tavares km
                                                                             Tel: 11 4158-3511
                                            41, Vargem Grande Paulista -
Heliodinâmica              Brazil                                            Fax: 11 4158-3755
                                            C EP 06730-970, Caixa Postal
                                                                             E mail: he liodin@te rra.com .br
                                            111, São Paulo, Brasil


                                            Mariupol, Levchenko str. 1,      Tel: 38 - (0629) - 39-33-78
Ilyich Iron & Steel
                           Uk raine         Uk raine, Done tsk Re gion       Fax: 38 - (0623) - 32-26-32
Works
                                            87504                            E Mail: xm p_ops@ilyich.donetsk.ua


                                            9375 Customhouse Plaza Bldg      Tel: 1 619-710-0758
Innergy Power
                           Unite d States   1, Suite J, San Diego, C A       Fax: 1 619-710-0755
Corporation
                                            92154                            E Mail: he lp@inne rgypowe r.com


                                                                             Tel: 32 498 294 782
                                            Quai de la Vesdre 7 B-4800
ISSOL S.A ./N.V.           Be lgium                                          Fax: 32 87 33 81 64
                                            Ve rvie rs Belgium
                                                                             E Mail: info@issol.eu


                                                                             Tel: 39 0971 485157
                                            Corso Garibaldi, 83, Potenza
Istar Solar s.r.l.         Italy                                             Fax: 39 0971 651970
                                            (PZ), 85100 Italy
                                                                             E mail: info@istarsolar.com


                                            Via de lla bonifica, sn,         Tel: 39 085 9777 1
ITA LCOEL s.r.l.,          Italy            Vallemare , Pescara, I -65010,   Fax: 39 085 9777 250
                                            Italy                            E Mail: italcoe l@gruppocite .com


                                            12Fl, KD B/D , 4-4 Sunae,        Tel: 031 738 1901
KD Solar Co., Ltd          South Korea      Bundang, Sungnam,                Fax: 031 738 1999
                                            Kyounggi, Korea                  E mail: jkk won@kdsolar.com


                                                                             Tel: 012 - 6616604
                                            PO Box 52869 W ie rda Park ,
Liselo (Pty )Ltd.          South Africa                                      Fax: 012 - 6617165
                                            0149 South Africa
                                                                             E Mail: info@lise losolar.co.za




                                                                                                      Page | 258
                                                                               Tel: 886-3-3500730
                                             No. 348, Shanying Rd.,
                                                                               Fax: 886-3-3500731
Lucky Power Technology      Taiwan           Gue ishan Township, Taoyuan
                                                                               E Mail:
                                             County 33341, Taiwan
                                                                               flora_kuo@luckypowe rte ch.com


                                             17F Ste c Joho Building 1-24-1, Tel: 81 3 3342 3881
MSK Corporation
                            Japan            West Shinjuki, Tokyo 160-       Fax: 81 3 3342 6534
(part of Sunte ch Powe r)
                                             0023, Japan                       E Mail: staff@msk .ne.jp


                                                                               Tel: 886 3 666 8286
NexPower Technology                          8F, No.1, Jin-Shan 7th St.,
                            Taiwan                                             Fax: 886 3 666 8285
Corp.                                        HsinChu, 300, Taiwan, ROC 5
                                                                               E Mail: stanle y_yu@nexpw.com


                                                                               Tel: 1 510 979 1920
                                             44843 Fremont Blvd.,              Fax: 1 510 979 1930
Pacific SolarTech           Unite d States
                                             Fremont, C A 94539                E Mail: sales@PacificSolar
                                                                               Te ch.com


                                             Unit 19, Mount Vie w Enclave ,
                                                                               Tel: 91 40 23331337/1338/1339
                                             Road no 12, Banjara Hills,
Photon Solar                India                                              Fax: 91 40 23331340
                                             Hyde rabad Andhra Pradesh
                                                                               E Mail: m arke ting@photonsolar.in
                                             500 034 India


                                                                         Tel: (067) 22 2219
Power4A frica               Nam ibia         P O Box 1316 Tsumeb Namibia Fax: (067) 22 2251
                                                                         E Mail:


                                             No. 26, Huaya 1st Rd.,
                                                                               Tel: 886 3 3180288 ex t 1105
PST (Perfect Source                          Guishan Shiang, Taoyuan
                            Taiwan                                             Fax: 886 3 3186118
Technology Corp.)                            County 333, Taiwan (Huaya
                                                                               E Mail: wu@pste ch.com .tw
                                             Te chnology Park)


                                                                               Tel: 86 021 69968225
Raloss Energy                                No.76 Jiazhu Road, Jiading,
                            China                                              Fax: 86 021 69968870
Technology Co,.Ltd.                          Shanghai, 201800 China
                                                                               E Mail: solar@raloss.com


                                             Leadgate Industrial Park ,        Tel: 44 1207 500 000
                            Unite d
Romag Ltd                                    Leadgate , County Durham          Fax: 44 1207 591 979
                            Kingdom
                                             DH8 7R S, UK                      E Mail: info@romag.co.uk


                                                                               Tel: 49 241 96 67 351
                                             Juliche r Strasse 495, 52070      Fax: 49 241 96 67 241
Saint-Gobain Glass-Solar    Ge rmany
                                             Aache n, Ge rmany                 E Mail: info.SGG-Solar@saint-
                                                                               gobain.com


                                                                               Tel: 31 77 463 3779
                                             Van Heemske rck we g 9, NL-
Scheuten Solar Systems      The                                                Fax: 31 77 463 3228
                                             5928 LL Ve nlo (Ble rick ), The
BV                          Ne the rlands                                      E Mail:
                                             Ne the rlands
                                                                               info@sche utensolarsystems.nl




                                                                                                      Page | 259
                                           Suzhou Shenglong-solar PV-
                                           Te ch Co.,Ltd Gangkou
                                                                             Tel: 86 512 5848 7618
Shenglong PV-Tech Co.,                     De velopment Zone Fenghuang
                          China                                              Fax: 86 512 5848 7851
Ltd                                        Town, Zhang Jiagang C ity
                                                                             E Mail: sales@she nglong-solar.com
                                           Jiangsu Province 215612
                                           China


                                           Massamagre ll, 36, Pol. Ind.      Tel: 34 96 141 22 33
Siliken                   Spain            Rafe lbunyol, 46138,              Fax: 34 96 141 05 14
                                           Rafe lbunyol (Vale ncia), Spain   E Mail: info@siliken.com


                                           Fe rdinand-Re ich Strasse 1, D-   Tel: 49 3731 30145 50
Solar Factory GmbH        Ge rmany         09599 Fre ibe rg/Saxony,          Fax: 49 3731 30145 67
                                           Ge rmany                          E Mail: info@deutschefactory.de


                                                                             Tel: 49 40 39 10 65 0
                                           Behringstr. 16, D-22765
Solara A G                Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 40 39 10 65 99
                                           Hamburg, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail: info@solara.de


                                                                             Tel: 49 761 4000 0
                                           Munzinge r Str. 10, 79111
Solar-Fabrik A G          Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 761 4000 199
                                           Fre iburg, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail: info@solar-fabrik .de


                                                                             Tel: 385 (0)52 758 630
                                           52466 NO VIGR AD, Sv. Vidal
SOLA RIS d.o.o            C roatia                                           Fax: 385 (0)52 726 030
                                           32b, C roatia
                                                                             E Mail: solaris@pu.htne t.hr


Solarnova, Produktions
                                                                             Tel: 49 4103 91 208 0
und                                        Am Marienhof 6, 22880
                          Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 4103 91 208 10
Vertriebsgesellschaft                      Wede l, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail: info@solarnova.de
mbH


                                           38 C havanich Bldg. 2/FL, Soi     Tel: 66 (0) 2392 0224-6
Solartron Co. Ltd         Thailand         Salinim it Sukhum vit 69,         Fax: 66 (0) 2381 2971
                                           Bangkok 10110, Thailand           E Mail: support@solartron.co.th/


                                                                             Tel: 49 351 88 95 - 0
Solarwatt Solar-Systeme                    Grenzstraße 28, D-01109
                          Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 351 88 95 - 111
GmbH                                       Dresde n, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail: info@solarwatt.de


                                                                             Tel: 49 30 /81 87 9 100
SOLON Photovoltaik                         Ede rstrasse 16, D-12059
                          Ge rmany                                           Fax: 49 30 81 87 9 110
GmbH                                       Be rlin, Ge rmany
                                                                             E Mail: solon@solon-pv.de


                                                                             Tel: 39 0746 604500
                                           Viale de lle Scienze , 5
Solsonica S.p.A.          Italy                                              Fax: 39 0746 604309
                                           C ittaducale Rie ti 2015 Italy
                                                                             E Mail: info@solsonica.com


                                           The Chicago Cente r for Gree n
Spire Solar Chicago       Unite d States                                     Tel: 1 773 638-8700
                                           Te chnology, 445 North
                                                                             Fax: 1 773 638-8701
                                           Sacramento Blvd., C hicago,


                                                                                                     Page | 260
                                           Illinois 60612, USA              E Mail: info@spiresolarchicago.com


                                           4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang
                                                                            Tel: (86 755) 27653478
Shenzhen Sunshine                          Industrial Park II Xili Town,
                          China                                             Fax: (86 755) 27653475
Electronics Co Ltd                         Nanshan District Shenzhen
                                                                            E Mail:
                                           Guangdong China


                                           Dusse ldorfe r Strasse 80, DE-   Tel: 49 2151 406045
SunWare GmbH & Co. KG     Ge rmany         47239, Duisburg (Rume ln),       Fax: 49 2151 406208
                                           Ge rmany                         E Mail:


Sunworld (Shanghai)                        Rm.1501, Tongquan Building,      Tel: 86 21 6295 9165
Solar Energy Technology   China            No.678 Gube i Road Changning     Fax: 86 21 6295 9216
Co., Ltd                                   District, Shanghai, China        E Mail: m ichae l.hsou@gmail.com


                                                                         Tel: 1 845-336-0146
                                           1155 Flatbush Road, Kingston,
SunWize Technologies      Unite d States                                 Fax: 1 845-336-0457
                                           NY 12401 USA
                                                                         E Mail: sunwize @besicorp.com


                                           9 Hillstar Ave nue Hillstar      Tel: 27 (21) 797 73 77
Tenesol Manufacturing
                          South Africa     Industrial Township We tton      Fax: 27 (21) 797 78 21
(PTY) Ltd.
                                           7780 Cape Town South Africa      E Mail: sales@tenesol.com


                                           No.15 We nhua Road, Zhulin       Tel: 86-519-82626729
Tianshun Energy
                          China            Town, Jintan Jiangsu,            Fax: 86-519-82626823
Technology Company
                                           P.R.C hina P.C.213241            E Mail: sales@tesunene rgy.cn


                                           16 Aruna Enclave ,               Tel: 91 40 779 1085
Titan Energy Systems
                          India            Trimulghe rry, Se cunde rabad,   Fax: 91 40 779 5629
Ltd
                                           500 015, India                   E Mail: titan@titansolar.com


                                           Z.A.C . de la Tour 12/14 allée   Tel: 33 (0)4 78 48 88 50
Total Energie SA          France           du Le vant 69890 la Tour de      Fax: 33 (0)4 78 19 44 83
                                           Salvagny, France                 E Mail: conne ctis@total-ene rgie .fr


                                                                            Tel: 86-519-5485801
                                           Changzhou Jiangsu 213031
Trina Solar Limited       China                                             Fax: 86-519-5485802
                                           China
                                                                            E Mail: jack .sheng@trinasolar.com


                                           Rua de Vigo s/n - Parque        Tel: 34 917 432 329
T-Solar                   Spain            Te cnologico de Galicia - 32900 Fax: 34 917 423 969
                                           San Cibrao de Viñas (O urense ) E Mail: sales@tsolar.eu


                                                                            Tel: 1-972-724-0120
                                           1381 Ren-Ay Rd. C hunan-
                                                                            Fax: 1-972-539-5597
Tynsolar Corporation      Taiwan           Jenn, Miaulih 350, Taiwan,
                                                                            E Mail:
                                           R .O.C .
                                                                            lawre nce @se rv.tynsolar.com.tw


Webasto                   Ge rmany                                          Tel: 49 89 85794 940
                                           Krainge r Strasse 5, D-82131
Systemcomponeneten                                                          Fax: 49 89 8577259


                                                                                                     Page | 261
GmbH & Co KG                                  Stockdorf, Ge rmany                E Mail:


                                                                                 Tel: 86 631 5969535
Weihai Bluestar Terra                         Huanshan Road, Eco.&Te ch.
                             China                                               Fax: 86 631 5960535
Photovoltaic Co.,Ltd                          De velop Zone , We ihai, C hina
                                                                                 E Mail: lisazhang322@126.com


                                                                                 Tel: 86-510-5343323
Wuxi Suntech Power Co.,                       17-6 Chang Jiang South
                             China                                               Fax: 86-576-7278009
Ltd                                           Road,Wux i Ne w District, C hina
                                                                                 E Mail:


                                              No.11 We nJing North Road,
                                                                                 Tel: 86-29-86512451
                                              The Economic & Te chnological
Xi'an REW co., Ltd           China                                               Fax: 86-29-86530350
                                              De velopment Zone , Xi'an,
                                                                                 E Mail:
                                              China.


                                              C 2, Pooja Plaza, Vik rampuri,     Tel: 91-40-2788 3333
XL Telecom & Energy Ltd      India            Se cunde rabad - 500 009           Fax: 91-40-2788 3344
                                              Andhra Pradesh, India              E Mail: info@x lte lene rgy.com


                                                                                 Tel: 865768 733 9881
Yuhuan SinoSola Science                       Damaiyu, Yuhuan, Taizhou,          Fax: 8657 6873 39883
                             China
& Technology Co., Ltd                         Zhe jiang 317604 China             E Mail:
                                                                                 michae lsinosola@yahoo.com .cn


                                              No 101 Chengzhong Road,            Tel: 86-576-7278148
Yuhuan Solar Energy
                             China            Zhugang Town, Yuhuan City,         Fax: 86-576-7278009
Source Co, Ltd
                                              Zhe jiang Province , China         E Mail: lix ianshou@msn.com




WORLD BATTERIS MANUFACTURERS



Company Name            A ddress                        Contact Details                      Business


                                                        Tel: 41 61 706 36 36
                        Aesch BL, Dornache rstr. 110,
                                                        Fax: 41 61 706 36 37                 Sealed Lead Acid
A ccu Oerlikon Ltd      C H 4147, Ae sch BL
                                                        E Mail: accu-info@                   batte ries
                        Switze rland
                                                        accuoe rlikon.com


                                                        Tel: 1 954 583 2470                  Manufacture r of Deka
                        3101 Davie Boule vard, Fort
                                                        Fax: 1 954 583 6898                  brand batte ries for
American Battery        Laude rdale , Florida 33312-
                                                        E Mail: m dhood@ame rican            marine , industrial and
                        1015, USA
                                                        batte ry-deka.com                    comme rcial use


                                                        Tel: 43 732 38 88-0
                        A-4021 Linz Salzburge r         Fax: 43 732 38 88-399
Banner Batterien                                                                             Bull brand batte ries
                        Straße 298, Austria             E Mail: office @banne r
                                                        batte rien.com



                                                                                                          Page | 262
                      Dr. Leopold Jungfe r Straße A-   Tel: 43 4228 203 677
Bären Batterie
                      9181 Feistritz im Ros. /         Fax: 43 4228 203 642
GmbH
                      Kärnte n, Austria                E Mail:


                                                       Tel: 1 215 619 2700
                      1400 Union Mee ting Road,
                                                       Fax: 1 215 619 7899            Flooded and VRLA
C&D Batteries         P.O. Box 3053, Blue Be ll,
                                                       E Mail: custsvc@               (Sealed) batte rie s
                      Pennsylvania 19422, USA
                                                       cdte chno.com


                      2009 San Be rnardino Road,       Tel: 1 626 813 1234
Concorde Battery                                                                      Marine, R V, PV System
                      West Covina, California          Fax: 1 626 813 1235
Corporation                                                                           and Deep C ycle batte ries
                      91790, USA                       E Mail:


                      C rown Batte ry Manufacturing,
                                                     Tel: 1 419 334 7181              Deep C ycle , Comme rcial,
                      1445 Majestic Drive P.O . Box
Crown Battery                                        Fax: 1 419 334 7416              Automotive, Marine
                      990 Fremont, Ohio 43420,
                                                     E Mail: info@crownbatte ry.com   batte ries
                      USA


                                                       Tel: 1 610 682 6361            Deep cycle , industrial
Deka East Penn        Lyon Station, Pennsylvania       Fax: 1 610 682 4781            fork lift, gelled, seale d
Manufacturing Co      19536-0147, USA                  E Mail: e astpenn@eastpenn -   and othe r lead acid
                                                       deka.com                       batte ries.


                                                       Tel: 44 1773 523000
                      Unit 8 Monk Road Industrial                                     Industrial Division.
Deta Batteries UK                                      Fax: 44 1773 523001
                      Estate Alfre ton De rbyshire                                    Sealed Industrial and
Ltd                                                    E Mail: industrial@deta
                      DE55 7RL United Kingdom                                         Automotive batte ries
                                                       batte ries.co.uk


                                                       Tel: 1-800-DOUGLAS
Douglas Battery       500 Batte ry Drive W inston-
                                                       Fax:
Manufacturing         Salem, North Carolina 27107                                     Lead acid batte ries
                                                       E Mail: info@douglas
Company               USA
                                                       batte ry.com


                      4248 23 Avenue West,             Tel: 1 206 283 7450            Deep cycle , marine
Dyno Battery          Seattle , Washington 98199,      Fax: 1 206 283 7498            batte ries, Automotive
                      USA                              E Mail: dyno01@aol.com         and Ge l Batte ries


                      #317-24, Haan 1-Dong,            Tel: 82 2 898-6341
                                                                                      Lead acid industrial
EBC Korea Co Ltd      Kwangmuung-C ity, Kyungki-       Fax: 82 2 898 6340
                                                                                      batte ries
                      Do, Republic of Korea            E Mail: e bc@ek ckorea.com


                                                       Tel: 1 800 782 7848
                      645 Penn Stree t, Reading,
Exide Technologies                                     Fax:                           Lead Acid Batte ries
                      Pennsylvania 19601, USA
                                                       E Mail:


                                                       Tel: 1 706 437 3271
FIA MM Technologies   1 FIAMM Way, Waynesboro,         Fax: 1 706 437 3299
                                                                                      Lead Acid Batte ries
Inc                   GA 30830, USA                    E Mail: custome rsvc@
                                                       fiamm.com




                                                                                                    Page | 263
                                                         Tel: (+27 11) 741 3600
First National          PO Box 5015, Be noni South,      Fax: (+27 11) 421 2642
                                                                                            Standby powe r batte rie s
Battery                 South Africa, 1502               E Mail:
                                                         marke ting@batte ry.co.za


General Battery         2366 Be rnville Road,
                                                         Tel: 1 800 634 6522
Corporation (GBC)       Reading, Pennsylvania                                               Gene ral, HUP, Rene gade
                                                         Fax: 1 610 208 1991
now Ene rsys Gene ral   19612, USA (National Sale s                                         and Alpha Batte rie s
                                                         E Mail:
Batte ry                Office)


                                                                                            Consume r and industrial
                        2475 West Stationn Road,                                            batte ries, including
GNB Techno logies                                        Tel: 1 815 937 6925
                        Kankakee , Illinois 60901,                                          Champion, Stowaway,
part of Ex ide                                           Fax: 1 815 937 6932
                        USA (many world wide                                                TrailBlaze r, Absolyte IIP
Te chnologies                                            E Mail: tpc@gnb.com
                        locations)                                                          brands lead acid
                                                                                            batte ries


Guang Zhou                                                                                  Leopard, Remarkable ,
                        We iming Hi-Te ch De veloping    Tel: 86 0760 3405881
Guangyun Super                                                                              Dyvinty brands for
                        Zone , Fusha, Zhongshan,         Fax: 86 0760 3405808
Energy Battery Co.,                                                                         Uninte rrupable Powe r
                        Guangdong, China                 E Mail: ht@hang-tian.com
Ltd                                                                                         Supplies


                                                         Tel: 49 2963 61-0
                        Bontk irchene r Straße 1, D
Hoppecke Batterien                                       Fax: 49 2963 61-449                Standby batte ries
                        59929 Brilon, Ge rmany
                                                         E Mail:


                                                         Tel: 1 818 767-7067                High Capacity Industrial
Industrial Battery      9121 DeGarmo Avenue Sun
                                                         Fax: 1 818 767-7173                Type for dee p cycle
Engineering Inc         Valle y, C A 91352, USA
                                                         E Mail: info@ibe -inc.com          ope ration


                                                         Tel: 1 831 439 5100
Innergy Power           940 Disc Drive Scotts Valle y,                                      Thin sealed lead
                                                         Fax: 1 831 439 5118
Corporation             C A 95066, USA                                                      batte ries
                                                         E Mail:


                        1-1 Matsushita-cho,              Tel: 81 6 994 4351
Matsushita Battery
                        Moriguchi, Osaka, Japan 570-     Fax: 81 6 993 6415
Industrial Co., Ltd.
                        8511                             E Mail:


                        1645 South Sinclair Stree t,     Tel: 1714 937 1033
                                                                                            Sonnenschein dryfit Ge l
MK Batteries            Anaheim , California 92806,      Fax: 1 714 937 0818
                                                                                            Ce ll batte ries
                        USA                              E Mail: info@mkbatte ry.com


                                                         Tel: 49 95 739622-0
                        Ange rstraße 50, D 96231,
Moll Batterien                                           Fax: 49 95 739622-11
                        Staffe lstein, Ge rmany
                                                         E Mail: info@moll-batte rie n.de


                                                         Tel: 1 303 340 7440
                        17500 East 22nd Avenue /         Fax: 1 303 340 7474                Sealed lead acid
Optima Batteries
                        Aurora, Colorado 80011, USA      E Mail: questions@optima           batte ries
                                                         batte ries.com




                                                                                                         Page | 264
                                                         Tel: 1 650 364 5001
                        3106 Spring Stree t P.O . Box                                       Small Ge l Cells, NiCd
Power-sonic                                              Fax: 1 650 366 3662
                        5242 Redwood C ity, C A.                                            Batte ries for many
Batteries                                                E Mail: inte rnational-
                        94063, USA                                                          applications
                                                         sales@powe r-sonic.com


                        25 McLean Blvd Pate rson,        Tel: 1 973 523 8630
Power Battery                                                                               Lead acid, VR LA
                        Ne w Je rse y 07514-1507 ,       Fax: 1 973 523 3023
Company Inc.                                                                                batte ries
                        USA                              E Mail: sales@powe rbat.com


                        P.O. Box 671, 8 Proctor          Tel: 1 978 745 3333
Rolls Battery
                        Stree t, Salem,                  Fax: 1 978 741 8956                Deep C ycle Batte rie s
Engineering
                        Massachusse tts 01970, USA       E Mail: sales@rollsbatte ry. com


                                                         Tel: 33 (0)1 49 93 19 18
                        12, rue Sadi Carnot 93170,                                          Nicke l-cadm ium
Saft Batteries                                           Fax: 33 (0)1 49 93 19 50
                        Bagnole t, France                                                   batte ries
                                                         E Mail:


                                                         Tel: 1 619 661 4888
                        2055 Sanyo Ave ., San Die go,
Sanyo Batteries                                          Fax: 1 619 661 6743
                        California USA 92154
                                                         E Mail:


                        Rm 501-506, Bairong Bldg,        Tel: 86 755 5164318
Shenzhen Center                                                                             Sealed lead acid
                        1073 Cuizhu R d, Shenzhen        Fax: 86 755 5606044
Power Tech. Co. Ltd                                                                         batte ries
                        518020, C hina                   E Mail: sales@vision-batt.com


                        14/F,Anhua Building, 8th         Tel: (86) 83661090
Shenzhen Stand
                        Yingchun Rd., Luohu District     Fax: (86) 83661101                 Sealed lead acid
Power Industrial
                        Shenzhen,                        E Mail:                            batte ries
Co., Ltd
                        Guangdong,518001,China           sales@standbatte ry.com


                                                         Tel: 49 6042 954 - 130             Dry Fit, Pre vaile r,
Sonnenschien (part
                        Industriestr. 22 D-63654         Fax: 49 6042 954 - 190             Sonnenschein brand
of Tadiran Batte ries
                        Büdingen, Ge rmany               E Mail: info@sonne nsche in-       Sealed Ge l lead acid
Ltd)
                                                         lithium.de                         batte ries


                        P.O. Box 2020, 1 Station         Tel: 1 902 597 3767
Surrette Battery
                        Road, Springhill, Nova Scotia,   Fax: 1 902 597 8447                Deep C ycle Batte rie s
Company Limited
                        Canada B0M 1X0                   E Mail: sales@surre tte.com


Tovarna                                                  Tel: 386 ( 0 ) 2 8702 300
                        Polena 6, SLO-2392 Me zica,                                         Lead acid, VR LA
akumulatorskih                                           Fax: 386 ( 0 ) 2 8702 305
                        Slovenia                                                            batte ries
baterij                                                  E Mail: info@tab-rm .si


                                                         Tel: 1 562 946 8381
                        12380 C lark Stree t, Santa Fe
                                                         Fax: 1 562 906 4033
Trojan Battery          Springs, California 90670,                                          Deep C ycle Batte rie s
                                                         E Mail: Marke ting@
                        USA
                                                         trojanbatte ry.com


US Battery              1675 Sampson Avenue ,            Tel: 1 909 371 8090                Deep C ycle Batte rie s
                        Corona, California 91719,        Fax: 1 909 371 4671



                                                                                                           Page | 265
                      USA                                    E Mail: info@usbatte ry.com


                      We rk Ellwangen                        Tel: 49 79 61 83-0
                                                                                               Automotive, Portable
Varta A G             Daim le rstraße 1 73479                Fax: 49 79 61 83-440
                                                                                               batte ries
                      Ellwangen Ge rmany                     E Mail:


                                                             Tel: 1 530 676 7820               Stationary, industrial led
Yuasa Corporation     3417 Raben Way, Came ron               Fax: 1 253 390 3611               acid batte ries for
(part of Ene rsys)    Park , California 95682, USA           E Mail: yistationary@             te le communications,
                                                             yuasainc.com                      UPS, Se curity, lighting




WORLD CHARGE CONTROLLER MANUFACTURERS



Company Name           A ddress                                Contact Details                 Business


                                                               Tel: 1 203 790 6400
                       23 F.J. C larke Circle, Be the l,       Fax: 1 203 792 0300             TurboCharge r T80
A pollo Solar
                       CT 06801, USA                           E Mail: johnp@apollo -          Charge Controlle r
                                                               solar.ne t


                                                               Tel: 1 760 597 1642
                       2598 Fortune Way, Suite K,              Fax: 1 760 597 1731
Blue Sky Energy LLC                                                                            SolarBoost Controlle rs
                       Vista, C A 92081, USA                   E Mail:
                                                               sales@blue skye ne rgyinc.com


                                                               Tel: 1 314 644 2490
                       7614 Marion Court, St. Louis,
BZ Products Inc                                                Fax: 1 314 644 6121             Charge Controlle rs
                       Missouri, 63143, USA
                                                               E Mail:


                                                               Tel: 1 613 962 9889
                       57 Alexande r Stree t, Be lle ville     Fax: 1 613 932 9889             SunSport Advanced
Eco Energy
                       Ontario K8N 2H4 Canada                  E Mail:                         Solar C harge rs
                                                               e co.ene rgy@sympatico.ca


                                                               Tel: 1 480 966 1380
                       ETA Enginee ring, Inc. 2010
                                                               Fax: 1 480 966 1516
ETA Engineering        East Unive rsity Dr., Suite #11                                         PBR C harge regulators
                                                               E Mail: e ne rgy@e ta
                       Tempe , Arizona, 85281, USA
                                                               enginee ring.com


                                                               Tel: 1 520 526 1133
Fire, Wind and Rain    3850 East Huntington Drive ,            Fax: 1 520 527 4664             4-100kW Inve rte rs and
Technologies LLC       Flagstaff, Arizona 86004, USA           E Mail: sales@fire wind         500W Grid Tied Inve rte rs
                                                               andrain.com


                       3733 Kenora Road, Spring                Tel: 1 619 460 3930
Heliotrope PV                                                                                  Charge Controlle rs
                       Valle y, California 91977, USA          Fax: 1 619 460 9211
                                                               E Mail:

                                                                                                            Page | 266
                                                         he liotro@he liotro.com


                                                         Tel: 1 514 270 5770
ICP Global             6995 Jeanne -Mance Montreal,      Fax: 1 514 270 3677             Solar modules and
Technologies           Canada H3N 1W 5                   E Mail: custome rs              charge controlle rs
                                                         @icpglobal.com


                                                         Tel: 66 2 746 9500
                       119/51 Moo 8, Bagna-Trad
                                                         Fax: 66 2 746 8712
Leonics Co. Ltd        Road, Bangna, Bangkok                                             Solar C ontrolle rs
                                                         E Mail:
                       10260, Thailand
                                                         global_business@leonics.com


                                                         Tel: 1 514 630 5630
                       16883 Hymus Blvd, Kirk land,      Fax: 1 514 426 9123
Matrix Energy Inc                                                                        Charge Controlle rs
                       QC , H9H 3L4                      E Mail:
                                                         info@matrixe ne rgy.ca


                                                         Tel: 1 215 321 4457
                                                                                         ProStar, SunSave r,
Morningstar            8 Pheasant R un Ne wtown, PA      Fax: 1 215 321 4458
                                                                                         Sunlight, Sunguard
Corporation            18940                             E Mail: info@morningstar
                                                                                         Charge Controlle rs
                                                         corp.com


                                                         Tel: 886 2 2662/5093
                       6F, No. 248, Se c. 3, Pei-She n
                                                         Fax: 866 2 2662/5097
Motech Instruments     Rd. Shen-Ke ng Hsiang,Taipe i                                     MPPT charge controlle r
                                                         E Mail:
                       Hsie n 222, Taiwan
                                                         sean_li@mote ch.com.tw


                                                         Tel: 1 360 435 6030             Max imum Powe r Point
                       19009 62nd Ave NE Arlington
Outback Power                                            Fax: 1 360 435 6019             Tracking (MPPT)
                       W .A., USA 98223
                                                         E Mail:                         Controlle rs


                                                         Tel: 36 1 215 9116
                       Osztály u. 16-18/E, Hungary                                       PSR solar charge
Panelectron Ltd                                          Fax: 36 1 215 9116
                       H-1087 Budapest                                                   controlle rs
                                                         E Mail: info@pane le ctron.hu


                                                         Tel: 49 731 9402 0880           Solar charge controlle rs
                       Ebe rhard Finckh Str 10 D-
Phocos Europe GmbH                                       Fax: 49 731 9402 0886           and othe r BO S
                       89075 Ulm Ge rmany
                                                         E Mail: info@phocos.com         components


                                                         Tel: 1 914 738 1400
                       143 Sparks Ave nue , Pelham ,
Pico Electronics Inc                                     Fax: 1 914 738 8225             Solar C harge Controlle rs
                       Ne w York 10803, USA
                                                         E Mail:


                                                         Tel: 61 3 9486 9902
                       16 Gipps Stree t, Collingwood,    Fax: 61 3 9486 9903             Ele ctronic regulating and
Plasmatronics
                       Victoria, Australia 3066          E Mail:                         me te ring de vices
                                                         adm in@plasmatronics.com.au


                       Jalan Pondok Randu No. 38,        Tel: 62 21 541 6103             Charge Controlle rs and
Pt. Sundaya
                       Cengkareng Jakarta Barat          Fax: 62 21 541 6106             othe r Balance of
Indonesia
                       11750, Indonesia                  E Mail: info@sundaya.com        Systems



                                                                                                       Page | 267
                                                           Tel: 1 530 265 9771          Pulse width modulated
Pulse Energy           870 Gold Flat Road Ne vada
                                                           Fax:                         (PWM) controlle rs and
Systems Inc            C ity, Ca. 95959, USA
                                                           E Mail:                      Industrial Controlle rs


                                                                                        Ultra High Efficie ncy
                                                                                        controls from 7 amps to
                                                           Tel: 1 231 547 9430 (800-
                                                                                        200 amps. Load controls
SES Flexcharge USA                                         748-0231)
                       1217 State Stree t, C harlevoix ,                                including low voltage
See lye Equipment                                          Fax: 1 231 547 5522
                       Michigan 49720, USA                                              programmable time rs,
Spe cialists (SES)                                         E Mail:
                                                                                        dusk to dawn controls,
                                                           sales@flex charge .com
                                                                                        low batte ry disconne ct
                                                                                        and light flashe rs.


                                                           Tel: 1-800-667-6527
Soltek Powersource     1969 Keating C ross Rd.
                                                           Fax: 1-866-727-2135          20-120 amp regulators
Ltd                    Victoria, BC V8M 2A4
                                                           E Mail: sps@spsene rgy.com


                                                           Tel: 1 818 998 5238
Specialty Concepts     8954 Mason Ave , C hatsworth,       Fax: 1 818 998 5253          ASC, Mark Controlle rs.
Inc                    California 91311, USA               E Mail: spe ccon@earthlink   1-50 Amps
                                                           .ne t


                                                           Tel: 49 83 31 85 58-0        3Amps - 140 Amps
                       Mammostrasse 1, D 87700
Steca Solar                                                Fax: 49 83 31 85 58-11       charge controlle rs and
                       Memm ingen, Ge rmany
                                                           E Mail: solar@ste ca.de      othe r components


                                                           Tel:1 623 580 7700
                       2020 West Pinnacle Peak
                                                           Fax: 1 623 587 5714          4-30 Amp C harge
SunA mp Power          Road, Phoenix Arizona 85027,
                                                           E Mail: sunamp@sunamp        Controlle rs
                       USA
                                                           .com


                                                           Tel: 1 914 336 0146
SunWize                90 Boices Lane, Kingston, Ne w      Fax: 1 914 336 0457          SunWize Ste ca Solsum
Technologies Inc       York 12401, USA                     E Mail: sunwize @            Controlle rs
                                                           besicorp.com


                                                           Tel: 49 7641 8291
Uhlmann              Tullastr 5, 79331 Teningen.           Fax: 49 7641 6816
                                                                                        Charge Controlle rs
Solarelectronic GmbH Ge rmany                              E Mail: info@uhlmann-
                                                           solar.de


                                                           Tel: 1 604 422 2590
                       5916 195th NorthEast,                                            Max imum powe r point
                                                           Fax:
Xantrex Technology     Arlington, Washington 98223,                                     track ing solar charge
                                                           E Mail:
                       USA                                                              controlle rs
                                                           carlos.garcia@xantrex .com


                                                           Tel: 44 (0) 1869 322500
                       Te lford R oad, BIC ESTER, OX26     Fax: 44 (0) 1869 322614
Zeta Controls Ltd.                                                                      Charge Controlle rs
                       4LB, United Kingdom                 E Mail:
                                                           sales@ze tacontrols.co.uk




                                                                                                       Page | 268
WORLD INVERTERS MANUFACTURERES



Company Name              A ddress                     Contact Details                   Business


                                                       Tel: 386 68 321111                Re ctifie rs (AC /DC) up to
A dvanced Electronic      Rozmanova 22, 8000 Novo
                                                       Fax: 386 68 322901                10kW and DC/DC
Supply (A ES)             Me sto, Slove nia
                                                       E Mail: aes@aes.si                conve rte rs up to 500W


                          1625 Sharp Point Drive ,     Tel: 1 970 407 6280
A dvanced Energy                                                                         Solaron™ line of
                          Fort Collins, Colorado       Fax: 1 970 407 5280
Industries, Inc.                                                                         photovoltaic inve rte rs
                          80525                        E Mail: marna.shillman@aei.com


                                                                                         DC-DC Voltage
                                                                                         Conve rte rs, DC-AC
                                                       Tel: 1 (604) 543-7378             Powe r Inve rte rs, AC -DC
                          #207 - 12448 82nd Ave.
                                                       Fax: 1 (604) 543-7354             Powe r Supplies, DC & AC
A nalytic Systems         Surre y, British Columbia,
                                                       E Mail: info@analytic             Source Batte ry
                          V3W 3E9, Canada
                                                       systems.com                       Charge rs, Configurable
                                                                                         and Custom Powe r
                                                                                         Solutions


                          15001 Comme rce Drive        Tel: 714 445 7456
Ballard Power             North, Dearborn,             Fax: 313 583 5990                 Comme rcial Inve rte rs
                          Michigan, 48120, USA         E Mail: marke ting@ballard.com


                          Beacon Powe r Corporation
                                                       Tel: 1 (978) 694-9121
                          234 Ballardvale Stree t                                        Smart Powe r M5
Beacon Power                                           Fax: 1 (978) 694-9127
                          W ilm ington MA 01887,                                         Inve rte rs
                                                       E Mail: sales@beaconpowe r.com
                          USA


Cherokee
                          1092 National Park way,      Tel: 1 847 839 0015               12 Volt DC to 110 Volt
Electronics (W ire less
                          Schaumburg, Illinois         Fax: 1 847 839-0016               AC Powe r Inve rte rs with
Marke ting
                          60173, USA                   E Mail:                           Supe r Surge Te chnology
Corporation)


                                                       Tel: 1 847 839 0015
                          Via Caduti di Navicello 6
Convertitori Statici                                   Fax: 1 847 839-0016
                          41030 Bomporto (MO)                                            High frequency inve rte rs
s.r.l.                                                 E Mail: cie sse @conve rtitori-
                          Italy
                                                       statici.com


                                                       Tel: 39 0542 489711               Sunway TG (three phase
Elettronica Santerno      S.S. Se lice 47 - 40026      Fax: 39 0542 489722               unit) and Sunway M XR
S.p.a.                    Imola (BO) Italy             E Mail: sales@                    (single phase ), 2 kWp up
                                                       e le ttronicasante rno.it         to 330 kWp


                          2225 E. Loop 820 North,      Tel: 1 817 595 4969
                                                                                         True Sine wave Powe r
Exeltech                  Fort Worth, Texas 76118,     Fax: 1 817 595 1290
                                                                                         Inve rte rs
                          USA                          E Mail: info@exe lte ch.com



                                                                                                       Page | 269
                                                       Tel: 1 928 526 1133
                         3850 East Huntington                                              4-100kW Inve rte rs and
Fire, Wind and Rain                                    Fax: 1 928 527 4664
                         Drive, Flagstaff, Arizona                                         500W Grid Tied
Technologies LLC                                       E Mail: sales@fire wind
                         86004, USA                                                        Inve rte rs
                                                       andrain.com


                                                       Tel: 43 7242 241-0                  Mains (700-2500W) and
Fronius Vertrieb         Buxbaumstrasse 2, PO Box
                                                       Fax: 43 7242 241-394                Stand alone (Solarix)
GmbH & Co. KG            264, A-4602, We ls, Austria
                                                       E Mail: pv@fronius.com              Inve rte rs


                                                  Tel: 1 253 872 7225
Heart Interface (part    21440 68th Avenue South,
                                                  Fax: 1 253 796 7620                      Modified Sine wave
of Xantrex Te chnology   Kent, Washington 98032,
                                                  E Mail: sales@                           Inve rte rs
Inc)                     USA
                                                  heartinte rface .com


                                                                                           Sine Wave Inve rte rs,
                                                                                           Modified Sine Wave
                                                       Tel: 866 247 6527                   Inve rte rs, Smart Batte ry
Go Power! Electric       PO Box 6033, Victoria BC
                                                       Fax: 866 607 6527                   Charge rs, R V & Marine
Inc.                     V8P 5L4, Canada
                                                       E Mail: e sales@gpele ctric.com     Solar C harging Kits, Fuse
                                                                                           Blocks and Powe r
                                                                                           Accessories


                                                                                           Powe r inve rte r with
                                                       Tel: 86-21-28131505
GODZI Electrical         No.619 Jiujiang Rd,                                               powe r range from 150W
                                                       Fax: 86-21-52729777
Co.,Ltd.                 Shanghai, China                                                   to 2000W (peak powe r
                                                       E Mail: e xport@gorzi-group.com
                                                                                           from 300W to 4000W),


                                                       Tel: 34 948 175633                  Three-phase and single-
                         Pintor Mae ztu, 2 E-31008
Ingeteam, S.A .                                        Fax: 34 948 175635                  phase grid tied Inge con
                         Pamplona, Spain
                                                       E Mail: solar@p.inge team.e s       Sun inve rte rs


                         Via de lla bonifica, sn,      Tel: 39 085 9777 1
ITA LCOEL s.r.l.,        Vallemare , Pescara, I -      Fax: 39 085 9777 250                Industrial inve rte rs
                         65010, Italy                  E Mail: italcoe l@gruppocite .com


                         1002 B O 'Re illy Ave . The   Tel: 415 931 2046
KA CO Solar, Inc.        Presidio San Francisco, C A   Fax:                                Inve rte r line 1.5 - 3 kW
                         94129                         E Mail: info@kacosolar.com


                         93 Grigor St Caloundra        Tel: 61 7 54916988
                                                                                           Grid tied, standalone
Latronics                Queensland, Australia         Fax: 61 7 54916792
                                                                                           400W - 3500W inve rte rs
                         4551                          E Mail: sales@latronics.com


                                                  Tel: 66 2 746 9500
                         119/51 Moo 8, Bagna-Trad
                                                  Fax: 66 2 746 8712
Leonics Co. Ltd          Road, Bangna, Bangkok                                             Solar Inve rte rs
                                                  E Mail:
                         10260, Thailand
                                                  global_business@leonics.com


                         8966 Mason Ave nue
                                                       Tel: 1 818-727-2216
Magnetek                 Chatsworth, C A 91311,                                            Aurora product line
                                                       Fax: 1 818-727-2276
                         Unite d States
                                                       E Mail: productinformation@


                                                                                                         Page | 270
                                                       magne tek .com




                                                       Tel: 1 425-353-8833
                         1111 80th St SW, Suite
                                                       Fax: 1 425-353-8390               ME and R D se ries
Magnum Energy Inc        250, Eve re tt W A 98203,
                                                       E Mail:                           Inve rte r/C harge r
                         USA
                                                       gbax te r@magnumene rgy.com


                                                                                         Grid tied Inve rte rs,
                         Snijde rsbe rgweg 93,         Tel: 31 20 342 2180
                                                                                         Stand alone Inve rte rs,
Mastervolt Solar BV      Amste rdam , The              Fax: 31 20 342 2188
                                                                                         String Inve rte rs, AC
                         Ne the rlands 1105 AN         E Mail: solar@maste rvolt.com
                                                                                         Module Inve rte rs


                         6F, No. 248, Se c. 3, Pei-
                                                       Tel: 886 2 2662/5093
                         Shen Rd. She n-Ke ng                                            Single phase , Sine wave ,
Motech Instruments                                     Fax: 866 2 2662/5097
                         Hsiang,Taipe i Hsien 222,                                       Multi-String PV inve rte r
                                                       E Mail: sean_li@mote ch.com .tw
                         Taiwan


                         Zuide lijk Halfrond 4 P.O .   Tel: 31 182 592 333
NKF Electronics          Box 415, 2800 AK Gouda        Fax: 31 182 592 123               AC Module Inve rte rs
                         The Ne the rlands             E Mail: e le ctronics@nkf.nl


Omnion                   2010 Ene rgy Drive , PO       Tel: 1 262 642 7200
                                                                                         Single phase PV powe r
(part of S&C Ele ctric   Box 879, East Troy,           Fax: 1 262 642 7760
                                                                                         conve rte rs
Co)                      W isconsin, 53120, USA        E Mail:


                         15663 Village Drive           Tel: 1-888-647-6527
OutBack Inverters        Victorville , C A, 92394,     Fax: 1 760-955-3416               FX se ries inve rte rs
                         Unite d States                E Mail:


                                                                                         Off Grid Inve rte rs and
                         19009 62nd Ave NE             Tel: 1 360 435 6030
Outback Power                                                                            Grid Conne ct Batte ry
                         Arlington, WA 98223,          Fax: 1 360 435 6019
Systems                                                                                  Back Up System
                         Unite d States                E Mail: sales@outbackpowe r.com
                                                                                         Inve rte rs


                                                       Tel: 36 1 215 9116                Small powe r (200-400-
                         Osztály u. 16-18/E,
Panelectron Ltd                                        Fax: 36 1 215 9116                1000KVA) sine wave
                         Hungary H-1087 Budapest
                                                       E Mail: info@pane le ctron.hu     inve rte rs


                                                      Tel: 886 2 6600/6688
Phoenixtec Power         No 93, Shin-Hu 3rd R d.,                                        Phoe nix te c Sunville
                                                      Fax: 886 2 6606/8704
Co Ltd                   Ne i-Hu 114, Taipe i, Taiwan                                    Inve rte rs
                                                      E Mail:


                                                       Tel: 1 650 494 3322
PowerPro                 1000 San Antonio Road,
                                                       Fax: 1 650 494 3062               DC/AC Powe r inve rte rs
(Tumble r                Palo Alto, California
                                                       E Mail: info@                     (100W-500W )
Te chnologies)           94303, USA
                                                       TRUMPowe r.com


                         Unit 2, 6 London Drive
PowerSine (Powe r                                      Tel: 61 3 9761 1252
                         P.O.Box 274, Bayswate r                                         Sine wave Inve rte rs
Conve rsions Pty Ltd)                                  Fax: 61 3 9761 1911
                         Victoria 3153 Australia
                                                       E Mail: sales@powe r


                                                                                                        Page | 271
                                                     conve rsions.com




                                                    Tel: 61 (3) 9762 0757
                       Factory 3/6 Holloway                                               Grid Batte ry Inte ractive
Power Solutions                                     Fax: 61 (3) 9762 0715
                       Drive, Bayswate r, Victoria,                                       inve rte rs with and
A ustralia                                          E Mail: mail@powe r
                       3153 Australia                                                     without batte ries
                                                    solution.com .au


                                                                                          Comme rcial and
                                                                                          reside ntial grid-tie d PV
                                                                                          inve rte rs. Output powe r
                       20720 Brinson Blvd, Be nd, Tel: 541 312 3832
                                                                                          from 1100W to 260kW.
PV Powered             OR 97701 (PO Box 7348,     Fax: 541 383 2348
                                                                                          Inte grated data
                       Bend, OR 97708)            E Mail: info@pvpowe red.com
                                                                                          monitoring solutions and
                                                                                          balance of system
                                                                                          components.


                                                     Tel: 1 707 485 0949
SatCon Technology      27 Drydock Avenue                                                  30kW to 500kW solar
                                                     Fax:
Corporation            Boston, MA 02210, USA                                              powe r conve rte r systems
                                                     E Mail: casales@satcon.com


                       Se le ctronic Australia Pty
                                                     Tel: 61 (3) 9727 6600
                       Ltd Suite 5, 20 Fle tche r                                         Inve rte r / C harge rs from
Selectronic                                          Fax: 61 (3) 9727 6601
                       Road, Mooroolbark, Vic,                                            3,000W to 12,000W
                                                     E Mail: sales@se le ctronic.com.au
                       3138, Australia


                       Sharp Photovoltaics Div.
                                                  Tel: 81 745 63 3579
Sharp Corporation      282-1 Hajikam i , Shinjo -
                                                  Fax: 81 745 62 8253
(Photovoltaics         cho, Kita -Katsuragi-gun,                                          SunVista 3500
                                                  E Mail: we bmaste r@
Division)              Nara Prefe cture 639-2198,
                                                  sharp.co.jp
                       Japan


                                                                                          1 and 3-phase inve rte rs
                       Automation and Drives
                                                     Tel: 49 911 750 2749                 up to MW range ,
                       Systems Enginee ring P. O.
Siemens A G                                          Fax: 49 911 750 2246                 monitoring system and
                       Box 23 55 90713 Fue rth,
                                                     E Mail: stefan.david@siemens.com     BO S components,
                       Ge rmany
                                                                                          se rvice and training


                       526 South Commerce            Tel: 1 801 765 4686                  PureWatts and Pure Sine
Sinergex
                       Drive, O rem, Utah 84058,     Fax: 1 801 762 0276                  Inve rte rs and batte ry
Technologies
                       USA                           E Mail: adam @sine rgex .com         charge rs


                                                     Tel: 49 561 9522-0
                       Sonnenallee 1 34266                                                Grid tied Sunny Boy
SMA Technologie A G                                  Fax: 49 561 9522-100
                       Nieste tal, Ge rmany                                               Inve rte rs
                                                     E Mail: info@SMA.de


                       Magdalen Ce ntre , Oxford     Tel: 44 1865 784 670
Solapak Ltd (part of
                       Science Park , O X4 4GA,      Fax: 44 1865 784 681                 Inve rte rs/Systems
Inte rsolar Ltd)
                       UK                            E Mail: solapak @solapak .com


Solarix (brand of      Buxbaumstrasse 2, PO Box Tel: 43 7242 241-0                        Mains (700-2500W) and


                                                                                                        Page | 272
Fronius Ve rtrieb GmbH   264, A-4602, We ls, Austria Fax: 43 7242 241-394             Stand alone (Solarix)
& Co. KG)                                            E Mail: pv@fronius.com           Inve rte rs


                         Karlsbe rge r Strasse 3,     Tel: 49 831 540214 0
Solarstocc A G           87471 Durach, Allgäu,        Fax: 49 831 540214 5            Solarstocc PS Inve rte rs
                         Ge rmany                     E Mail: info@solarstocc.com


                                                                                      Grid-tied inve rte rs for
                         360 Me rrimack Stree t,      Tel: 978 683-9700               reside ntial and
Solectria
                         Bldg 9 Lawre nce , MA        Fax: 978 683-9702               comme rcial applications
Renewables
                         01843, United States         E Mail: solar@solre n.com       ranging from 1kW upto
                                                                                      1MW systems.


                                                                                      SolarMax grid tied PV
                                                    Tel: 41 32 346 56 00
Sputnik Engineering      Höhe weg 85 C H-2502 Biel,                                   inve rte rs 1.8 to 4.6 kW
                                                    Fax: 41 32 346 56 09
AG                       Switze rland                                                 (single phase ) 20 to 300
                                                    E Mail: sputnik @solarmax.com
                                                                                      kW ( three phase )


                                                 Tel: 49 83 31 85 58-0                Solarix Sinus Sinwave
                         Mammostrasse 1, D 87700
Steca GmbH                                       Fax: 49 83 31 85 58-11               Inve rte rs for Stand-
                         Memm ingen, Ge rmany
                                                 E Mail: solar@ste ca.de              alone systems


                                                      Tel: 41 (0)27 205 60 80
                         R te des Case rnes 57, CH
Studer Solartechnik                                   Fax: 41 (0) 27 205 60 88        Sine wave Inve rte rs
                         1950 Sion, Switze rland
                                                      E Mail: info@stude r-inno.com


                                                      Tel: 403 508-7177
                         Suite 200, 422 - 11th.
Sustainable Energy                                    Fax: (403) 205-2509             High e fficiency DC to AC
                         Ave. SE Calgary, Albe rta,
Technologies                                          E Mail: info@sustainable        inve rte rs
                         Canada T2G 0Y4
                                                      ene rgy.com


                         1000 San Antonio Road,       Tel: 1 650 494 3322
Tumbler                                                                               Powe rPro and Porta-
                         Palo Alto, California        Fax: 1 650 494 3062
Technologies                                                                          Powe r Inve rte rs
                         94303, USA                   E Mail: powe rpro@webcom.com


                                                      Tel: 1 614 771 2718
Vanner                   4282 Re ynolds Drive,                                        Sine wave , Quasi
                                                      Fax: 1 614 771 4904
Incorporated             Hilliard, Ohio 43026, USA                                    Sine wave Inve rte rs
                                                      E Mail: pwrsale s@vanne r.com


                                                                                      Grid-tie inve rte r systems
                                                                                      for use in conjunction
                                                                                      with utility powe r, or off-
                                                                                      grid inve rte r systems for
                                                                                      comple te freedom from
                         8999 Ne lson Way             Tel: 1 360 435 8826
Xantrex Technology                                                                    the utility grid - Xantrex
                         Burnaby, BC Canada V5A       Fax: 1 604 420 1591
Inc                                                                                   Batte ry Based XW
                         4B5                          E Mail: j.court@xantrex .com
                                                                                      System - hybrid
                                                                                      inve rte r/charge r, powe r
                                                                                      distribution pane l, GT
                                                                                      Se ries – grid tie single
                                                                                      phase.




                                                                                                    Page | 273
WORLD SOLAR MATERIALS SUPPLIERS



Company
                  Country   A ddress                  Contact Details                 Business
Name


                                                                                      Thin film planar and
                                                                                      rotatable sputte ring
                            5520 Midway Park          Tel: 1 505.343.9440
A cademy          Unite d                                                             targe ts spe cializing
                            Place NE Albuque rque ,   Fax: 1 505.343.9441
Group             States                                                              in rotatable and
                            NM 87109                  E Mail: apm @academ ycorp.com
                                                                                      planar silve r
                                                                                      targe ts


                                                                                      Adhe sives,
                                                                                      sealants,
                                                      Tel: 1 517 841 7197
                            4401 Page Ave nue ,                                       encapsulants, and
ADCO              Unite d                             Fax: 1 517 764 6697
                            P.O. Box 457, Michigan                                    coatings for module
Products, Inc.    States                              E Mail:
                            Cente r, MI 49254                                         construction,
                                                      timothy.oneil@adcocorp.com
                                                                                      assembly and
                                                                                      installation


                                                      Tel: 1 631 727 6000
A dchem           Unite d   1852 O ld Country Rd.                                     Mounting tapes for
                                                      Fax:
Corporation       States    R ive rhead, NY 11901                                     solar applications
                                                      E Mail: info@adchem .com


                            244, Buyong Industrial                                    CIGS Targe t for
A dvanced                                          Tel: (82) 43 275 6966
                            Complex, Kumho -ri,                                       Thinfilm Solar and
Nano Products     Korea                            Fax: (82)43 275 6960
                            Chungwon-k un, Rep of.                                    Silve r Paste for
Co., Ltd                                           E Mail: hosik -kim @anapro.com
                            Korea 363942                                              C rystalline Solar


AFG                         1400 Lincoln Stree t,     Tel: 1 423 229 7200             Tin oxide coate d
                  Unite d
Industries,                 Kingsport, TN 37660,      Fax: 1 423 229 7459             glass for thin film
                  States
Inc.                        USA                       E Mail:                         solar ce lls


                                                                                      Me tals, alloys and
A lfa A esar, A                                                                       chemicals including
Johnson                                               Tel: 1 978-521-6300
                  Unite d   26 Park ridge R d, Ward                                   cadm ium , coppe r,
                                                      Fax: 1 978-521-6350
Matthey           States    Hill MA 01835                                             gallium, indium,
                                                      E Mail: info@alfa.com
Company                                                                               se lenide , silicon,
                                                                                      te llurium


                                                                                      Corrosion
                                                                                      prote ction in
                                                                                      ex treme
                                                                                      environments such
                                                                                      as Sele nization.
A pplied Thin               1801 Maple Ave. Suite     Tel: 1 503.789.5744
                  Unite d                                                             Monolithic
                            # 5316 Evanston, IL       Fax: 1 847.491.3997
Films Inc.        States                                                              integration on
                            60201                     E Mail: damo@atfine t.com
                                                                                      flex ible solar
                                                                                      modules on metal
                                                                                      foils. High
                                                                                      tempe rature stable
                                                                                      die le ctric coating
                                                                                      via roll to roll

                                                                                             Page | 274
                                                                                             processing; Durable
                                                                                             Hydrophobic
                                                                                             coating on cove r
                                                                                             glass. Barrie r or
                                                                                             encapsulant coating


A sahi Glass
Corporation                                            Tel: 1 503.844.9689
                 Unite d      4375 NW 235 Ave .
                                                       Fax: 1 503.844.7202                   Glass Frits
Electronic       States       Hillsboro, OR. 97124
                                                       E Mail: info@agem-usa.com
Materials


                              High Performance Film
Bridgestone                   Sales Department 5-15 Tel: 81 3 5202 6907
                 Japan        Nihonbashi 3-chome    Fax: 81 3 5202 6842                      EVA film
Corporation
                              Chuo-k u Tok yo, 103- E Mail:
                              0027, Japan


                                                                                             Customized
                                                                                             sputte ring targe ts,
CERA C, inc. -                                                                               e vaporation
Subsidiary of                                          Tel: 414-289-9800                     mate rials and
                 Unite d      407 N. 13th Stree t,
Williams                                               Fax: 414-289-9805                     powde rs to mee t
                 States       Milwaukee , W I 53233
A dvanced                                              E Mail: ce racinfo@bem inc.com        the full demands of
Materials                                                                                    the CdTe , CIGS,
                                                                                             and TCO solar
                                                                                             marke ts


                                                       Tel: 1 302 999 1447
Cermet           Unite d      6 Me co Drive
                                                       Fax: 1 302 999 7211                   Thick film paste
Materials Inc    States       W ilm ington DE 19804
                                                       E Mail: cm i@ce rme tmate rials.com


                              Chadwick Road,           Tel: 44 (0) 1 928 580508
CPFilms          Unite d      Astmoor Industrial       Fax: 44 (0) 1 928 580100              Tedlar composite
Limited          Kingdom      Estate , Runcorn,        E Mail:                               back ing shee t
                              Cheshire W A7 IPW , UK   David.Ne wbitt@cpfilms.co.uk


                                                       Tel: 1 423 229 7200
Crane            Unite d      30 South Stree t,                                              C raneglas glass
                                                       Fax: 1 423 229 7459
Nonwovens        States       Dalton, MA 01226 USA                                           fibre matting
                                                       E Mail: info@cranenonwovens.com


                              Francisco Be rra 451,
                                                       Tel: 54 114627 1960 /1962
                              B1712AFG Moron,                                                Solar cell tabbing
CREA TIV SRL     Arge ntina                            Fax: 54 114627 1955
                              Buenos Aires,                                                  ribbon
                                                       E Mail:
                              Arge ntina


                              Machong Road,
                              Machong Town,            Tel: 86 769 88288323
CSG Solar                                                                                    Low iron solar glass
                 China        Dongguan City,           Fax: 86 769 88288620
Glass Co. Ltd.                                                                               for PV application
                              Guangdong Province,      E Mail: mark @csgholding.com
                              China




                                                                                                    Page | 275
Dongfa
                                                     Tel: 86 312 2193811
Tianying New              609, 2nd Ring Road,
               China                                 Fax: 86 312 2193890                      Solar low iron glass
Resources Co.,            Baoding, Hebe i, C hina
                                                     E Mail: x iangyin01@126.com
Ltd


                          Coldharbour Lane ,         Tel: 44 117 931 3191
Du Pont (UK)   Unite d
                          Frenchay, Bristol BS16     Fax: 44 117 931 3131                     Thick film pastes
Ltd            Kingdom
                          1Q D, UK                   E Mail:


                          P. O . Box 88, She ridan   Tel: 1 800 255 8386
DuPont         Unite d
                          Drive & R ive r Road,      Fax: 1 716 879 4545                      Tedlar
Tedlar®        States
                          Buffalo NY 14207-0088 E Mail: Tedlar@usa.dupont.com


                          977 Wate rman Avenue       Tel: 1 401 434 1680
               Unite d
EFD, Inc                  East Provide nce, RI       Fax: 1 401 431 0237                      Solde r pastes
               States
                          02914                      E Mail: solde r@e fd-inc.com


                                                                                              Conductive carbon
                                                                                              and silve r printing
                                                     Tel: 44 (0) 1732 811 118
                          Roughway Mill                                                       paste s, photo
Electra        Unite d                               Fax: 44 (0) 1732 811 119
                          Tonbridge Kent TN11                                                 die le ctric paste and
Polymers Ltd   Kingdom                               E Mail:
                          9SG United Kingdom                                                  othe r bespoke
                                                     ashle y.stee rs@e le ctrapolyme rs.com
                                                                                              de ve lopment
                                                                                              se rvices.


Etimex
Primary
                          Industriestr. 3, D-        Tel: 49 7347 670
Packaging
               Ge rmany   89165 Die tenhe im,        Fax: 49 7347 67 209                      EVA films
GmbH
                          Ge rmany                   E Mail: m arke ting@e timex-pp-com
Division:
Vistasolar


                          1000 Lakeside Avenue     Tel: 1 760 305 1000
               Unite d
Ferro                     C le veland, Ohio 44114- Fax: 1 760 305 1100                        Thick film pastes
               States
                          7000                     E Mail: adsource @fe rro.com


                          Bldg. H-11 Freeport      Tel: 1 800.824.2049                        Anodize d ex truded
Futura         Unite d
                          Cente r, PO Box 160350 Fax: 1 801.774.3271                          alum inum frames
Industries     States
                          C learfie ld, Utah 84016 E Mail: m arke ting@futuraind.com          and components


GfE Metalle
                          Höfene r Straße 45 D-      Tel: 49 911 9315-424                     Photovoltaic thin
und
               Ge rmany   90431 Nürnbe rg            Fax: 49 911 9315-429                     film plane r and
Materialien
                          Ge rmany                   E Mail: astrid.borkowski@gfe .com        rotatable coating
GmbH


                          8807 Me sa Oak Drive ,     Tel: 1 909 413 1482                      Glass, Tedlar, EVA,
Global Wedge   Unite d
                          R ive rside , C A 92508,   Fax: 1 909 413 1483                      tabbing and glass
Inc.           States
                          USA                        E Mail: sales@globalwedge.com            fibre mat


Guangfeng      China      No.147, Haishan Road,      Tel: 86 592 6015010                      Solar glass
Solar Glass               Huli District, Xiamen,     Fax: 86 592 5636556


                                                                                                       Page | 276
Co.Ltd                      China 361012              E Mail: sales@gfsolarglass.com


                                                      Tel: 1 610-825-6050
                            24 Union Hill Rd. West                                        Thick Film printing
                 Unite d                              Fax: 1 610-825-7061
Heraeus                     Conshohocken, PA                                              paste s for solar
                 States                               E Mail:
                            19438, USA                                                    ce lls
                                                      Thick film .solar@He raeus.com


                            Nanwa Nihonbashi
                            Building 3F, 4-2-16,  Tel: 81 3 3274 0300
Hi-Sheet
                 Japan      Nihonbashi Muromachi, Fax: 81 3 3274 0311                     Hi-Shee t EVA film
Industries Ltd
                            Chuo-k u, Tok yo 103- E Mail: salesd@hi-shee t.co.jp
                            0022, Japan


                                                                                          Sputte ring targe ts,
                            34 Robinson Road,         Tel: (315) 853 4900                 me tallization
Indium           Unite d
                            C linton, NY - 13323,     Fax: (315) 853 1000                 paste s, tabbing
Corporation      States
                            USA                       E Mail: solar@indium.com            ribbons, indium and
                                                                                          gallium chemicals


                                                      Tel: 43 2236 605-9479
                            A-2355 W iene r                                               Encapsulation
Isovolta A G     Austria                              Fax: 43 2236 605-499
                            Ne udorf, Austria                                             mate rials
                                                      E Mail: icosolar@isovolta.com


                            22F.Zhongmin
                                                      Tel: 86 592 5676567
Jaco SolarSi                BLDG.,No.72 North
                 China                                Fax: 86 592 5673567                 UMG-Si produce r
Ltd                         Hubin Road, Xiamen,
                                                      E Mail: gene ral@solarsi.com
                            Fujian, China, 361012


                            Hi-Nee w Te chnology
                            De velopment Zone ,       Tel: 86 533 3584605
Jinjing Glass                                                                             Low iron glass for
                 China      Jinjing Stree t, Zibo,    Fax: 86 533 3583228
Group                                                                                     solar industry
                            Shandong, 255086          E Mail: sggfay@yahoo.com.cn
                            China


                            Enzwe ihinge n ·
                            Papie rfabrikstrasse 4    Tel: 49 7042 915 0
Krempel                                                                                   Tedlar composite
                 Ge rmany   D-71665                   Fax: 49 7042 15985
Group                                                                                     back ing shee t
                            Vaihinge n/Enz ·          E Mail: info@k rempel.com
                            Ge rmany


                            Vacuum deposition                                             Vacuum deposition
                            mate rials, cathodes      Tel: 1 412 387 9200                 mate rials, cathodes
Kurt J. Lesker   Unite d
                            and re lated vacuum       Fax: 1 412 384 2745                 and re lated vacuum
Company          States
                            equipment and             E Mail: mate rials_sb@leske r.com   equipment and
                            supplies.                                                     supplies.


                            45 Industrial Park way,   Tel: 1 800 225 1926
                 Unite d                                                                  PVF composite films
Madico                      Woburn, MA 01888,         Fax: 1 781 935 6841
                 States                                                                   for module back ing
                            USA                       E Mail:


Materials                                             Tel: 1 614-870-0400                 Thin film planar and
                 Unite d    1660 Georgesville Rd.
Science                                               Fax: 1 614-878-6000                 cast rotatable

                                                                                                   Page | 277
International   States         Columbus, Ohio 43228      E Mail: sales@msitarge t.com     sputte ring targe t
Inc.                                                                                      mate rials for solar
                                                                                          ce lls, high
                                                                                          efficiency glass,
                                                                                          Transpare nt
                                                                                          Conductive Ox ide
                                                                                          (TCO) coating
                                                                                          mate rials.


                                                                                          Thick film
Metalor                        Ave du Vignoble C H-      Tel: 41 32 320 62 71
                                                                                          me tallization
Technologies    Switze rland   2009 Ne uchate l          Fax: 41 32 320 66 09
                                                                                          paste s. Plating
SA                             Switze rland              E Mail: solar@me talor.com
                                                                                          solutions


                               1-4 Nie lson Road,
                                                         Tel: 44 1933 220626
Mining and                     Finedon Road                                               Indium and Gallium
                Unite d                                  Fax: 44 1933 227814
Chemical                       Industrial Estate ,                                        me tals, alloys and
                Kingdom                                  E Mail: m harrowe r@m cp-
Products Ltd                   We llingborough.                                           chemicals
                                                         group.co.uk
                               Northants. NN8 4PE


                               4/1 Kulakova Prospe ct,   Tel: 7 8652 56 31 41             Thick film pastes
Monocrystal     Russia         355035, Stavropol,        Fax: 7 8652 56 15 98             for solar ce ll
                               Russia                    E Mail: analog@monocrystal.com   me tallization


                                                                                          Carbon/graphite
                                                                                          base d mate rials for
                                                         Tel: 1 864 254 8954
                                                                                          the solar industry,
                Unite d        251 Forreste r Dr,        Fax: 1 864 288 2083
Morgan A M&T                                                                              including fe lt
                States         Greenville , SC 29607     E Mail:
                                                                                          insulation, rigid
                                                         Jamie .Snipes@morganplc.com
                                                                                          board insulation,
                                                                                          and graphite.


                                                                                          Purified Graphite
                                                                                          C rucibles.
                                                                                          Inve ntory Carbon
                                                                                          Carbon, furnance
                               9 Brighton-Henrie tta     Tel: 1 800 966 4694
                Unite d                                                                   insulation
MWI Inc.                       Townline Road.            Fax: 1 864 288 2083
                States                                                                    mate rials, hot zone
                               Rocheste r, NY 14623      E Mail: tme rkel@m wi-inc.com
                                                                                          graphite
                                                                                          components
                                                                                          purified or non
                                                                                          purified.


                                                                                          Ultra High Purity
                                                                                          Gas & C hemical
                               3451 E. Harbour Drive     Tel: 1- 602-437-8500
                Unite d                                                                   dispe nse e quipment
Norcimbus                      Phoe nix , AZ 85034-      Fax: 1- 602-437-8555
                States                                                                    for the Photovoltaic
                               7229, USA                 E Mail: info@norcimbus.com
                                                                                          & Semiconductor
                                                                                          Industries


Pemco                                                                                     Scree n printing
                Italy          Arezzo, Italy             Tel: 39 0575 984 884
Euroinks Srl                                                                              paste s
                                                         Fax: 39 0575 984 886



                                                                                                 Page | 278
                                                        E Mail:


                            Pilkington Spe cial Glass
                            Division, Fourth
                                                      Tel: 44 1244 833 265                    Low iron glass and
                  Unite d   Avenue , Deeside
Pilkington                                            Fax: 44 1244 288 473                    tin oxide coated
                  Kingdom   Industrial Estate Park,
                                                      E Mail:                                 glass
                            Deeside, C lwyd CH5
                            2NR


                                                        Tel: 33 3 44 92 31 26
Saint-Gobain                C DI B.P. 31, F-60150                                             Low-iron glass for
                  France                                Fax: 33 3 44 92 31 29
Glass                       Thourotte , France                                                solar modules
                                                        E Mail:


                            7, rue des
                                                                                              Quartz glass
                            entre prene urs ZAE des     Tel: 33 (0)1 34 38 32 00
Silitec -                                                                                     components to
                  France    Tissonvillie rs F -         Fax: 33 (0)1 34 19 22 66
Techniverre                                                                                   solar ce ll
                            95400, Villie rs le Be l,   E Mail: contact@silite c-quartz.com
                                                                                              manufacture rs
                            France


Specialized
                            10 Wate r Stree t,      Tel: 1 860 749 8371
Technology        Unite d
                            Enfie ld, CT 06082-4899 Fax: 1 860 749 7533                       EVA
Resources,        States
                            USA                     E Mail:
Inc. (STR)


                                                                                              Thin film planar and
                                                                                              rotatable targe t
                                                                                              mate rials for CdTe
                                                   Tel: 1 775 787 6700                        and CIGS based
Sputtering        Unite d   7950 Sugar Pine Court,
                                                   Fax: 1 775 787 2663                        solar ce lls,
Materials, Inc.   States    Reno NV 89523
                                                   E Mail: info@smi-targe t.com               Transpare nt
                                                                                              Conductive Ox ide
                                                                                              (TCO) coating
                                                                                              mate rial


                                                                                              Silicon ingot &
                                                                                              fee dstock ,
                            18105
                                                        Tel: 1 (514) 695-8095                 crystalline ce ll
                            Transcanadienne
Targray Solar     Canada                                Fax: 1 (514) 695-0593                 mate rials, thin film
                            Kirk land, Q uebe c, H9J
                                                        E Mail: info@targray.com              mate rials, module
                            3Z4
                                                                                              mate rials and
                                                                                              re cycling se rvice s.


                                                        Tel: 86 22 26993888 & 26992888        Low-iron supe r
Tianjin Taiyue
                  China     Tianjin, China              Fax: 86 22 26999788                   white tempe red
Glass Co Ltd
                                                        E Mail: x ue tongdong@yahoo.com       glass


                                                        Tel: 1 252 972 0680
Torpedo                     1115 Instrument Drive                                             PV Tabbing and
                  Unite d                               Fax: 1 252 977 4515
Specialty                   Rock y Mount, NC                                                  Buss R ibbon
                  States                                E Mail:
Wire, Inc.                  27804 USA                                                         products
                                                        dedwards@torpedowire .com




                                                                                                      Page | 279
                                                                                             Quartz
                            14380 NW Science          Tel: 1 503 605 5600                    components;
                Unite d
Tosoh Quartz                Park Dr. Portland, OR     Fax: 1.503 605 5799                    Tubes, Boats, Door
                States
                            97229                     E Mail: info@tosohquartz.com           Plates and repair
                                                                                             se rvices.


                            692 Plant Road, PO        Tel: 1 864 647 9524
                Unite d                                                                      Solar cell tabbing
Ulbrich                     Box 619, Westminste r     Fax: 1 864 647 0482
                States                                                                       and bus ribbon
                            SC 29693, USA             E Mail:




WORLD PROCESS EQUIPTMENT MANUFACTURERS



Company Name               Country             A ddress               Contact details                             Business


                                                                                                                  Production lines
                                               Schachenwe g 24        Tel: 41 (0)32 387 10 10
3S Swiss So lar Systems                                                                                           including lay-up
                           Switze rland        C H-3250 Lyss,         Fax: 41 (0)32 387 10 11
AG                                                                                                                stations. lam ina
                                               Switze rland           E Mail: info@3-s.ch
                                                                                                                  module teste rs


                                                                                                                  Mate rial handlin
                                                                                                                  robots and
                                                                                                                  automation
                                               3011 Triad Drive       Tel: 1-925-245-3400
                                                                                                                  equipment for s
A dept Technology, Inc.    Unite d States      Live rmore , CA        Fax: 1-925-960-0427
                                                                                                                  ce lls and pane ls
                                               94551 USA              E Mail: info@adept.com
                                                                                                                  vision inspe ction
                                                                                                                  motion control,
                                                                                                                  including PLC


                                                                                                                  Product portfolio
                                                                                                                  includes critical
                                               1625 Sharp Point       Tel: 1 970 407 6280                         process powe r a
A dvanced Energy
                           Unite d States      Drive, Fort Collins,   Fax: 1 970 407 5280                         flow sub-system
Industries, Inc.                                                                                                  PV solar ce ll
                                               Colorado 80525         E Mail: m arna.shillman@aei.com
                                                                                                                  manufacturing
                                                                                                                  equipment.


                                                                                                                  High throughpu
                                               101 Ze ta Drive,       Tel: 1 412 963 7470
                                                                                                                  motion systems
Aerotech Inc               Unite d States      Pittsburgh, PA         Fax: 1 412 963 7459
                                                                                                                  thin film PV lase
                                               15238 USA              E Mail: sales@ae rote ch.com
                                                                                                                  scribing


                                               3087 US Highway        Tel: 1 908 722 7100
Affilated Manufacturers
                           Unite d States      22, PO Box 5049,       Fax: 1 908 722 5082                         Scree n printe rs
Inc (A MI)
                                               USA                    E Mail: sales@ami-pre sco.com


all4-GP (North A merica)   Unite d                                                                                Spray Coating
                                               4520 Ele ctronics      Tel: 1 866-734-9403
Inc.                       States/Switze rland                                                                    equipment
                                               Place , Los            Fax: 1 818-230-2351


                                                                                                     Page | 280
                                             Ange les, C A         E Mail: info@all4-GP.com



                                                                                                             Vacuum pumps
                                                                                                             roughing pumps
                                             67 Sharp Stree t                                                magle v turbos
                                                                   Tel: 1 781 331 4200
A lcatel Vacuum Products,                    Hingham , MA                                                    Vacuum gauges
                            Unite d States                         Fax: 1 781 331 4230
Inc                                          02043, United                                                   Cold cathode , P
                                                                   E Mail: inquiry@adixen-usa.com
                                             States                                                          Leak De te ctors:
                                                                                                             He lium and H2
                                                                                                             gas


                                             Die selstrasse 10 -
                                                                   Tel: 49 (0)821 24177-0
(amb) bernhard brain                         11, 86368                                                       Automation for
                            Ge rmany                               Fax: 49 (0)821 24177-99
gmbH & co. kg                                Ge rsthofen,                                                    industry
                                                                   E Mail: info@amb-brain.de
                                             Ge rmany


                                             131 South Clark       Tel: 1 (480) 967 5146                     Diffusion and VC
Amtech Systems, Inc         Unite d States   Drive Tempe ,         Fax: 1 (480) 968 3763                     furnaces, silicon
                                             Arizona, USA          E Mail: sales@am te chsystems.com         wafe r processin


                                             3050 Bowe rs
                                                                                                             Sputte r deposit
                                             Avenue P.O. Box       Tel: 1 408 727 5555
                                                                                                             system , PVD an
A pplied Materials          Unite d States   58039 Santa           Fax:
                                                                                                             PEC VD depositio
                                             C lara, C A 95054-    E Mail:
                                                                                                             equipment
                                             3299


                                                                   Tel: 1 609 466 1677                       Spray Coating
                                             424 Rt.31,
A rgus International        Unite d States                         Fax: 1 609 466 4111                       equipment, IR d
                                             R ingoe s NJ 08551
                                                                   E Mail: mail@argus-inte rnational.com     O vens


A rnold Gruppe                               We ilstr. 6, 35781    Tel: 49 64 71 / 93 94 0
                                                                                                             Si wafe r and ing
(Herbert A rnold GMBH &     Ge rmany         We ilburg,            Fax: 49 6471 / 20 65
                                                                                                             shaping equipm
CO. KG)                                      Ge rmany              E Mail:


                                             743 Ames Avenue       Tel: 1 408 329 6229                       PVD, Sputte ring
A scentool Inc.             Unite d States   Milpitas , C A        Fax: 1 408 228 5165                       PEC VD depositio
                                             95035 USA             E Mail: info@ascentool.com                systems


                                                                                                             Me tallization Lin
                                                                                                             Automatic Scree
                                                                                                             Printe r, Micro cr
                                                                                                             inspe ction, Opti
A SYS                                        Benzstrasse 10,       Te l.: 49 (0) 7348 9855 0                 breakage inspe
A utomatisierungssysteme Ge rmany            89160 Dornstadt,      Fax.: 49 (0) 7348 9855 91                 Post print inspe
GmbH                                         Ge rmany              E Mail: info@asys.de                      Drye r, Buffe r,
                                                                                                             Handling system
                                                                                                             Lase r edge isola
                                                                                                             Cooling station,
                                                                                                             teste r / Ce ll sor


Baccini spa                 Italy            Via Postumia          Tel: 39 0422 892101                       Scree n printe rs
                                             O vest 244, 31050     Fax:

                                                                                                Page | 281
                                           O lmi di S.Biagio di   E Mail: Baccini@inte rbusiness.it
                                           C . (TV), Italy


                                                                                                                Production furna
                                           23 Esquire Road,       Tel: 1 978 667 4111                           for diffusion, AP
BTU International         Unite d States   North Bille rica, MA   Fax: 1 978 667 9068                           coating,drying a
                                           01862,                 E Mail: sales@btu.com                         me tallization
                                                                                                                processes


                                           Johannes-Schmid-
Centrotherm                                                       Tel: 49 7344 9186-0                           Solar cell produ
                                           Str. 3, 89143
Photovoltaics GmbH + Co   Ge rmany                                Fax: 49 7344 9186-388                         turnke y lines an
                                           Blaubeuren,
KG                                                                E Mail:                                       single equipmen
                                           Ge rmany


                                           780 Park North
                                                                  Tel: 1 404 292 4242
                                           Blvd. Suite 122
Ceradyne Inc.             Unite d States                          Fax: 1 404 292 9557                           Fused silica cru
                                           C larkston Georgia
                                                                  E Mail: sales@ce radyne-the rmo.com
                                           30021 USA


                                           Batte riestrasse 2,
                                                                  Tel: 41 61 422 16 71
                                           C H-4103                                                             Stre la Te chnik s
Chemartin A G             Switze rland                            Fax: 41 61 422 1670
                                           Bottmingen,                                                          solde ring machi
                                                                  E Mail:
                                           Switze rland


                                                                                                                Diode-pumped
                                           5100 Patrick
                                                                  Tel: 1 (408) 764-4983                         switched lase rs,
                                           He nry Drive ,
Coherent Inc.             Unite d States                          Fax: 1 408-764-4800                           emitting from th
                                           Santa Clara, C A
                                                                  E Mail: te ch.sales@cohe rent.com             infrared through
                                           95054
                                                                                                                the ultraviolet


                                                                                                                Ae rome chanical
                                                                                                                contact conve ya
                                                                                                                processing, and
                                           P.O. Box 626,          Tel: 972 73 7375126                           pre cision handli
CoreFlow Ltd.             Israel           Yokneam , 20692,       Fax: 972 73 7375226                           solutions for thi
                                           Israel                 E Mail: core flow@core flow.com               and crystalline P
                                                                                                                manufacturing
                                                                                                                equipment and
                                                                                                                processes.


                                           C ryste c
                                           Te chnology
                                                                  Tel: 49 8671 8821 73
                                           Trading GmbH,                                                        Koyo conve yor
Crystec                   Ge rmany                                Fax: 49 8671 8821 77
                                           Zinngiesse rstr. 7,                                                  tube furnaces
                                                                  E Mail:
                                           D-84503 Altötting,
                                           Ge rmany


                                           Dong-Yuan Rd
                                                                  Tel: 886-3-4612277#813                        CIGS Solar Cell
                                           Jhong Li C ity
Dalux Technology          Taiwan                                  Fax: 886-3-4622993                            Module Turnke y
                                           Taoyuan 32063
                                                                  E Mail: anti.lin@dalux.com .tw                solutions
                                           Taiwan




                                                                                                   Page | 282
                                                                                                              Pre cision Motion
                                           200 Flande rs Rd.,   Tel: 508-366-1456                             Systems used in
Danaher Motion-Dover     Unite d States    Westborough MA       Fax: 508-836-3223                             lase r scribing an
                                           01581                E Mail: Joe .Ross@Danahe rMotion.com          inspe ction durin
                                                                                                              production.


                                           Granby Industrial
                                                              Tel: 44 1305 760760                             Scree n Printe rs,
                                           Estate , Weymouth,
DEK                      Unite d Kingdom                      Fax:                                            Me tallization lin
                                           Dorse t, DT4 9TH,
                                                              E Mail: dwbrown@dek.com                         Scree ns
                                           UK


                                           8860 207th Stree t   Tel: 952 469 5424                             Enginee ring and
Despatch Industries      Unite d States    West Minneapolis,    Fax: 952 469 4513                             manufacture IR
                                           MN 55044, USA        E Mail:                                       furnaces


                                           70 Monaco Drive      Tel: 1 630 894 9500 x 13                      Fully integrate d
Dubuit                   Unite d States    Rose lle, Illinois   Fax: 1 630 894 9600                           driven ce ll
                                           60172                E Mail: pcroze t@dubuitofame rica.com         me tallizing lines


                                                                                                              Total vacuum a
                                           Rode nbache r        Tel: 49 6181 18760
EBA RA Precision                                                                                              abatements solu
                         Ge rmany          Chaussee 6 63457     Fax: 49 6181 187640
Machinery Europe GmbH                                                                                         for solar and th
                                           Hanau Ge rmany       E Mail: info_pm @ebara -pm.e u
                                                                                                              film te chnologie


                                           Via Tasca 127,       Tel: 39 049 599 1959                          Turnke y plants
EcoProgetti Srl          Italy             35010 San Pie tro    Fax: 39 049 945 9210                          wafe r, ce ll and
                                           in Gu (PD), Italy    E Mail: e co@e coproge tti.com                module product


                                                                                                              Dry vacuum pum
                                                                                                              turbomole cular
                                                                                                              pumps, abatem
                                           301 Ballardvale
                                                                Tel: 1 978 658 5410                           manual/auto we
                                           Stree t,
Edwards                  Unite d States                         Fax: 1 978 658 7969                           chemical proces
                                           W ilm ington, MA
                                                                E Mail: info@e dwardsvacuum .com              cleaning system
                                           01887
                                                                                                              and chemical
                                                                                                              dispe nsing
                                                                                                              equipment.


                                                                                                              Automated / ma
                                                                                                              we t proce ss and
                                           Avis Way,                                                          cleaning system
                                                                Te l: 44 1273 513653
Edwards Chemical                           Ne whaven, BN9                                                     /Chemical dosin
                         Unite d Kingdom                        Fax: 44 1273 517449
Management Europe Ltd.                     O DJ, United                                                       equipment. For
                                                                E Mail: ian.hende rson@edwards -cme.co.uk
                                           Kingdom.                                                           Wafe r & Ce ll
                                                                                                              manufacturing a
                                                                                                              R &D facilities.


                                                                                                              Solar module
                                           1053 Budapest,       Tel: 36 1 411 3820                            manufacturing
EnergoSolar SA           Hungary           Szép u. 2.           Fax: 36 1 411 3839                            equipment,
                                           Hungary              E Mail: e lovas@ene rgosolar.com              producing turn-
                                                                                                              solar factories.


                                                                                                 Page | 283
                                             Unit 2 Glan-y-Llyn
Energy Equipment                             Industrial Estate ,    Tel: 44 29 2082 0910                       PV cell cutte rs,
Testing Service Ltd        Unite d Kingdom   Cardiff Road, Taffs    Fax: 44 29 2082 0911                       module teste rs
(EETS)                                       We ll, CF15 7JD,       E Mail: admin@ee ts.co.uk                  laminators
                                             UK


                                             276 Bake rs Basin
                                                                    Tel: 1 609 587 3000                        Amorphous silic
Energy Photovoltaics Inc                     Road
                           Unite d States                           Fax: 1 609 587 5355                        and coppe r indi
(EPV)                                        Lawrence ville, NJ
                                                                    E Mail: sales@epv.ne t                     dise lenide thin f
                                             08648, USA


                                                                                                               Scree n printing
                                                                                                               solutions, dispe
                                                                                                               solutions. dryin
                                             C H-6287               Tel: 41 (0)41 919 60 81
                                                                                                               ovens,
Essemtec A G               Switze rland      Aesch/LU,              Fax: 41 41 919 60 50
                                                                                                               representative o
                                             Switze rland           E Mail: maf@essem te c.com
                                                                                                               MicroTe c (Japan
                                                                                                               Scree nprinte r li
                                                                                                               Europe


                                                                                                               Mate rial Handlin
                                             6050 Ninetee n         Tel: 1 (586) 323-9400                      and Automation
FA TA A utomation, Inc.    Unite d States    Mile Road, Ste rling   Fax: 1 (586) 323-0095                      Equipment, O ve
                                             He ights, MI 48314     E Mail: info@fatainc.com                   and coole rs for
                                                                                                               Pane l Manufactu


                                                                                                               Standard conve
                                                                                                               modules for
                                                                                                               automation of
                                             6580 Snowdrift         Tel: 1-610-973-8200                        assembly and te
Flex Link Systems, Inc.    Unite d States    Road Allentown,        Fax: 1-610-973-8345                        lines, including,
                                             PA 18106               E Mail: us1.marke ting@flexlink .com       buffe ring, lifting
                                                                                                               turning, or ce nt
                                                                                                               of ce ll and thin
                                                                                                               modules


                                                                                                               Process and
                                                                                                               automation
                                             Robe rt-Bosch-Str.
                                                                    Tel: 49 7441 538-0                         equipment, as w
                                             32-34 72250
Gebr. Schmid GmbH + Co.    Ge rmany                                 Fax: 49 7441 538-121                       as turnkey solu
                                             Freudenstadt
                                                                    E Mail: info@gsf.schmid-group.ne t         for wafe r produ
                                             Ge rmany
                                                                                                               ce ll production a
                                                                                                               module assemb


                                             Pennine Business                                                  PVD, sputte ring
                                             Park Pilsworth                                                    PEC VD vacuum
                                                                    Tel: 44 1706 622 442
General Vacuum                               Road He ywood,                                                    deposition roll t
                           Unite d Kingdom                          Fax: 44 1706 622 772
Equipment, Ltd.                              Lancashire O L10                                                  coate rs for poly
                                                                    E Mail: gtullo@seassociate sinc.com
                                             2TL United                                                        and me tal foil
                                             Kingdom                                                           substrates


GL A utomation, Inc.       Unite d States    10710 Sandhill         Tel: 1 214 503 9888                        Solar Ce ll Wafe
                                             Road, Dallas, TX       Fax: 1 214 503 6060                        Photovoltaic


                                                                                                  Page | 284
                                           75238               E Mail: sales@glautomation.com              Handling and
                                                                                                           Transfe r Equipm


                                                                                                           Turn-key lines -
                                                                                                           furnaces ove r b
                                           We tte rk reuz 35   Tel: 49 - 91 31 - 75 76 - 0                 and wire brick s
G&N GmbH                  Ge rmany         91058 Erlange n     Fax: 49 - 91 31 - 77 12 91                  and polish-grind
                                           Ge rmany            E Mail: info@grinde rs.de                   up to wafe r saw
                                                                                                           pe riphe ral
                                                                                                           equipment.


                                           Maulkuppe nstrasse Tel: 49 661 942 9635
GS Electronic Vertriebs                                                                                    PV cell producti
                          Ge rmany         2a, D-36043        Fax: 49 661 942 9636
und Service GmbH                                                                                           equipment
                                           Fulda, Ge rmany     E Mail:


                                                                                                           Turnke y PV
                                                                                                           production lines
                                           243 Danie l
                                                               Tel: 1 603 883 5200                         Individual
                                           Webste r Highway,
GT So lar Incorporated    Unite d States                       Fax: 1 603 598 0444                         Equipment: DSS
                                           Me rrimack, NH
                                                               E Mail: info@gtsolar.com                    furnaces,
                                           03054, USA
                                                                                                           tabbe r/stringe rs
                                                                                                           teste rs, we t be n


                                           Rue de Ge neve ,42,
                                                               Tel: 41 21 731 9100
                                           1033 Chesnaux /                                                 W ire sawing
HCT Shaping Systems       Switze rland                         Fax: 41 21 731 9101
                                           Lausanne,                                                       machine s
                                                               E Mail: sales@hct.ch
                                           Switze rland


                                           Muehlste ig 29 D-
                                                               Tel: 49 9101 905091                         Hipot Testing an
                                           90579
Harrexco A G              Ge rmany                             Fax: 49 9101 905093                         LASER Edge De
                                           Langenzenn,
                                                               E Mail:                                     Equipment
                                           Ge rmany


                                           He lmholtzstasse 2- Tel: 49 30 397 440 0                        Solar cell produ
IB Vogt                   Ge rmany         9, 10587 Be rlin,   Fax: 49 30 397 440 10                       line planning an
                                           Ge rmany            E Mail: contact@ib-vogt.com                 process enginee


                                           Research Park
                                           Haasrode , Zone 1   Tel: 32 16 398 220
ICOS Vision Systems NV    Be lgium         Espe rantolaan 8,   Fax: 32 16 400 067                          Inspe ction syste
                                           3001 He ve rlee ,   E Mail:
                                           Be lgium


                                                                                                           Custom we t pro
                                                                                                           and drying
                                                                                                           equipment, che
                                           7850 Park Drive
                                                               Tel: 1 952 401 4600                         handling system
                                           Chanhasse n,
Infinity Precision LLC    Unite d States                       Fax: 1 952 380 9796                         controls and
                                           Minnesota, United
                                                               E Mail: info@infinitypre cision.com         automation for
                                           States
                                                                                                           wafe r, thin film,
                                                                                                           module
                                                                                                           manufacturing.


                                                                                              Page | 285
                                           Justus-von-Liebig-    Tel: 49 89 899 360 0
InnoLas GmbH              Ge rmany         R ing 8, D-82110      Fax: 49 89 899 360 16                     Lase r systems
                                           Krailing, Ge rmany    E Mail: info@innolas.com


                                                                                                           UHP chemical a
                                                                                                           solvent distribu
                                           2010 R t 9W Milton
                                                                 Tel: 1 845-795-2110                       products, chem
Innovative Design                          Industrial Park,
                          Unite d States                         Fax: 1 845-795-2105                       and C MP slurry
Solutions, Inc.                            Suite 7 Milton, NY,
                                                                 E Mail: k golden@idschemsystems.com       blending produc
                                           12547
                                                                                                           chemical and so
                                                                                                           re cove ry produc


                                           220 Hacke tt Hill
                                                                 Tel: 1 603-518-3200                       Lase r Systems
                                           Rd. Mancheste r,
JP Sercel A ssociates     Unite d States                         Fax: 1 603-518-3298                       Contract
                                           NH 03102, United
                                                                 E Mail: Solarbuzz@jpsalase r.com          Manufacturing
                                           States


                                                                                                           Full package
                                           49 Neungpyeong-
                                                                                                           manufacturing
                                           R i, Opo -Eup,        Tel: +82-31-760-7000/5461
                                                                                                           equipment inclu
JUSUNG                    Korea            Gwangju-Si,           Fax: +82-31-760-5451
                                                                                                           ce ll and module
                                           Gyeonggi-Do,          E Mail: sales@jseng.com
                                                                                                           thin film and
                                           Korea, 464-892
                                                                                                           crystalline PV


                                                                                                           Grinding machin
                                                                                                           band saws.
                                                                                                           corne ring/cham
                                           901 Dee rfield        Tel: 1-847-465-0160
                                                                                                           machine s, wire
KGK International Corp.   Unite d States   Park way Buffalo      Fax: 1 847-465-0181
                                                                                                           slurry re cycle rs
                                           Grove , IL 60089      E Mail: sales@kgk i.com
                                                                                                           table top wafe r
                                                                                                           inspe ction and s
                                                                                                           wafe r slicing se


                                           O tto-Hahn-Str. 40,
                                                               Tel: 49 89 608650-0
                                           D-85521
Koenen GmbH               Ge rmany                             Fax: 49 89 608650-30                        Scree ns
                                           O ttobrunn,
                                                               E Mail: info@koe nen.de
                                           Ge rmany


                                                                                                           Automated
                                           20 Innovation         Tel: 717-755-6800 x141                    production
Komax Solar Inc           Unite d States   Drive, York PA        Fax: 717-757-6470                         equipment for P
                                           17402 USA             E Mail: jim .brown@komaxsolar.com         crystalline modu
                                                                                                           assembly.


                                                                                                           Turn-key lines
                                           Lindigstr. 8 63801    Tel: 49 (0) 60 27 99 00 37
                                                                                                           including all
KR-Solar GmbH             Ge rmany         Kleinosthe im         Fax: 49 (0) 60 27 99 00 38
                                                                                                           equipment from
                                           Ge rmany              E Mail: info@k r-solar.com
                                                                                                           furnace to wafe


                                           1925 Route 51,        Tel: 800.245.1656                         Vacuum Deposi
Kurt J. Lesker Company    Unite d States   C lairton, PA 15025   Fax: 1 412 384 2745                       and Deposition
                                           USA                   E Mail: PV@le ske r.com                   Sources


                                                                                              Page | 286
                                           Park hall Business
                                           Village , Parkhall                                               Etching, cleanin
                                                                  Tel: 44 (0)1782 370400
Layton Technologies                        Road, Weston                                                     drying systems
                         Unite d Kingdom                          Fax: 44 (0)1782 333202
Limited                                    Coyne y,                                                         designed and bu
                                                                  E Mail: sales@laytonte chnologies.com
                                           Staffordshire , ST3                                              for the solar ind
                                           5XA, UK


                                           Zur We tte rwarte
                                                                  Tel: 49 351 866 9516
Leybold Optics Dresden                     50/Haus 303, D-                                                  Vacuum coating
                         Ge rmany                                 Fax: 49 351 8666 9542
GmbH                                       01109, Dresde n,                                                 equipment
                                                                  E Mail:
                                           Ge rmany


                                           Lotte rbe rgstrasse
                                                                  Tel: 49 711 8804 1259
M+W Zander Facility                        30, 70499                                                        Turnke y PV
                         Ge rmany                                 Fax: 49 711 8804 1497
Engineering GmbH                           Stuttgart,                                                       production plan
                                                                  E Mail: photovoltaics@m w-zande r.com
                                           Ge rmany


                                           Steigae cke rstrasse
                                                                  Tel: 1 401 295 2150
                                           13, D-72768                                                      Automation for
Manz A utomation A G     Ge rmany                                 Fax: 1 401 295 2190
                                           Reutingen,                                                       ce ll manufactur
                                                                  E Mail: info@manz-automation.com
                                           Ge rmany


                                           641 Sheafe Rd                                                    Wafe r e tching to
                                                                  Tel: 1 845 463 2799
                                           Poughkeepsie ,                                                   for Thinning,Su
Matech                   Unite d States                           Fax: 1 845 463 2786
                                           Ne w York, United                                                roughe ning, Film
                                                                  E Mail: Info@Mate ch.com
                                           States                                                           Removal e tc


                                                                                                            High & Ultra -Hig
                                           23842 Cabot Blvd.      Tel: 1 800 443 8817
MDC Vacuum Products,                                                                                        Vacuum Compo
                         Unite d States    Hayward, C A,          Fax: 1 510 887 0626
LLC                                                                                                         and Thin Film
                                           94545, USA             E Mail: sales@mdcvacuum.com
                                                                                                            Deposition syste


                                                                                                            We t processing
                                                                                                            systems, chemi
                                                                                                            de live ry and
                                           3474 18th Ave nue Tel: 1 (541) 917-3626                          dispe nse system
MEI, LLC                 Unite d States    SE,Albany, O regon Fax: 1 (541) 917-3623                         and automation
                                           97322, USA             E Mail: Dan.cappe llo@meillc.com          controls softwar
                                                                                                            the PV ce ll
                                                                                                            manufacturing
                                                                                                            industry


                                           Vennwe g 18, D-        Tel: 49 2871 2460 0
Meier Vakuumtechnik
                         Ge rmany          46395 Bocholt,         Fax: 49 2871 2460 42                      Vacuum lamina
GmbH
                                           Ge rmany               E Mail: info@me ie r-group.com


                                           Alte Be rnstrasse
                                                                  Tel: 41 33 439 0505
                                           146, PO Box 56,
Meyer + Burger A G       Switze rland                             Fax: 41 33 439 0510                       Slicing systems
                                           3613 Steffisbe rg,
                                                                  E Mail: sales@meye rburge r.ch
                                           Switze rland




                                                                                               Page | 287
                                        1203 W. Gene va        Tel: 1 480 967 8011
                                                                                                            Photovoltaic Ce
Mgi E lectronics LLC   Unite d States   Drive Tempe ,AZ        Fax: 1 480 967 8015
                                                                                                            handling e quipm
                                        85282                  E Mail: info@mgie le ctronics.com


                                        279-0025, C hiba
                                        Pre f. 2-7 Tekko-      Tel: 81 47 350 5131                          Automated and
Micro-Tec              Japan            Dori 1-C home,         Fax: 81 47 350 5133                          Manual Screen
                                        Urayasu-City,          E Mail: okamoto@e-m icrote c.co.jp           Printing System
                                        Japan


                                        Nicke lswe ihe r 11,
                                                               Tel: 49 63 73 8127 0                         Systems for
MiniTec Maschinenbau                    D-66914,
                       Ge rmany                                Fax: 49 63 73 81 27 20                       automatic PV m
GmbH & Co KG                            Waldmaohr,
                                                               E Mail: info@m inite c.de                    assembly
                                        Ge rmany


                                        19500 Nugge t          Tel: 1 209 533 1990                          Horizontal Diffu
MRL Industries Inc     Unite d States   Blvd. Sonora, CA       Fax: 1 209 533 4079                          Furnaces / In Li
                                        95370, U.S.A.          E Mail: heatingup@m rlind.com                Furnaces


                                        Prof.-He rmann-        Tel: 49 (0) 36 72 47 82 60
my-Chip Production                      Klare-Str. 6 07407     Fax: 49 (0) 36 72 47 82 65                   Wafe r manufact
                       Ge rmany
GmbH                                    Rudolstadt             E Mail: alexande rpostl@ge rman-m y-         process equipm
                                        Ge rmany               chip.com


                                                                                                            PVD and PECVD
                                                                                                            Coating System
                                                                                                            High-Volume
                                        1675                                                                Production Vacu
                                                               Tel: 1- 941-377-1440
Mustang Vacuum                          Independe nce                                                       Deposition
                       Unite d States                          Fax: 1- 941-377-1499
Systems                                 Blvd, Sarasota, FL                                                  Equipment - Ro
                                                               E Mail: solar@mustangvac.com
                                        34234 USA                                                           Roll, Sputte ring
                                                                                                            Evaporation Sys
                                                                                                            for Uniform Thin
                                                                                                            Application


                                                                                                            Automated and
                                                                                                            manual dispens
                                        11475 Lakefie ld       Tel: 1 770-497-3400
                                                                                                            equipment for
Nordson Corporation    Unite s States   Drive, Duluth, GA      Fax: 1 770-497-3656
                                                                                                            crystalline and
                                        30097 U.S.A.           E Mail: solarsolutions@nordson.com
                                                                                                            film PV module
                                                                                                            production lines


                                                                                                            Turnke y PV
                                        1-1-20,
                                                                                                            production lines
                                        Minamisenjyu,          Tel: 81 3 3802 5041
                                                                                                            se le ctors,
NPC Incorporated       Japan            Arakawa -Ku,           Fax: 81 3 3801 0721
                                                                                                            tabbling/stringin
                                        Tok yo, 116-0003,      E Mail:
                                                                                                            laminator, modu
                                        Japan
                                                                                                            simulators


                                        Brue sse le r Str, 26, Tel: 49 221 270 889 0
                                                                                                            Turnke y PV
NPC Europe GmbH        Ge rmany         50674, Cologne ,       Fax: 49 221 270 889 10
                                                                                                            production lines
                                        Ge rmany               E Mail: office @npcgroup.ne t


                                                                                               Page | 288
                                                                                                                    Galvanomete r-b
                                                                                                                    lase r beam
                                                                                                                    positioning/stee
                                                                                                                    systems for hig
                                                                                                                    throughput/high
                                                                                                                    accuracy PV
                                                                                                                    production
                                                                                                                    manufacturing.
                                                                                                                    Three-ax is scan
                                               49 Range Road           Tel: 1 603 893 6200
                                                                                                                    heads for large
Nutfield Technology, Inc   Unite d States      W indham, NH            Fax: 1 603 893 6214
                                                                                                                    fie lds and small
                                               03087                   E Mail: office @npcgroup.ne t
                                                                                                                    diame te rs for th
                                                                                                                    film PV product
                                                                                                                    and R &D.
                                                                                                                    Applications
                                                                                                                    including Scribin
                                                                                                                    Edge De le tion,
                                                                                                                    Isolation, Groov
                                                                                                                    Cutting, Mark in
                                                                                                                    and Engraving.


                                               Chure rstrasse 120      Tel: 41 58 360 96 02
OC Oerlikon Management                                                                                              Thin film produc
                           Switze rland        8808 Pfäffikon          Fax: 41 58 360 91 93
AG                                                                                                                  equipment
                                               Switze rland            E Mail: sales@oe rlikon.com


                                                                                                                    Dire ct W riting
                                               93 Pape r Mill          Tel: 1 585 624 2610
                                                                                                                    (pre cision
Ohmcraft                   Unite d States      Stree t, Honeoye        Fax: 1 585 624 2692
                                                                                                                    dispe nsing) on a
                                               Falls, NY 14472         E Mail: sales@ohm craft.com
                                                                                                                    varie ty of subst


                                               Hauptstrasse 1a         Tel: 41 81 784 8000
                                                                                                                    Turnke y PV
Oerlikon Solar Ltd         Switze rland        Trubbach, 9477          Fax: 41 81 784 6544
                                                                                                                    production lines
                                               Switze rland            E Mail: me dia.solar@oe rlikon.com


                                               Luchthavenweg                                                        Inline solar ce ll
                                                                       Tel: 31 40 2581 581
                                               10, 5657EB                                                           production syste
OTB Solar BV               The Ne the rlands                           Fax: 31 40 2509 855
                                               Eindhoven, The                                                       and PEC VD
                                                                       E Mail: info@otb-solar.com
                                               Ne the rlands                                                        equipment


                                               44060 O ld Warm                                                      We t process sys
                                                                       Tel: 510-657-4412
                                               Springs Blvd.                                                        and component
PCT Systems, Inc.          Unite d States                              Fax: 510-657-0112
                                               Fremont, C A.                                                        e tching, sonic
                                                                       E Mail: smaraviov@pctsystems.com
                                               94538                                                                cleaning and dr


                                                                                                                    PV module
                                               Via de ll'artigianato
                                                                       Tel: 39 049 7966190                          assembling turn
                                               12 - 35014
P. Energy                  Italy                                       Fax: 39 049 7968776                          plants, Lam inat
                                               Fontaniva (PD)
                                                                       E Mail: info@pene rgy.it                     Tabbe rs and
                                               Italy
                                                                                                                    stringe rs


Precision Process                                                                                                   We t processing
                           Unite d States      2221 Niagara Falls      Tel: 1 716 731 1587
Equipment                                                                                                           systems and
                                               Blvd, Niagara           Fax: 1 716 731 1591
                                                                                                                    pre cision handli


                                                                                                       Page | 289
                                             Falls, NY, 14304       E Mail:   sales@precisionprocess.com       solutions for thi
                                                                                                               PV manufacturin
                                                                                                               equipment and
                                                                                                               processes, inclu
                                                                                                               wafe r systems


                                                                                                               Roll-to-roll scre
                                             9705 Comme rce    Tel: 1 913 541 0066
                                                                                                               printing using c
Preco Inc                   Unite d States   Park way, Lenexa, Fax: 1 913 541 9088
                                                                                                               tole rance vision
                                             Kansas 66219 USA E Mail: sales@pre colase r.com
                                                                                                               registration.


                                                                                                               PEC VD systems
                                                                                                               depositing AR la
ProTemp (Wuxi)                               3465 Woodward          Tel: 1 408 855 8222
                                                                                                               and POC l3 syste
Electronic Equipment Co.,   Unite d States   Ave., Santa C lara,    Fax: 1 408 855 8224
                                                                                                               for depositing th
Ltd                                          C A 95054              E Mail: sales@protempproducts.com
                                                                                                               junction for PV
                                                                                                               ce ll manufactur


                                             1335 South Acacia      Tel: 1 714 991 0200
Radiant Technology
                            Unite d States   Avenue , Fulle rton,   Fax: 1 714 991 0600                        Conve yor furna
Corporation (RTC)
                                             C A 92831, USA         E Mail: sales@radiantte ch.com


                                             106 Lase r Drive       Tel: 1 303 664 9000                        Compact, Air-Co
RMI Laser                   Unite d States   Lafaye tte, CO         Fax: 1 303 664 9090                        DPSS Lase rs &
                                             80026, USA             E Mail: info@rm idpsslase r.com            Marking System


                                             Ob de r Eck 5,         Tel: 49 7723 9313 0                        Automatic syste
RENA Sondermaschinen
                            Ge rmany         78148 Gute nbach,      Fax: 49 7723 9313 50                       for we t chemica
GmbH
                                             Ge rmany               E Mail: info@rena.de                       processing


                                                                                                               Me tallization lin
                                             Leinenstrasse 7,
                                                                    Tel: 49 7344-9606-0                        Curing, Drye rs,
                                             89143
Rehm Thermal Systems        Ge rmany                                Fax: 49 7344-9606-25                       Firing, Conve cti
                                             Blaubeuren-
                                                                    E Mail: info@rehm-group.com                and Condensati
                                             Se issen, Ge rmany
                                                                                                               solde ring


                                             Ge we rbe ring 3 +
                                             10, 09337 -            Tel: 49 3723 4988 0                        Turnke y PV ce ll
Roth & Rau A G              Ge rmany         Hohenste in-           Fax: 49 3723 4988 25                       and plasma/thin
                                             Ernstthal,             E Mail: info@roth-rau.de                   process equipm
                                             Ge rmany


                                                                                                               Sunbonde r is m
                                             9450 Mira Me sa                                                   suited for attach
                                                                    Tel: 1 858 427 0688
                                             Blvd. STE B 362                                                   lead wire s to th
Sanwa Components USA        Unite d States                          Fax: 1 858 689 9925
                                             San Diego, CA                                                     solar ce lls dire c
                                                                    E Mail: info@sanwacomponents.com
                                             92126                                                             the glass substr
                                                                                                               without use of f


                                                                                                               Solar Simulator
Sciencetech Inc             Canada           45 Meg Dr.             Tel: 1 519 668 0131
                                                                                                               Teste rs and
                                             London, Ontario,       Fax: 1 519 668 0132
                                                                                                               Quantum Efficie


                                                                                                  Page | 290
                                               Canada, N6E 2V2       E Mail: sales@science te ch-inc.com          equipment


                                                                                                                  Ce ll manufactur
                                               Pfullinge r Strasse
                                                                     Tel: 49-7128-386-0                           handling of thin
SCHILLER A UTOMA TION                          58 72820
                           Ge rmany                                  Fax: 49-7128-386-199                         substrates and
GmbH & Co. KG                                  Sonnenbue hl,
                                                                     E Mail: info@schille r-automation.com        module
                                               Ge rmany
                                                                                                                  manufacturing


                                                                                                                  PV cell producti
                                               625 Rue de la         Tel: 33 4 67 61 09 90                        equipment and
Semco Engineering SA       France              C roix Ve rte 34196   Fax: 33 4 67 52 69 63                        turnke y lines, lo
                                               Montpe llie r, France E Mail: info@semco-enginee ring.com          pre ssure de ffus
                                                                                                                  furnaces


                                                                                                                  Manufacture r of
                                               200 Westridge        Tel: 1 (831) 763 0113
SierraTherm Production                                                                                            production furna
                           Unite d States      Drive, Watsonville , Fax: 1 (831) 763 1509
Furnaces Inc                                                                                                      for drying, cont
                                               C A 95076, USA        E Mail: tste wart@sie rrathe rm .com
                                                                                                                  firing, and diffu


                                                                                                                  The rmal solutio
                                                                                                                  Thin Film PV
                                               Ekke rsrijt 4302      Tel: 31.499.494549                           applications like
Smit Ovens BV              The Ne the rlands   5692 DH SO N The      Fax: 31.499.494545                           CIGS, CdTe , µ-S
                                               Ne the rlands         E Mail: info@smitovens.nl                    TCO , AR coating
                                                                                                                  The rmal solar m
                                                                                                                  production syste


                                                                                                                  Coating and
                                                                                                                  deposition of so
                                                                                                                  ce ll laye rs,
                                               Benzstraße 14,        Tel: 49 (0) 2133 / 269562                    automatization,
Solarcoating Machinery
                           Ge rmany            41540 Dormage n,      Fax: 49 (0) 2133 / 269657                    encapsulation a
GmbH (ScM)
                                               Ge rmany              E Mail: info@solarcoating.de                 packaging, bond
                                                                                                                  of flex ible solar
                                                                                                                  modules to flex
                                                                                                                  substrates


                                               One Patriots Park,    Tel: 1 781 275 6000                          Module product
Spire Corporation          Unite d States      Bedford, MA           Fax: 1 781 275 7470                          and test equipm
                                               01730-2396 USA        E Mail: pvsales@spire corp.com               and turnke y line


                                               100 Millstead Way, Tel: 1 585 235 2524                             Hamco and
SPX                        Unite d States      Rocheste r, Ne w   Fax: 1 585 436 2396                             fe rrofluidics cry
                                               York 14624, USA    E Mail: info@kayex .spx .com                    growe rs


                                               Zue rche rstrasse
                                               138a Postfach 868     Tel: 41 52 730 11 11
SSF Solar Screen factory                                                                                          Solar Ce ll
                           Switze rland        C H-8501              Fax: 41 52 730 11 12
AG                                                                                                                me tallization sc
                                               Fraue nfe ld,         E Mail: info@ssf.ag
                                               Switze rland




                                                                                                     Page | 291
                                               R ingstarsse 19,      Tel: 49 8141 3600 0                         We t process
Stangl Semiconductor
                           Ge rmany            82223 Eichenau,       Fax:                                        equipment for P
Equipment A G
                                               Ge rmany              E Mail:                                     production


                                               Weste rfeldstrasse Tel: 49 52 31 96 07 0
                                                                                                                 Diaphragms for
Steinbach A G              Ge rmany            13, D-32758        Fax: 49 52 31 96 07 50
                                                                                                                 laminators
                                               De tmold, Ge rmany E Mail:


                                               Duesse ldorfe r
                                                                     Tel: 49 2151 406045
                                               Strasse 80 47239                                                  Automated tabb
SunWare GmbH & Co KG       Ge rmany                                  Fax: 49 2151 406208
                                               Duisbe rg,                                                        and stringe rs
                                                                     E Mail: info@sunware.de
                                               Ge rmany


                                               SVC S s.r.o.,
                                                                     Tel: 49 2151 406045
                                               Optatova 37,
SVCS                       Cze ch Republic                           Fax: 49 2151 406208                         Tube furnaces
                                               63700, Cze ch
                                                                     E Mail: info@svcs.cz
                                               Republic


                                                                                                                 Ele ctro-depositi
                                                                                                                 Processing
                                               1 Spe ctacle Street
                                                                     Tel: 1 401-781-6100                         Equipment, Sola
                                               C ranston, R hode
Technic Inc.               Unite d States                            Fax: 1 401-781-2890                         Ce ll Plating
                                               Island 02910-
                                                                     E Mail: info@te chnic.com                   Chem istries, Pro
                                               1032, USA
                                                                                                                 Controls, Engine
                                                                                                                 Se rvice & Suppo


                                               Te cnofimes S.r.l.,
                                                                     Tel: 39 039 21 40 199
                                               Piazza Podgora 2,
Tecnofimes                 Italy                                     Fax: 39 039 21 47 469                       Conve yor furna
                                               20052 Monza,
                                                                     E Mail: info@te cnofimes.com
                                               Milan, Italy


                                               Tempre ss
                                               Systems, Inc.,     Tel: 31 578 699200                             Horizontal diffus
Tempress                   The Ne the rlands   Brugstraat 2, 8181 Fax: 31 578 693693                             LPCVD furnace
                                               VH Hee rde, The    E Mail: sales@tempress.nl                      systems
                                               Ne the rlands


                                               5130 N. Be rnard      Tel: 773-583-7183                           Large in-line cle
Toho Technology U.S.A .    Unite d States      Stree t C hicago,     Fax: 773-583-7185                           systems for glas
                                               Illinois 60625        E Mail: jc@tohote chnology.com              panels


                                                                                                                 Dry or we t roug
                                                                                                                 vacuum pumps
                                                                                                                 C rystal Growing
                                               4840 W. Kearney        Tel: 1 417 865 8715                        Slurry purificati
Tuthill Vacuum & Blo wer
                           Unite d States      Stree t, Springfie ld, Fax: 1 417 865 2950                        thin film de posi
Systems
                                               MO 65803              E Mail: vacuum@tuthill.com                  and lamination,
                                                                                                                 manufactured a
                                                                                                                 ISO9001 facility
                                                                                                                 Springfie ld, MO




                                                                                                    Page | 292
                                          369 Van Ness Way Tel: 310 781 9219
                                                                                                            Furnace and pro
Tystar                   Unite d States   Torrance , C A   Fax: 310 781 9438
                                                                                                            control systems
                                          90501                 E Mail: info@tystar.com


                                                                                                            Scree n printing
                                                                                                            equipment. Vac
                                                                                                            lamination
                                                                                                            equipment for s
                                                                                                            panel productio
                                          1100 Calle
                                                                Tel: 1 949 361 9999                         Lase r systems f
                                          Cordille ra San
Unichem Industries       Unite d States                         Fax: 1 949 361 9998                         wafe r fabricatio
                                          C lemente, C A
                                                                E Mail: info@unichem ind.com                Solar pane l
                                          92673
                                                                                                            fabrication
                                                                                                            equipment from
                                                                                                            laboratory scale
                                                                                                            high volume
                                                                                                            production


                                                                                                            Lase rs and cust
                                                                                                            turnke y system
                                          825 Windham           Tel: 1 201 848 9200
                                                                                                            designed for thi
US Laser Corporation     Unite d States   Court North,          Fax: 1 201 848 9006
                                                                                                            solar pane l scrib
                                          W yckoff, NJ, USA     E Mail: sales@uslase rcorp.com
                                                                                                            and crystalline s
                                                                                                            ce ll processing


                                          500 West
                                                                                                            Vacuum Valve s:
                                          Cumm ings Park
                                                                Tel: 1 800 935 1446                         Transfe r, Gate,
                                          Suite 5450
VA T                     Unite d States                         Fax: 1 781 935 3940                         Angle , Inline,
                                          Woburn, MA
                                                                E Mail: US@vatvalve .com                    Control, Isolatio
                                          01801 United
                                                                                                            Butte rfly, Custo
                                          States


                                                                                                            Production and
                                                                                                            research deposi
                                                                                                            sources for CIG
                                          100 Sunnyside                                                     plus MOC VD sys
                                                                Tel: 516 677 0200 Ex t. 1222
                                          Blvd, Ste B,                                                      for III-V multi-
Veeco Instruments Inc.   Unite d States                         Fax:
                                          Woodbury, NY                                                      junction solar ce
                                                                E Mail: m doran@vee co.com
                                          11797                                                             and a full line o
                                                                                                            me trology syste
                                                                                                            for thin film
                                                                                                            production cont


                                          Me che lsesteenwe g
                                                                Tel: 32 2 766 0130
                                          455, Bte 1, 1950                                                  Zyarock solar
Vesuvius Group SA        Be lgium                               Fax: 32 2 767 13 51
                                          Kraainem ,                                                        crucibles
                                                                E Mail:
                                          Brusse ls, Be lgium


                                                                                                            High-e nd and h
                                          236, rue Gene ral
                                                                Tel: (33) 4 72 31 02 02                     spee d automati
                                          de Gaulle 69530
Vincent Industrie        France                                 Fax: +(33) 4 72 31 87 02                    equipment for
                                          Brignais (Lyon),
                                                                E Mail: info@vincent-industrie .com         module assemb
                                          France
                                                                                                            without using
                                                                                                            traditional EVA

                                                                                               Page | 293
                                                                                                                              processes




                                                                                                                              Plasma and e le c
                                                     Plattle ite 19/29,      Tel: 49 351 2637 300
Von A rdenne                                                                                                                  beam process
                              Ge rmany               01324 Dresden,          Fax: 49 351 2637 308
A nlagentechnik GmbH                                                                                                          te chnology for P
                                                     Ge rmany                E Mail: office @vonardenne .biz
                                                                                                                              ce ll production


                                                                                                                              Robotized silico
                                                     5-5-36,                                                                  solar wafe r resi
                                                     Kitakagaya,             Tel: (+81) 6-43073211                            testing and sort
You-Na Tech Corporation       Japan                  Sum inoe -ku.           Fax: (+81) 6-66857771                            machine , and s
                                                     Osaka, 559-0011,        E Mail: sales1@yntc.co.jp                        IC wafe r surface
                                                     Japan                                                                    quality te sting
                                                                                                                              machine


                                                     521 Chunggu
                                                     Blue-Vill Bldg., 11-
                                                                                                                              Automation
                                                     1, Sunae -dong,      Tel: 82 31 713 2983
                                                                                                                              equipment for
Wooil Hightech Co., Ltd.      Korea                  Bundang-ku,          Fax: 82 31 716 3591
                                                                                                                              turnke y thin film
                                                     Seongnam-C ity,      E Mail: wooilht@chollian.ne t
                                                     Kyunggi-do, 463-                                                         module line s

                                                     825, Korea


                                                        Solar Test
   back to: EXPO        Process Equipment                                    Materials Suppliers         Solar Cells
                                                        Equipment


   Solar Modules              Inverters                 Batteries            Charge Controllers       Solar Products




                                           WORLD TEST EQUIPMENT



Company Name       Country          Contact Details               A ddress                        Business


                                    Sous-la-Roche, PO Box         Tel: 41 32 857 23 93
                                                                                                  Pasan solar ce ll and
Belval SA          Switze rland     5, CH-2042 Valangin,          Fax: 41 32 857 22 95
                                                                                                  module teste rs
                                    Switze rland                  E Mail: info@belval.com


Berger                                                            Tel: 49 89 793 55 266
                                    Isarstrasse 2, 82065
Lichttechnik       Ge rmany                                       Fax: 49 89 793 55 265           Solar simulators
                                    Baie rbrunn, Ge rmany
GmbH                                                              E Mail:


                                                                                                  Ce ll/Module I-V
                                                                                                  Teste r, Integrated PV
                                                                  Tel: 1-949-421-0355
Chroma A TE                         7 Chrysle r Irvine, C A                                       Ce ll Simulator/Te ste r,
                   Unite d States                                 Fax: 1-949-421-0353
Inc.                                92618, United States                                          In-line Automated
                                                                  E Mail: info@chromaus.com       Turnke y Production
                                                                                                  PV Ce ll Teste r; In-line
                                                                                                  and Off-line solutions


                                                                                                               Page | 294
                                                                                            for Raw Wafe r
                                                                                            Inspe ction, PV Cell
                                                                                            Front/Back Side
                                                                                            inspe ctor and PV Ce ll
                                                                                            Color Classifie r


                                                                                            Turnke y in-line and
                                 Industriemesste chnik    Tel: 49 89 85695 0
Dr. Schenk                                                                                  off-line vision
                Ge rmany         Einsteinstrasse 37 D-    Fax: 49 89 85695 200
GmbH                                                                                        systems for thin-film
                                 82152 Plane gg, Ge rmany E Mail: sales@drschenk .com
                                                                                            solar modules


                                                            Tel: 358 9 819 60111
                                 He imolantie 6, 02330                                      Quick Sun solar
Endeas Oy       Finland                                     Fax: 358 9 819 60110
                                 Espoo, Finland                                             simulators
                                                            E Mail: info@e ndeas.fi


                                                                                            Turnke y PV
                                                                                            production lines.
                               243 Danie l Webste r         Tel: 1 603 883 5200
                                                                                            Individual Equipment:
GT So lar       Unite d States Highway, Me rrimack, NH      Fax: 1 603 595 6993
                                                                                            DSS furnaces,
                               03054, United States         E Mail: info@gtsolar.com
                                                                                            tabbe r/stringe rs, cell
                                                                                            teste rs, we t be nche s


h.a.l.m                          Sandwe g 30-32, D-         Tel: 49 69 943 353 0
electronic      Ge rmany         60316, Frank furt/Main,    Fax: 49 69 943 353 41           EVA films
GmbH                             Ge rmany                   E Mail:


                                                                                            Solar cell and module
                                                                                            testing systems
                                                             Tel: 49 351 871 8620           base d on Infrared
                                 Gostritze r Str. 61 - 63 D-
InfraTec GmbH   Ge rmany                                     Fax: 49 351 871 8727           The rm ography, non-
                                 01217 Dresden Ge rmany
                                                             E Mail: the rmo@InfraTe c.de   contacted (LimoLIT)
                                                                                            and contacted
                                                                                            (VomoLIT).


                                                                                            Ele ctrical
                                                                                            measurement and
Keithley                                                    Tel: 1 440 248 0400             loading of solar ce ll
                                 28775 Aurora Road,
Instruments,    Unite d States                              Fax: 1 440 248 6168             mate rials, elements
                                 Solon, O H44139
Inc.                                                        E Mail:                         and arrays in R &D,
                                                                                            Q A and production
                                                                                            test applications


                                 1 Mole Business Park ,     Tel: 44 1372 378822
                Unite d                                                                     Solar simulators for
LOT Oriel                        Leathe rhead, Surre y,     Fax: 44 1372 375353
                Kingdom                                                                     ce ll testing
                                 KT22 7BA, UK               E Mail: john@lotoriel.co.uk


                                                         Tel: 49 221 270 889 0
NPC Europe                       Maastrichte r Str.13                                       Solar cell teste rs and
                Ge rmany                                 Fax: 49 221 270 889 10
GmbH                             50672 Cologne, Ge rmany                                    solar simulators
                                                         E Mail: office @npcgroup.ne t



Optosolar GmbH Ge rmany          Hinte rhofen 21, D-        Tel: 49 7668 902 699            Solar simulators
                                 79291, Me rdingen,         Fax: 49 7668 902 698

                                                                                                      Page | 295
                                Ge rmany                    E Mail:



                                                            Tel: 800-714-5393
                                 Ne wport Corporation 150
                                                            Fax: 203-378-2457
Oriel             Unite d States Long Beach Blvd.                                         Solar Simulators
                                                            E Mail:
                                 Stratford, CT 06477
                                                            orie l.sale s@ne wport.com


                                                           Tel: 1 805 499 7667
                                 3255 Grande Vista Drive ,
Photo Emission                                             Fax: 1 805 499 6854
                  Unite d States Ne wbury Park , C A                                      Solar simulators
Tech Inc                                                   E Mail:
                                 91320, USA
                                                           sales@photoemission.com


Shanghai Hi-
                                                                                          Ce ll teste rs, sun
Show
                                NO .1129,Denghui Rd.,       Tel: 86 21 64903721           simulator for module
Photovoltaic
                  China         Minhang District,           Fax: 86 21 64908848           testing, minority
Science and
                                Shanghai, China 201109      E Mail: marke t@hspv.cn       carrie r life time
Technology Co.,
                                                                                          analyze r
Ltd.


                                                            Tel: 1 613 226 4389
                                20 Gurdwara Rd. , Unit      Fax: 1 613 226 8920
Spectra-Nova                                                                              Solar cell, module
                  Canada        20 O ttawa, O ntario        E Mail:
Technologies                                                                              and array teste rs
                                Canada K2E 8B3              spe ctranova@spe ctra -
                                                            nova.com


                                                            Tel: 1 781 275 6000
                                 One Patriots Park,
Spire                                                       Fax: 1 781 275 7470
                  Unite d States Bedford, MA 01730-2396                                   Solar simulators
Corporation                                                 E Mail:
                                 USA
                                                            pvsales@spire corp.com


                                                                                          Analogous High
                                                            Tel: 49 99 42 - 95 61 01      Performance
Spitzenberger +                 Schm idstraße 32-34, D-
                                                            Fax: 49 99 42 - 90 20 77      Amplifie rs and Powe r
Spies GmbH &      Ge rmany      94234 Vie chtach,
                                                            E Mail:                       Sources for industrial
Co. KG                          Ge rmany
                                                            sales@spitzenbe rge r.de      measurement and
                                                                                          testing systems.


                                1 Solne chnaya Allea,       Tel: 7 095 531 8351
Telecom STV       Russia        Ze lenograd, Moscow,        Fax: 7 095 531 8354           Solar cell teste rs
                                124527 Russia               E Mail: akam@dataforce.ne t


                                                            Tel: 570 538 7200
                                 P.O. Box 150, W hite                                     Solar Pane l and
Tenney, a                                                   Fax: 570 538 7380
                  Unite d States Dee r, PA 17887-0150                                     Equipment Testing
division of TPS                                             E Mail:
                                 USA                                                      Chambe rs
                                                            TPSinfo@tps.spx .com


                                Unit A5, Rose Busine ss
                                                            Tel: (+44)1628 474040
TS-Space          Unite d       Estate , Marlow, Bucks,
                                                            Fax: (+44)1628 488485         Solar simulators
Systems           Kingdom       SL7 3ND, Unite d
                                                            E Mail: info@ts-space.co.uk
                                Kingdom



                                                                                                    Page | 296
                                  Poinge r Strasse 2, 85551      Tel: 49 89 20 111 77
Voss Electronic
                   Ge rmany       Kirche im He imstette n,       Fax: 49 89 20 128 77           Solar simulators
GmbH
                                  Ge rmany                       E Mail:




WORLD CHARGE CONTROLLER MANUFACTURERS



Company Name           A ddress                              Contact Details                 Business


                                                             Tel: 1 203 790 6400
                       23 F.J. C larke Circle, Be the l,     Fax: 1 203 792 0300             TurboCharge r T80
A pollo Solar
                       CT 06801, USA                         E Mail: johnp@apollo -          Charge Controlle r
                                                             solar.ne t


                                                             Tel: 1 760 597 1642
                       2598 Fortune Way, Suite K,            Fax: 1 760 597 1731
Blue Sky Energy LLC                                                                          SolarBoost Controlle rs
                       Vista, C A 92081, USA                 E Mail:
                                                             sales@blue skye ne rgyinc.com


                                                             Tel: 1 314 644 2490
                       7614 Marion Court, St. Louis,
BZ Products Inc                                              Fax: 1 314 644 6121             Charge Controlle rs
                       Missouri, 63143, USA
                                                             E Mail:


                                                             Tel: 1 613 962 9889
                       57 Alexande r Stree t, Be lle ville   Fax: 1 613 932 9889             SunSport Advanced
Eco Energy
                       Ontario K8N 2H4 Canada                E Mail:                         Solar C harge rs
                                                             e co.ene rgy@sympatico.ca


                                                             Tel: 1 480 966 1380
                       ETA Enginee ring, Inc. 2010
                                                             Fax: 1 480 966 1516
ETA Engineering        East Unive rsity Dr., Suite #11                                       PBR C harge regulators
                                                             E Mail: e ne rgy@e ta
                       Tempe , Arizona, 85281, USA
                                                             enginee ring.com


                                                             Tel: 1 520 526 1133
Fire, Wind and Rain    3850 East Huntington Drive ,          Fax: 1 520 527 4664             4-100kW Inve rte rs and
Technologies LLC       Flagstaff, Arizona 86004, USA         E Mail: sales@fire wind         500W Grid Tied Inve rte rs
                                                             andrain.com


                                                             Tel: 1 619 460 3930
                       3733 Kenora Road, Spring              Fax: 1 619 460 9211
Heliotrope PV                                                                                Charge Controlle rs
                       Valle y, California 91977, USA        E Mail:
                                                             he liotro@he liotro.com


                                                             Tel: 1 514 270 5770
ICP Global             6995 Jeanne -Mance Montreal,          Fax: 1 514 270 3677             Solar modules and
Technologies           Canada H3N 1W 5                       E Mail: custome rs              charge controlle rs
                                                             @icpglobal.com



                                                                                                          Page | 297
                                                           Tel: 66 2 746 9500
                       119/51 Moo 8, Bagna-Trad
                                                           Fax: 66 2 746 8712
Leonics Co. Ltd        Road, Bangna, Bangkok                                               Solar C ontrolle rs
                                                           E Mail:
                       10260, Thailand
                                                           global_business@leonics.com


                                                           Tel: 1 514 630 5630
                       16883 Hymus Blvd, Kirk land,        Fax: 1 514 426 9123
Matrix Energy Inc                                                                          Charge Controlle rs
                       QC , H9H 3L4                        E Mail:
                                                           info@matrixe ne rgy.ca


                                                           Tel: 1 215 321 4457
                                                                                           ProStar, SunSave r,
Morningstar            8 Pheasant R un Ne wtown, PA        Fax: 1 215 321 4458
                                                                                           Sunlight, Sunguard
Corporation            18940                               E Mail: info@morningstar
                                                                                           Charge Controlle rs
                                                           corp.com


                                                           Tel: 886 2 2662/5093
                       6F, No. 248, Se c. 3, Pei-She n
                                                           Fax: 866 2 2662/5097
Motech Instruments     Rd. Shen-Ke ng Hsiang,Taipe i                                       MPPT charge controlle r
                                                           E Mail:
                       Hsie n 222, Taiwan
                                                           sean_li@mote ch.com.tw


                                                           Tel: 1 360 435 6030             Max imum Powe r Point
                       19009 62nd Ave NE Arlington
Outback Power                                              Fax: 1 360 435 6019             Tracking (MPPT)
                       W .A., USA 98223
                                                           E Mail:                         Controlle rs


                                                           Tel: 36 1 215 9116
                       Osztály u. 16-18/E, Hungary                                         PSR solar charge
Panelectron Ltd                                            Fax: 36 1 215 9116
                       H-1087 Budapest                                                     controlle rs
                                                           E Mail: info@pane le ctron.hu


                                                           Tel: 49 731 9402 0880           Solar charge controlle rs
                       Ebe rhard Finckh Str 10 D-
Phocos Europe GmbH                                         Fax: 49 731 9402 0886           and othe r BO S
                       89075 Ulm Ge rmany
                                                           E Mail: info@phocos.com         components


                                                           Tel: 1 914 738 1400
                       143 Sparks Ave nue , Pelham ,
Pico Electronics Inc                                       Fax: 1 914 738 8225             Solar C harge Controlle rs
                       Ne w York 10803, USA
                                                           E Mail:


                                                           Tel: 61 3 9486 9902
                       16 Gipps Stree t, Collingwood,      Fax: 61 3 9486 9903             Ele ctronic regulating and
Plasmatronics
                       Victoria, Australia 3066            E Mail:                         me te ring de vices
                                                           adm in@plasmatronics.com.au


                       Jalan Pondok Randu No. 38,          Tel: 62 21 541 6103             Charge Controlle rs and
Pt. Sundaya
                       Cengkareng Jakarta Barat            Fax: 62 21 541 6106             othe r Balance of
Indonesia
                       11750, Indonesia                    E Mail: info@sundaya.com        Systems


                                                           Tel: 1 530 265 9771             Pulse width modulated
Pulse Energy           870 Gold Flat Road Ne vada
                                                           Fax:                            (PWM) controlle rs and
Systems Inc            C ity, Ca. 95959, USA
                                                           E Mail:                         Industrial Controlle rs


                       1217 State Stree t, C harlevoix ,   Tel: 1 231 547 9430 (800-       Ultra High Efficie ncy
SES Flexcharge USA
                       Michigan 49720, USA                 748-0231)                       controls from 7 amps to
See lye Equipment
                                                           Fax: 1 231 547 5522             200 amps. Load controls

                                                                                                         Page | 298
Spe cialists (SES)                                       E Mail:                      including low voltage
                                                         sales@flex charge .com       programmable time rs,
                                                                                      dusk to dawn controls,
                                                                                      low batte ry disconne ct
                                                                                      and light flashe rs.


                                                         Tel: 1-800-667-6527
Soltek Powersource     1969 Keating C ross Rd.
                                                         Fax: 1-866-727-2135          20-120 amp regulators
Ltd                    Victoria, BC V8M 2A4
                                                         E Mail: sps@spsene rgy.com


                                                         Tel: 1 818 998 5238
Specialty Concepts     8954 Mason Ave , C hatsworth,     Fax: 1 818 998 5253          ASC, Mark Controlle rs.
Inc                    California 91311, USA             E Mail: spe ccon@earthlink   1-50 Amps
                                                         .ne t


                                                         Tel: 49 83 31 85 58-0        3Amps - 140 Amps
                       Mammostrasse 1, D 87700
Steca Solar                                              Fax: 49 83 31 85 58-11       charge controlle rs and
                       Memm ingen, Ge rmany
                                                         E Mail: solar@ste ca.de      othe r components


                                                         Tel:1 623 580 7700
                       2020 West Pinnacle Peak
                                                         Fax: 1 623 587 5714          4-30 Amp C harge
SunA mp Power          Road, Phoenix Arizona 85027,
                                                         E Mail: sunamp@sunamp        Controlle rs
                       USA
                                                         .com


                                                         Tel: 1 914 336 0146
SunWize                90 Boices Lane, Kingston, Ne w    Fax: 1 914 336 0457          SunWize Ste ca Solsum
Technologies Inc       York 12401, USA                   E Mail: sunwize @            Controlle rs
                                                         besicorp.com


                                                         Tel: 49 7641 8291
Uhlmann              Tullastr 5, 79331 Teningen.         Fax: 49 7641 6816
                                                                                      Charge Controlle rs
Solarelectronic GmbH Ge rmany                            E Mail: info@uhlmann-
                                                         solar.de


                                                         Tel: 1 604 422 2590
                       5916 195th NorthEast,                                          Max imum powe r point
                                                         Fax:
Xantrex Technology     Arlington, Washington 98223,                                   track ing solar charge
                                                         E Mail:
                       USA                                                            controlle rs
                                                         carlos.garcia@xantrex .com


                                                         Tel: 44 (0) 1869 322500
                       Te lford R oad, BIC ESTER, OX26   Fax: 44 (0) 1869 322614
Zeta Controls Ltd.                                                                    Charge Controlle rs
                       4LB, United Kingdom               E Mail:
                                                         sales@ze tacontrols.co.uk




                                                                                                     Page | 299
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